Touring car racing class in Australasia

The Supercars Championship is a touring car racing class in Australia, running as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile ( FIA ) regulations, governing the sport. Supercars events take station in all australian states and the Northern Territory, [ 1 ] with the australian Capital Territory once holding the Canberra 400. [ 2 ] An international round is held in New Zealand, while events have previously been held in China, Bahrain, [ 3 ] the United Arab Emirates, and the United States. [ 1 ] [ 4 ] A Melbourne 400 championship consequence is besides held in support of the australian Grand Prix. Race formats vary between each consequence, with dash races between 100 and 200 kilometres ( 62 and 124 secret intelligence service ) in duration, street races between 125 and 250 kilometres ( 78 and 155 mile ) in length, and two-driver survival races held at Sandown, Bathurst, and the Gold Coast. [ 5 ] The series is broadcast in 137 countries [ 6 ] and has an average event attendance of over 100,000, with over 250,000 people attending major events such as the Adelaide 500. [ 7 ]

The vehicles used in the series are loosely based on road-going cars. Cars are custom made using a master chassis, with only certain consistency panels being coarse between the road cars and race cars. To ensure parity between each make of car, many control components are used. All cars presently use 5.0-litre naturally aspirated V8 engines, but since 2017 have had the choice of using four and six cylinder engines, a well as turbochargers. [ 8 ] Originally only for Ford Falcons and Holden Commodores, the new generation V8 Supercar regulations, introduced in 2013, opened up the series to more manufacturers. [ 9 ] Nissan were the beginning modern manufacturer to commit to the series with four Nissan Altima L33s [ 10 ] followed concisely by Erebus Motorsport with Mercedes-Benz E63 AMGs [ 11 ] and Garry Rogers Motorsport with Volvo S60s. [ 12 ] The serial returned to a Ford and Holden duopoly in 2020 with the departure of Nissan, while Ford replaced the Falcon with the Mustang in 2019. [ 13 ]

history [edit ]

Group 3A [edit ]

The concept of a formula centred around V8-engined Fords and Holdens for the australian Touring Car Championship had been established a early as mid-1991. With the newly regulations set to come into impression in 1993, Ford and Holden were both keen to know the details of the newfangled formula by the end of 1991, putting pressure on the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport ( CAMS ) to provide clearness on the count. however, CAMS was waiting to see what the FIA did with its proposed external formula for 2.5- and 2.0-litre tour cars. [ 14 ] The newly rules for the ATCC were announced in November 1991 and indicated that the V8 cars would be significantly faster than the smaller-engined cars. In 1992, CAMS looked at closing the operation col between the classes, only to have protests from Ford and Holden, which did not want to see their cars beaten by the smaller cars. In June 1992, the class structure was confirmed : [ 15 ]

  • Class A: Australian-produced 5.0-litre V8-engined Fords and Holdens
  • Class B: 2.0-litre cars complying with FIA Class II Touring Car regulations
  • Class C: normally aspirated two-wheel drive cars complying with 1992 CAMS Group 3A Touring Car regulations: This class would only be eligible in 1993.[16]

Both the Ford Falcon EB and Holden Commodore VP ran American-based engines, which were restricted to 7,500 revolutions per minute and a compression ratio of 10:1. The Holden teams had the option of using the Group A -developed 5.0-litre Holden V8 engine, although this was restricted to the second-tier privateer teams from 1994 onwards, forcing the major Holden runners to use the more expensive Chevrolet engine. The V8s were beginning eligible to compete in the endurance races of 1992. The classifiable aerodynamics box, consisting of large front and buttocks spoilers, was designed partially with this in mind, to give the new cars a better gamble of beating the Nissan Skyline GT-Rs in those races. [ 15 ] The new rules meant that cars such as the turbocharged Nissan Skyline GT-R and Ford Sierra RS500 Cosworth were not eligible to compete in 1993, while cars such as the BMW M3 were. however, the M3 received few of the liberal concessions given to the newfangled V8s and besides had an extra 100 kilograms ( 220 pound ) added to its minimum weight, so [ 17 ] with the Class C cars eligible for 1993 only, the german manufacturer ‘s attention switched to the 2.0-litre class for 1994. Cars from all three classes would contest the 1993 australian Touring Car Championship, american samoa well as non-championship australian tour car events such as the Bathurst 1000. however, for the purposes of race classification and points allotment, cars competed in two classes :

  • Over 2,000 cc
  • Under 2,000 cc

originally, the 2.0-litre class cars competed in a separate race to the V8s. This was changed for the second beat of 1993 after merely nine entrants were in the 2.0-litre course for the first round at Amaroo Park. [ 17 ] With the newfangled regulations intended to be a parity formula, protests by the Holden teams indicated that the Fords had an streamlined advantage after they won the orifice three rounds, beating the Commodores comprehensively. After round five at Winton, Holden was granted a newly front and raise annex package. The BMWs were besides allowed fresh splitters and wide DTM-specification rear wings. [ 18 ] Disparity between the Fords and Holdens continued to be a talking compass point during the future few years, with versatile concessions given to each manufacturer to try to equalise the two cars. [ 19 ] From 1995, the 2.0-litre cars, now contesting their own series as superintendent tour cars, became ineligible for the australian Touring Car Championship. They did not contest the survival races at Sandown and Bathurst, leaving these clear entirely to the 5.0-litre Ford and Holden models .

