City in Alabama, United States
City in Alabama, United States
Gadsden is a city in and the county seat of Etowah County in the U.S. state of matter of Alabama. It is located on the Coosa River about 56 miles ( 90 kilometer ) northeastern of Birmingham and 90 miles ( 140 kilometer ) southwest of Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is the primary coil city of the Gadsden Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 103,931. As of the 2020 census, the population of the city was 33,945. [ 2 ] In the nineteenth hundred, Gadsden was Alabama ‘s second-most crucial center of commerce and diligence, trailing lone the seaport of Mobile. The two cities were authoritative ship centers : Gadsden for riverboats and Mobile for international trade. From the recently nineteenth century through the 1980s, Gadsden was a center of grave diligence, including the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and Republic Steel. In 1991, following more than a ten of astute refuse in industry, Gadsden was awarded the respect of All-America City by the National Civic League.

history [edit ]

The inaugural hearty European-American colonization in the area that developed as Gadsden was a village called “ double Springs ”. It was founded in about 1825 by John Riley, a mixed-race american amerind and European-American settler who built his house near two springs. Riley used his theater for a stagecoach stop on the Huntsville -to- Rome road. The original build still stands as the oldest in Gadsden. The house was purchased by brothers Gabriel and Asenath Hughes in 1840. The Hughes brothers purchased much of the domain between Lookout Mountain, the Coosa River, and the mouth of Wills Creek. The brothers proposed constructing a railroad from the port of Savannah to Nashville, Tennessee through their country. [ 3 ] The master 120 acres ( 49 hour angle ) review of Gadsden included the Hughes brothers ‘ bring, plus that of John S. Moragne and Lewis L. Rhea. On July 4, 1845, Captain James Lafferty piloted the steamboat Coosa to the settlement. He landed near the site where the Memorial Bridge was built. The Hughes brothers suggested renaming the town as “ Lafferty ‘s Landing ”, but residents adopted “ Gadsden ” in award of Colonel James Gadsden of South Carolina. He late was noted for negotiating the United States ‘ Gadsden buy from Mexico. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] In 1867, after the American Civil War, the legislature organized Baine County ; Gadsden was incorporated and made the county seat. After a constituent convention, the new legislature dissolved Baine County in 1868 and renamed it as Etowah County. Gadsden retained its standing as county seat. [ 6 ] By the late nineteenth century, Gadsden had developed as a major river port on the Coosa River, and was second to Mobile, a seaport on the Gulf Coast, in importance. It besides developed as a center of heavy industry .

twentieth hundred to present [edit ]

With unionization, industrial workers could earn middle-class salaries and improve their lives, even as african Americans struggled under Jim Crow laws and political disenfranchisement. The city reached its point of population in 1960. Affected by the national restructure of railroads and heavy diligence, most of Gadsden ‘s major industries closed in the 1970s and 1980s. The city lost many jobs and much population, and began to decline. The city government has struggled to manage the transition to a different economy, good as numerous early industrial cities had to do. renovation efforts, such as the Cultural Arts Center and downtown revival, earned Gadsden beginning station in the 2000 City Livability Awards Program of the US Conference of Mayors. [ 7 ] Underemployment continues to be a severe problem, as indicated by the economic data presented below .

Geography and climate [edit ]

Gadsden is located in central Etowah County at ( 34.010147, −86.010356 ), [ 8 ] and developed on both sides of the Coosa River. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.3 square miles ( 99.2 km2 ), of which 37.1 square miles ( 96.2 km2 ) is nation and 1.1 square miles ( 2.9 km2 ), or 2.96 %, is water. [ 9 ] The southerly end of Lookout Mountain rises to the north of the city center. Typical of the Deep South, Gadsden experiences a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa ) with four discrete seasons. winter lasts from early December to late-February ; the daily average temperature in January is 41.3 °F ( 5.2 °C ). On average, the gloomy temperature falls to the freezing check or below on 60 days a class, and to or below 20 °F ( −7 °C ) on 6.9 days. [ 10 ] While rain is abundant ( January and February are on average the wettest months ), measurable snow is rare, with most years receiving none. Summers are hot and humid, lasting from mid-may to mid-September, and the July daily modal temperature is 80.6 °F ( 27.0 °C ). There are 60–61 days of 90 °F ( 32 °C ) + highs per annum and 2.1 days of 100 °F ( 38 °C ) + highs. [ 11 ] The latter function of summer tends to be drier. Autumn, which spans from mid-september to early-December, tends to be exchangeable to form in terms of temperature and precipitation, although it begins relatively dry. With a period of record dating merely binding to 1953, the highest record temperature was 106 °F ( 41 °C ) on June 30, 2012, while the lowest read temperature was −6 °F ( −21 °C ) on January 20–21, 1985. [ 11 ]

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Climate data for Gadsden, Alabama (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1953–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 76
(24)
82
(28)
88
(31)
91
(33)
99
(37)
106
(41)
105
(41)
105
(41)
102
(39)
99
(37)
87
(31)
78
(26)
106
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 70
(21)
74
(23)
81
(27)
86
(30)
91
(33)
95
(35)
97
(36)
97
(36)
94
(34)
87
(31)
79
(26)
71
(22)
99
(37)
Average high °F (°C) 52.8
(11.6)
57.3
(14.1)
66.0
(18.9)
74.9
(23.8)
82.0
(27.8)
87.8
(31.0)
90.9
(32.7)
90.3
(32.4)
85.3
(29.6)
75.4
(24.1)
64.0
(17.8)
55.6
(13.1)
73.5
(23.1)
Daily mean °F (°C) 42.8
(6.0)
46.7
(8.2)
54.7
(12.6)
62.7
(17.1)
70.7
(21.5)
77.9
(25.5)
81.0
(27.2)
80.4
(26.9)
74.8
(23.8)
64.0
(17.8)
52.7
(11.5)
45.6
(7.6)
62.8
(17.1)
Average low °F (°C) 32.8
(0.4)
36.2
(2.3)
43.3
(6.3)
50.4
(10.2)
59.4
(15.2)
67.9
(19.9)
71.2
(21.8)
70.4
(21.3)
64.3
(17.9)
52.5
(11.4)
41.3
(5.2)
35.7
(2.1)
52.1
(11.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 16
(−9)
22
(−6)
27
(−3)
36
(2)
46
(8)
58
(14)
65
(18)
63
(17)
52
(11)
37
(3)
27
(−3)
22
(−6)
15
(−9)
Record low °F (°C) −6
(−21)
1
(−17)
11
(−12)
22
(−6)
33
(1)
42
(6)
52
(11)
52
(11)
33
(1)
23
(−5)
14
(−10)
1
(−17)
−6
(−21)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 5.70
(145)
5.18
(132)
5.40
(137)
5.07
(129)
4.79
(122)
4.56
(116)
4.71
(120)
4.49
(114)
4.50
(114)
3.51
(89)
4.25
(108)
5.48
(139)
57.64
(1,464)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.2
(0.51)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 9.7 10.3 10.2 9.1 8.2 9.6 9.6 8.4 6.3 6.5 7.9 10.3 106.1
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.1 in ) 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
Source: NOAA[11][12]

Demographics [edit ]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 1,697
1890 2,901 70.9%
1900 4,282 47.6%
1910 10,557 146.5%
1920 14,737 39.6%
1930 24,042 63.1%
1940 36,975 53.8%
1950 55,725 50.7%
1960 58,088 4.2%
1970 53,928 −7.2%
1980 47,565 −11.8%
1990 42,523 