V8 Supercars [edit ]

The australian Vee Eight Super Car Company ( AVESCO ) – a joint guess between the Touring Car Entrants Group of Australia ( TEGA ), sports promoters IMG and the australian Motor Sports Commission – was formed in November 1996 to run the serial. This set the initiation for the big expansion of the serial during the follow years. The class besides adopted the name ‘V8 Supercars ‘ at this time, [ 20 ] though the cars themselves were much unchanged. A new television cover with Network Ten and Fox Sports was organised, although this had follow-on effects for the Bathurst 1000 later in the year. [ 21 ] In February, Tony Cochrane and James Erskine left IMG. together with David Coe, they formed Sports and Entertainment Limited ( SEL ) in April 1997. [ 22 ] TEGA would have a 75 % share in AVESCO, with SEL owning the early 25 %. TEGA was responsible for the rules and technical management of the series and the supply of cars and drivers, while SEL was responsible for capturing and maintaining broadcast rights, sponsorship, license, and sanction agreements. [ 23 ] The expansion of the series began in 1998, with the first orotund to be held in the Northern Territory taking place at Hidden Valley Raceway. In 1999, a new street slipstream on a sawed-off version of the Adelaide Grand Prix Circuit became one of the first gear festival-style events, which would become common in former years. Australia ‘s capital city, Canberra, hosted its first event on the Canberra Street Circuit in 2000. In 2001, a championship round was held in New Zealand for the first time, at Pukekohe Park Raceway. [ 24 ] In 2002, the V8 Supercar support event at the Indy 300 on the Gold Coast became a backing cycle, having been a non-championship event since 1994. [ 25 ] major format changes were made for 1999, with the internalization of the endurance races into the backing. Control tyres were used for the first time, with Bridgestone selected as the supplier. The series was besides renamed from the “ australian tour Car Championship ” to the “ Shell Championship Series ”, by virtue of Shell ‘s sponsorship of the category. [ 26 ] Reverse-grid races were introduced for multiple rounds in 2000 [ 27 ] before being confined to equitable the Canberra orotund for 2001. besides in 2001, compulsory pit stops were introduced at certain rounds and the Top Ten Shootout was used at all rounds. [ 28 ] The restraint tire supplier changed from Bridgestone to Dunlop in 2002 and the series name was changed to the “ V8 Supercar Championship Series ” after Shell discontinued their sponsorship. [ 29 ]

project Blueprint [edit ]

Discussions about parity had returned in 2000, with 100 millimetres ( 3.9 in ) trimmed from the battlefront spoiler of the Commodore after Holden, in particular, the Holden Racing Team, had dominated in 1998 and 1999. This was in reception to the 300 millimetres ( 12 in ) removed from the Falcon in previous seasons, and coincided with a 10 millimetres ( 0.39 in ) trim from the Falcon ‘s rear spoiler. The little reduction for the Holden teams was promptly addressed with both cars receiving the same front splitter soon afterwards, but the Falcon ‘s buttocks wing remained reduce. Ford had threatened to withdraw from the series, but nothing came of this. [ 30 ] After Holden again dominated in 2001 and 2002, a new set of regulations, dubbed “ project Blueprint ”, was introduced in 2003 to close the operation col between the Commodore and the Falcon, [ 31 ] frankincense creating closer, fair race. [ 32 ] Project Blueprint was developed by Paul Taylor and Wayne Cattach, who spent two years designing a formula which would eliminate most of the differences between the Fords and Holdens. [ 33 ] project Blueprint had the chassis pick-up points, wheelbase, chase, and driving situation become coarse across both manufacturers. The Holdens were now able and required to use double-wishbone movement pause, alike to that of the Falcon, preferably than the MacPherson struts used previously, and a Watts yoke at the rear quite than a Panhard. The streamlined packages were comprehensively tested and revised and differences in the port of each of the manufacturers ‘ engines were besides removed. [ 31 ] [ 34 ] The operation of the new Ford BA Falcon and Holden VY and VZ Commodores was fairly even for the next four years, with Ford winning the championship in 2003, 2004, and 2005 and Holden win in 2006. [ 35 ] Reverse-grid races were used at certain events in 2006 before unpopularity with the drivers, teams, and fans saw them abolished halfway through the temper. [ 36 ] Mark Skaife, five-time series champion and leader of the new generation V8 Supercar project The Holden VE Commodore caused controversy when it was introduced in 2007. The production model was longer, across-the-board, and grandiloquent than the rival Ford BF Falcon and outside of the limits set by Project Blueprint. As a result, the VE race car was granted customs bodywork – namely shortened rise doors and a frown roofline to meet the regulations. [ 37 ] Despite this, the VE was approved for use in the series, along with the BF Falcon, after several months of preseason testing. [ 38 ] Sequential gearboxes were introduced in 2008 and became compulsory by the end of the class. [ 39 ] In 2009, E85 ( a fuel consist of 85 % ethyl alcohol and 15 % unleaded gasoline ) was introduced in an feat to improve the environmental visualize of the sport. Carbon dioxide emissions decreased by up to 50 %, but fuel consumption was increased by 30 % to produce the same might as earlier. [ 40 ] 2009 besides had the introduction of a soft intensify tire at certain events to try to improve the timbre of the race and create different strategies. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] In 2005, AVESCO changed its identify to V8 Supercars Australia ( VESA ). [ 20 ] The series continued to expand during this time, with races held outside of Australasia for the first time. The series travelled to the Shanghai International Circuit in China in 2005, primitively on a five-year agreement, [ 43 ] however the showman of the race dropped their support and the series did not return thereafter. [ 44 ] 2006 saw the serial travel to the Middle East, with an event held at the Bahrain International Circuit in Bahrain. [ 3 ] Multiple raw street circuits appeared on the calendar in 2008 and 2009, with new events held in Hamilton in New Zealand, [ 45 ] Townsville in North Queensland and at Sydney Olympic Park. [ 46 ] The series ‘ Middle East expansion continued in 2010 with a second circle held at the Yas Marina Circuit in Abu Dhabi. [ 4 ] In November 2010, the series was granted international condition by the FIA for the 2011 season, allowing the series to race at up to six international venues each class. As a result, the series name was changed to the ‘International V8 Supercars Championship ‘. [ 47 ] 2008 saw the separate boards of directors of VESA and TEGA merge into a single board that was entirely responsible for the presidency of the class. The new board of directors was composed of four TEGA representatives, two members from SEL and two mugwump directors. [ 48 ] In 2011, TEGA and SEL entered a sale agreement with australian Motor Racing Partners ( AMRP ), which had significant fiscal back from Archer Capital. This agreement saw SEL lose its 25 % post in V8 Supercars, with Archer Capital taking up a 60 % share and TEGA the other 40 %. A raw board of directors was appointed, with two TEGA representatives and two AMRP representatives. [ 49 ] In 2011, Archer Capital purchased a 65 % shareholding in the series with the teams owning the other 35 %. [ 50 ] In December 2021, both Archer Capital and the teams sold their shareholdings to Race Australia Consolidated Enterprises. [ 51 ]

SEE ALSO  ขายถุงยางอนามัยจากประเทศญี่ปุ่น japan condom ราคากถูก

Through the new rules manufacturers such as Volvo were able to enter cars in the series .

New Generation V8 Supercar [edit ]

In the center of 2008, a project led by Mark Skaife was organised by V8 Supercars to investigate future directions for the sport. The project had the primary objective of cutting costs to $ 250,000 per cable car through the use of see parts and to create a pathway for new manufacturers to enter the series, provided that they have a four-door barroom car in mass production. The new formula, called “ car of the Future ”, was scheduled to be introduced before or during the 2012 temper. The design was publicly unveiled in March 2010 and was shown to incorporate respective key changes to the home workings of the car. The chassis and the cool, fuel and electronics systems would all be changed to control parts, with changes to the locomotive, drivetrain, rear suspension, wheels and the see brake package. The safety of the cars was besides to be reviewed and improved. [ 52 ] While the plans were well received by all of the teams, Holden Motorsport boss Simon McNamara warned likely newly manufacturers to stay out of the championship barely hours after the plans were released, claiming that they would “ gain nothing ” from entering the series. [ 53 ] major changes were revealed to include a switch from a be rear axle to independent buttocks suspension ; the use of a buttocks transaxle alternatively of a mid-mounted gearbox ; the shift of the fuel tank to in front man of the rear axle to improve safety ; replacing the windshield with a polycarbonate unit ; and a switch from 17 inches ( 430 millimeter ) to 18 inches ( 460 millimeter ) wheels. [ 52 ] In 2011, it was announced that the Car of the Future would not be introduced until 2013. [ 54 ] In February 2012, Nissan confirmed that they would enter the series under Car of the Future regulations with Kelly Racing. [ 10 ] late in 2012, australian GT Championship team Erebus Motorsport announced they would be running Mercedes-Benz cars in the backing, taking over Stone Brothers Racing. [ 11 ] [ 55 ] In June 2013, Volvo announced it would enter the series in 2014 in a collaboration with its motorsport arm, Polestar Racing and Garry Rogers Motorsport. [ 12 ] In November 2013 the car of the Future nickname was dropped in favor of the name “ New Generation V8 Supercar ”. [ 56 ] The series continued its external expansion in 2013, with the beginning event in North America held at the Circuit of the Americas in Austin, Texas. [ 57 ] In 2015, five drivers took partially in a series of demonstration races at the Kuala Lumpur Street Circuit as partially of the KL City Grand Prix. This was intended to be a harbinger to the series holding a championship event at the racing circuit in 2016, in a tug from CEO James Warburton to build series exposure in Asia. [ 58 ] The event was late cancelled due to legal issues affecting the circuit. [ 59 ]

Supercars Championship [edit ]

In April 2016, the series reached an agreement with Virgin Australia to rename the series to the Virgin Australia Supercars Championship on 1 July. [ 60 ] [ 61 ]

Gen 2 Supercar [edit ]

In December 2014, Supercars released details concerning the future of the class. New regulations, dubbed Gen2 Supercar, were introduced in 2017 to allow the consumption of two-door coupé torso styles and turbocharged four- or six-cylinder engines. however, no teams have elected to build cars to these alternate engine specifications as of 2020. Cars are still required to be based on front-engined, rear-wheel drive, four-seater production cars that are sold in Australia. The human body and control components will be carried over from the New Generation V8 Supercar regulations, while engine and streamlined parity will be reviewed. [ 62 ] [ 63 ]

Supercar specifications [edit ]

The current New Generation V8 Supercar regulations are an development of the former Project Blueprint regulations. The regulations control many aspects of the car to ensure parity between the manufacturers, allowing for child differences in the engines and body shapes so that the cars bear some resemblance to their production counterparts. The regulations were besides designed to lower the costs of building and repairing a car. [ 52 ]

Bodyshell [edit ]

The soundbox of each cable car is based on its corresponding product car. however, due to the regulations governing the dimensions of the cars to ensure parity, the race cars are lowered and shortened or lengthened to meet the regulations. [ 64 ] As of 2020, entirely the Ford Mustang GT and Holden ZB Commodore are competing. [ 65 ] To save costs, the front guards, passenger-side front door, rear doors and rise quarter panels are made from composite materials. [ 66 ] The fag end lamps are carried over from the road cable car, while the windshield is replaced by a polycarbonate unit of measurement. [ 8 ] The bodies are built around a operate human body, featuring a full roll cage, primitively designed by PACE Innovations but which can be made, or partially made, by other accredited builders, including sealed rush teams. [ 8 ] Many condom features are utilized to protect the driver in the event of a crash. The fuel tank is positioned in front of the buttocks axle to prevent it from being damaged or ruptured in a rear end impingement. The driver is seated towards the center of the car and extra reward is used on the roll cage on the driver ‘s side to lessen the risk of injury in a side-on collision. The cars besides feature a collapsible steering column and a fire fire extinguisher system. [ 9 ]

Aerodynamics [edit ]

All cars have an aeromechanics software consist of a front pamperer and rail-splitter, side skirts and a rear fender. The aerodynamics software for each manufacturer is homologated after a series of tests which ensure that the different body styles produce near-identical downforce and drag numbers. [ 67 ] [ 68 ]

weight unit [edit ]

The minimum burden of each car is 1,395 kilograms ( 3,075 pound ) including the driver, with a minimum load of 755 kilogram over the front axle. The minimum burden for the driver is 100 kilogram and includes the driver dressed in a full race suit, the seat and buttocks mountings and any ballast needed to meet the minimum weight. [ 69 ] Some early components besides have a minimal weight, such as the engine ( 200 kilogram ) and the front uprights ( 10.5 kg each ). [ 70 ]

engine and drivetrain [edit ]

All cars must be front-engined and rear-wheel-drive, powered by an engine configuration, be that 4, 6, or 8 cylinders ( or other ) that do not exceed the Supercars accumulated engine office output and leaden average. All cars presently use a 5.0-litre, naturally aspirated, V8-engine with indirect electronic fuel injection, able of producing between 460 and 485 kilowatt ( 620–650 bhp ) at the maximum allowed 7500rpm. Manufacturers are release to choose between using an engine based on one from their own argumentation up or a generic engine provided by Supercars. [ 71 ] Both Ford and Holden use US-based race engines with pushrod actuated valves and two valves per cylinder. Mercedes, Nissan, and Volvo used change versions of their own engines, with hydraulic-lift valves and four valves per cylinder. [ 64 ] [ 72 ] All engines are electronically limited to 7,500 revolutions per minute and have a compression proportion of 10:1. [ 73 ] power is transferred from the locomotive to the rear wheels through a six-speed consecutive transaxle with an integrate spool differential. [ 8 ] The individual gear ratios and the final drive proportion are fixed with drop gears at the front man of the transaxle allowing the teams to alter the overall transmission proportion for unlike circuits. [ 74 ] The cars use a ternary plate batch. [ 8 ] The cars run on E85 fuel with a fuel tank capacity of 112 litres. [ 8 ] [ 75 ] An electronic command unit ( ECU ), provided by MoTeC, is used to monitor and optimise versatile aspects of the engine ‘s performance. numerous sensors in the car roll up data which is then transmitted to the team, allowing them to monitor things such as sur wear and fuel consumption and find potential problems with the car. The ECU is besides used by officials during the scrutineering process. [ 76 ]

suspension [edit ]

All cars are required to use a bivalent wishbone apparatus for the front suspension and independent rear abeyance. Both the front and rear abeyance systems feature adjustable shock absorbers and an anti-roll bar which can be adjusted from the cockpit. [ 8 ]

Brakes [edit ]

The cars use magnetic disk brakes supplied by AP Racing on the presence and rear, with the overcome cylinders provided by AP Racing or former see brake supplier Alcon. The front phonograph record have a diameter of 395 millimetres ( 15.6 in ) and a six-piston caliper, while the raise phonograph record are 355 millimetres ( 14.0 in ) diameter and have a four-piston caliper. [ 8 ] [ 77 ]

Wheels and tyres [edit ]

The cars use 18 inches ( 460 millimeter ) control wheels, produced by Rimstock and supplied by Racer Industries, and command tyres from Dunlop. The slick sur is available in both hard and indulgent compounds, with teams required to use either or both compounds in each race, depending on the event. A furrow wet tire is used in muffle conditions. [ 8 ] [ 78 ]

SEE ALSO  การศึกษาการนวดไทย 4 ภาค : การวิเคราะห์องค์ความรู้ และการศึกษาวิธีการปฎิบัติเชิงประจักษ์ (The Study of Four-Region Thai Massage: An Analysis of the Body of Knowledge and an Empirical Investigation of P

monetary value [edit ]

The New Generation V8 Supercar regulations were intended to reduce the cost of building a cable car ( without engine ) from around $ 450,000 to $ 250,000, [ 32 ] [ 52 ] with the cost of an locomotive coming down from around $ 120,000 to $ 50,000. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] unfortunately the regulations did n’t reduce the costs of making a new Supercar with costs estimated to be around $ 600,000 for a new car. [ 81 ] The costs of competing in the championship are well higher than the purchase price of a car. There is no budget cap, though caps have been proposed. One estimate puts the season cost for teams at “ 1.2 to 3 million ( australian ) dollars per car ” per season. [ 82 ]

Series structure [edit ]

Teams and drivers [edit ]

In order to compete in the Supercars Championship, drivers are required to hold a CAMS National Circuit Competition Licence, or a license of an equivalent or higher horizontal surface. [ 83 ] Each car entered is required to have a Teams Racing Charter ( TRC ), once known as a Racing Entitlements Contract. A TRC is a contract between Supercars and a team which outlines the team ‘s entitlements and obligations. [ 84 ] TRCs may be leased by their owners to another party for a maximal of two years, after which the owner must either use it themselves or sell it. [ 85 ] A rush number is tied to each TRC, with teams able to apply for a TRC number to be changed. The defending series ace is entitled to use the count 1, with the original TRC count of that cable car reserved and not able to be used by another team without the agreement of its owner. [ 86 ]

The TRCs were originally issued in 1999. Known as TEGA franchise agreements, they were divided into three categories – Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. Twelve Level 1 franchises were issued to those teams that had competed in the series full-time since its origin in 1997 : [ 87 ] A thirteenth was former issued to Bob Forbes Racing. [ 88 ] A Level 1 franchise required a team to subspecies at least one car at all events, and at diverse times allowed a team to enter up to four cars. other teams received Level 2 and Level 3 franchises based on their degree of engagement. [ 87 ] The structure was changed a phone number of times before the present system of 28 RECs was arrived at in 2011. Supercars bought a number of RECs as they became available in order to achieve a long-held desire to reduce the airfield to 28 cars. [ 89 ] At the end of 2013, Lucas Dumbrell Motorsport, Tony D’Alberto Racing and Triple F Racing each returned a REC to Supercars. [ 90 ] These were put up for sale in 2014, but no bids were received. [ 91 ] One was reclaimed by Lucas Dumbrell Motorsport in 2015 after a legal fight. [ 92 ] At the end of 2014, a far REC was returned by James Rosenberg Racing. [ 93 ] In April 2015, Supercars launched a tender for one REC for the 2016 season, with Triple Eight the successful bidder. [ 94 ] Teams consist of one to four cars, with most one-car teams forming a technical alliance with a larger team. [ 95 ] entirely the REC holders are allowed to compete at each consequence, although “ wildcard ” entries are accepted for the endurance races, with a utmost of six excess cars on circus tent of the regular 28. [ 96 ] Both Supercars and Development Series teams have entered wildcard entries in former years. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] In 2014, the first wildcard entrance for a sprint race was issued when Dick Johnson Racing entered a third cable car for Marcos Ambrose at the Sydney 500. [ 99 ] Teams are required to employ a co-driver for each car during the three endurance races due to the increased race distance and the necessitate for driver substitutions during the subspecies. [ 100 ] Teams were able to pair their full-time drivers in one cable car until a govern variety in 2010 that required each full-time driver to remain in his own car and be joined by a co-driver not competing full-time in the series. [ 101 ] The Drivers Championship championship is awarded to the driver who accumulates the most points over the course of the season. If there is a points marry for the series gain, the champion will be decided based on the number of races won by each driver ( if there is however a tie, it is based on second-place finishes and so on ). Teams besides compete for the Teams Championship, with the champion team being decided in the same manner as the Drivers Championship. For Teams Championship points scoring purposes, teams with four cars are separated into a pair of two-car teams, while teams with three cars are split into a two-car team and a single-car team. [ 102 ] The Teams Championship dictates the orchestra pit lane orderliness for the follow season. The defend driver has the right to carry the number 1 the take after year. however, Shane van Gisbergen and Scott McLaughlin elected to retain their existing numbers in 2017, 2019, 2020 and 2022. [ 103 ] [ 104 ]

Development series [edit ]

A second-tier series, the Dunlop Super2 Series, is run as a support class to the independent series at certain events. [ 6 ] Initially for privateers who did not have the fund of the professional teams in the late 1990s, the series immediately serves the dual purpose of developing young drivers before they compete in the main series and a mean for chief series teams to give their endurance co-drivers more racing experience prior to the endurance races. Teams in the Dunlop Super2 Series compete with cars previously used in the independent serial. A third V8 Supercar-based series, the Kumho Tyres V8 Touring Car Series, has been run since 2008 but has no participation with the Supercars Championship or Dunlop Super2 Series, alternatively running on the program of the Shannons Nationals Motor Racing Championships. [ 105 ] however, since 2016, several rounds have been run as confirm categories at Supercars events .

race formats [edit ]

There are four types of events held in Supercars, each with its own race format : SuperSprint events, International SuperSprint events, SuperStreet events and Enduro Cup events. [ 106 ]

SuperSprint [edit ]

The SuperSprint format is used at the Tasmania SuperSprint, Phillip Island SuperSprint, Perth SuperNight, Winton SuperSprint, Darwin Triple Crown, Ipswich SuperSprint, The Bend SuperSprint. [ 107 ] The Phillip Island and Sydney Motorsport Park events feature a single one-hour rehearse session on Saturday, while all early SuperSprint events have two one-hour practice sessions on the Friday with a fifteen-minute practice session on Saturday. The Winton and Ipswich events feature an extra thirty-minute school term on Friday for survival co-drivers. The SuperSprint format features a fifteen-minute qualify seance held on Saturday to decide the grid for the race on the lapp day. A single twenty-minute school term is held on Sunday dawn to decide the grid for the Sunday race. The Darwin event besides features a lead ten gunfight ( a session where the fastest ten qualifiers complete one flying lap each to determine the circus tent ten on the grid ) following the Sunday qualify session. A single 120 or 150 kilometres ( 75 or 93 mi ) race is held on Saturday with a single 250 or 300 kilometres ( 160 or 190 mi ) race held on Sunday. [ 107 ]

International SuperSprint [edit ]

The International SuperSprint format is used at the Auckland SuperSprint. [ 107 ] Three thirty-minute rehearse sessions are held on Friday, while Saturday and Sunday both consist of two ten-minute stipulate sessions which set the grid for the match of 200 kilometres ( 120 secret intelligence service ) races held on each day. [ 107 ]

SuperStreet [edit ]

The SuperStreet format is used at the Melbourne 400, Townsville 400 and Newcastle 500. [ 107 ] Two forty-minute rehearse sessions take seat on the Friday at each SuperStreet event, while a twenty-minute rehearse session is held on the Saturday at Adelaide. The Adelaide event features a twenty-minute stipulate seance on Friday to determine the grid for the Saturday race, while the Townsville and Newcastle events have a single twenty-minute session on Saturday. All three events feature a twenty-minute seance followed by a top ten gunfight on Sunday. Both the Adelaide 500 and the Newcastle 500 feature a unmarried 250 kilometres ( 160 mi ) subspecies on each of Saturday and Sunday, while the Townsville and Melbourne event features a 200 kilometres ( 120 michigan ) subspecies on each of Saturday and Sunday. [ 107 ]

Enduro Cup [edit ]

Until 2020, there were three endurance events held during the year : the Sandown 500, the Bathurst 1000 and the Gold Coast 600. These events require two drivers per car and in concert they form the Enduro Cup, a trophy awarded to the driver or drivers who score the most points across the three events. [ 108 ] The Sandown 500 and the Gold Coast 600 both featured three thirty-minute practice sessions held on Friday, with Sandown having an extra school term on Saturday. Practice for the Bathurst 1000 consists of six one-hour sessions held across Thursday, Friday and Saturday. [ 107 ] Qualifying for the Sandown 500 involves a twenty-minute session followed by a pair of 60 kilometres ( 37 security service ) “ qualifying races ” held on Saturday. [ 109 ] The grid for the beginning raceway is based on the qualify seance ; the power system for the moment race is based on the results of the first base. The results of the second race determine the grid for the main race on Sunday. Co-drivers must compete in the inaugural of the modification races while the independent driver must compete in the moment. [ 110 ] The Bathurst 1000 features a one forty-minute qualifying session on Friday afternoon followed by a peak ten gunfight on Saturday. The Gold Coast 600 has two twenty-minute qualifying sessions, one each on Saturday and Sunday, with the Sunday seance followed by a top ten gunfight. The Sandown 500 and Bathurst 1000 both have a twenty-minute warm-up session on Sunday good morning. [ 107 ] The Sandown 500 and the Bathurst 1000 feature individual races held on Sunday, at 500 kilometres ( 310 security service ) and 1,000 kilometres ( 620 secret intelligence service ) in length respectively. The Gold Coast 600 consists of two 300 kilometres ( 190 mile ) races with one hold on Saturday and one on Sunday. [ 107 ] Since 2020, there has only been one survival consequence, the Bathurst 1000 .

Points system [edit ]

Points are awarded as follows at all backing events. respective different points scales are applied to events having one, two, three or four races, ensuring that a driver will be awarded 300 points for winning all races at any event. [ 111 ] Points are awarded to all cars that have covered 75 % of the slipstream distance, provided they are running at the completion of the final lick and with a final lap fourth dimension within 200 % of the slipstream winner ‘s fastest lap. At the endurance events, both drivers earn the total points awarded to the finish position of the car. [ 112 ]

Points Scale Position
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th
Single-race 300 276 258 240 222 204 192 180 168 156 144 138 132 126 120 114 108 102 96 90 84 78 72 66 60 54 48 42 36 30
Two-race 150 138 129 120 111 102 96 90 84 78 72 69 66 63 60 57 54 51 48 45 42 39 36 33 30 27 24 21 18 15
Three-race 100 92 86 80 74 68 64 60 56 52 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10
Four-race 75 69 64 60 55 51 48 45 42 39 36 34 33 31 30 28 27 25 24 22 21 19 18 16 15 13 12 10 9 7
SEE ALSO  12 Best Serums for Oily and Acne-Prone Skin in 2022

celebrated events [edit ]

Bathurst 1000 [edit ]

The Bathurst 1000, besides known as the “ Great Race ” and held in some form since 1960, is the most celebrated slipstream on the Supercars calendar, [ 113 ] arsenic well as the longest both in terms of race distance and race time. The raceway is run over 161 laps of the Mount Panorama Circuit, 1,000 kilometres ( 620 security service ) in entire, with the slipstream taking between six and seven hours to complete. The event has attracted crowd of closely 200,000 people. [ 7 ] The Peter Brock Trophy, named after nine-time Bathurst 1000 winner Peter Brock, is awarded to the winners of the race. The trophy was introduced in 2006 following Brock ‘s death in a barge in at the Targa West muster one calendar month prior to the race. [ 114 ]

adelaide 500 [edit ]

The Adelaide 500, besides known as the “ Clipsal 500 ” and “ Superloop 500 ” under former sponsorship names, is the premier car race in South Australia. The race is the largest V8 Supercars in the nation by herd numbers, [ 115 ] starting in 1999 and is held in the easterly streets of the Adelaide CBD, on the Adelaide Street Circuit. After being shutdown in 2020 by former Liberal premier Steven Marshall over alledeged “ cost-blow outs ” due to Coronavirus, [ 116 ] the race has been revived by the victory of SA Labor Leader Peter Malinauskas in the 2022 South australian state election, and is set for a blockbuster return in early December 2022, with Supercars Australia committed to bringing it back “ bigger then ever ” [ 117 ] later this year. Held over four days, the consequence consists of two 250 kilometre races for the V8 Supercars, and additionary drill and qualifying races. The event has several categories of races throughout the four days, including Super2 Series, Formula 5000, SuperUtes Series, Touring Car Masters, Australian GT, and the australian Carrera Cup a well as others. The rush is accompanied by alive music performances, of which the likes of Kiss, Keith Urban and Robbie Williams have previously performed, a well as food, activities, and a RAAF F/A 18A Hornet display every day in the skies above the city. The death ace of the Adelaide 500 was Scott Mclaughlin in 2020. [ 118 ]

Sandown 500 [edit ]

The Sandown 500 was first held as a six-hour slipstream in 1964 [ 119 ] and has been labelled as the traditional “ Bathurst warm-up ” race. [ 120 ] Like the Bathurst 1000, the Sandown 500 is run over 161 laps. Due to the shorter track duration of Sandown Raceway, the race is merely 500 kilometres ( 310 nautical mile ) and runs for between three and four hours. The Sandown 500 was not held for Supercars from 1999 to 2002 and from 2008 to 2011. During these years, the 500 kilometres ( 310 security service ) endurance races took place at Queensland Raceway ( 1999–2002 ) [ 121 ] and the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit ( 2008–2011 ). [ 122 ]

Gold Coast 600 [edit ]

The Gold Coast 600 was introduced in 2009 after the american IndyCar Series elected not to return to the Surfers Paradise circumference that year. The A1 Grand Prix serial was scheduled to fill the void left by IndyCar, [ 123 ] however the owners of the series went into extermination in June 2009 and, [ 124 ] as a leave, the A1 Grand Prix cars were withdrawn from the event. [ 125 ] In order to compensate for this, Supercars introduced a newly four-race format, with two 150 kilometres ( 93 nautical mile ) races held on each day. [ 126 ] In 2010 the format changed to include two 300 kilometres ( 190 security service ) races and it became a two-driver event. To restore the event ‘s previous international spirit, each team was required to have at least one co-driver with an ‘international repute ‘ ( that is, they were recognised for exploits in motorsport outside of Australia ). [ 127 ] In 2011 and 2012, all entries required an international co-driver. In 2013 the external co-driver rule was dropped, due to a number of incidents during the 2012 event and the formation of the Endurance Cup, but teams could silent choose to employ an international driver for the endurance races. [ 108 ]

newcastle 500 [edit ]

In 2004, Supercars introduced the name “ Grand Finale ” [ 128 ] for the final round of the season ( having called it “ The Main Event ” in 2003 and the “ V8 Ultimate ” in 2001 and 2002 ). [ 129 ] The Grand Finale was held at Sandown Raceway in 2001 and 2002, Sydney Motorsport Park in 2003 and 2004, Phillip Island in 2005, 2006 and 2007 and Oran Park Raceway in 2008. The Grand Finale appoint was used until 2008 before the Sydney 500 became the final examination consequence of the series in 2009. [ 130 ] The Sydney 500 was held around the streets of Sydney Olympic Park. Its format was similar to the Adelaide 500, with a 250 kilometres ( 160 security service ) race held on both Saturday and Sunday. Despite having a relatively childlike layout, the circuit was one of the more challenge on the calendar – as evidenced in the 2010 Saturday subspecies when, in moisture conditions, the top three championship runners all slid into the wall at the same clock – effectively handing the title to James Courtney. [ 131 ] The Sydney 500 was held for the concluding time in 2016. [ 132 ] The event at Sydney Olympic Park was replaced in 2017 with a new street raceway in Newcastle, 150 kilometres ( 93 nautical mile ) north of Sydney, which consists of the streets in the eastern suburb of the city. [ 133 ]

Media coverage [edit ]

television receiver [edit ]

The series is presently broadcast on Fox Sports and the Seven Network. [ 134 ] Fox Sports shows all drill and qualifying sessions live along with the races. seven shows only seven events survive which are Adelaide, Melbourne, Townsville, Sandown, Bathurst, Gold Coast and Newcastle with the rest shown as a highlights package after the races have finished. The coverage is produced by Supercars Media, a specialist product caller for Supercars Australia. [ 134 ] Supercars Media provides the comment for each raceway, with early champion and Bathurst winner Mark Skaife as lead observer, along with Neil Crompton as expert observer. Both Fox Sports and Seven use their own comment team for pre- and post-race coverage. [ 135 ] Supercars Media records the series in 1080i high-definition, with many cars carrying four or more onboard-cameras, though HD coverage is available only to subscribers of Foxtel HD. [ 136 ] In 2020, Seven Network and Foxtel signed a five-year deal worth $ 200 million to televise the Repco Supercars Championship from 2021 to 2025. Seven Network will broadcast six rounds bouncy and show highlights for other races it is not able to broadcast. Foxtel ‘s deal remains the lapp, it will show all races live and ad absolve on Fox Sports. The series had previously been broadcast on Seven Network, from 1963 to 1996 and from 2007 to 2014, [ 137 ] Network Ten and Fox Sports from 1997 to 2006 and from 2015 to 2020, [ 21 ] During the years of Network Ten and Fox Sports continued to broadcast the series once a year for the Melbourne 400 championship races, which are a accompaniment category at the Formula One Rolex Australian Grand Prix, which was broadcast by Ten and Fox Sports. previously when the Nine Network held the Formula One Rolex Australian Grand Prix circulate rights in Australia, they would broadcast the Supercars support races at the Formula One Rolex Australian Grand Prix. All support class races were tied up with the Formula One Rolex Australian Grand Prix broadcast rights as a box. ten ‘s television receiver serial RPM, which has aired from 1997 to 2008, in 2011 and from 2015 onwards, has covered Supercars, aboard other motorsports. From 2007 to 2014, Seven broadcast a hebdomadally 25-minute picture titled V8Xtra on non-racing weekends. The dedicate Supercars broadcast covered news program and sport items relating to the series. Since 2015, Fox Sports has broadcast a exchangeable show, Inside Supercars, a weekly one-hour long program featuring a panel led by Rust and Mark Skaife. [ 138 ] In the same year, Fox Sports besides launched an experimental usher Supercars Life, featuring behind the scenes footage from race weekends and features on drivers ‘ lives aside from the track. In 2018, Inside Supercars was superseded by a new show on Fox Sports, Supercars Trackside. alternatively of being filmed in a studio midweek, the picture is filmed on the Thursday before and the Sunday after each slipstream meet at the circuit. [ 139 ] The television receiver broadcast of the Bathurst 1000 has won a Logie Award for the Most Outstanding Sports Coverage seven times, most recently for the 2017 Bathurst 1000. [ 140 ] Foxtel broadcast the 2018 Bathurst 1000 in 4K settlement, the first such broadcast in australian sport. [ 141 ]

current television broadcasters [edit ]

Supercars races are broadcast on the pursuit channels :

other media [edit ]

The series has its own live streaming pay-per-view service, Superview. The service, which started in 2013, presently shows all races angstrom well as qualifying sessions. The service is not available in New Zealand and Australia due to their current circulate rights with Sky Sport and Fox Sports. The series has its own web site, which contains information about the series, drivers, teams and events and news articles, and a radio display, V8 Insiders. News is besides featured on motorsport websites such as Speedcafe, V8X Magazine and Touring Car Times. A media deal with News Corp Australia has been in place since 2009 .

Video games [edit ]

Supercars have made several accredited appearances in video games, including in Codemasters ‘ V8 Supercars series in the 2000s and Turn 10 Studios ‘ Forza series in the 2010s. From 2011 to 2014, an on-line backing, sanctioned by Supercars, was contested on iRacing. [ 142 ] In 2017, Supercars launched an eSports contest using Forza Motorsport 6 and Forza Motorsport 7, which expanded to six rounds in 2018. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] The Supercars Eseries moved to the iRacing chopine in 2019 with championship teams including Triple Eight Race Engineering and Walkinshaw Andretti United entering teams into the series aboard eSports teams. [ 145 ] [ 146 ] An extra Eseries was held in mid 2020 with all championship drivers competing during the suspension caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. [ 147 ]

Records [edit ]

  • Figures accurate as of 10 April 2022 (after Race 12 of the 2022 Supercars Championship).
  • Bold text indicates active full-time drivers, teams and manufacturers.
  • Italics indicates drivers who are still active, but not on a full-time basis.
  • The above records relate to the Australian Touring Car Championship (1960–1998), the Shell Championship Series (1999–2001), the V8 Supercar Championship Series (2002–2010), International V8 Supercars Championship (2011–2016) and the Supercars Championship (2016–present).

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

Media related to V8 Supercar at Wikimedia Commons

reservoir : https://usakairali.com
Category : Hair

ใส่ความเห็น

อีเมลของคุณจะไม่แสดงให้คนอื่นเห็น

https://www.antiquavox.it/live22-indonesia/ https://ogino.co.uk/wp-includes/slot-gacor/ https://overmarket.pl/wp-includes/slot-online/ https://www.amarfoundation.org/slot-gacor/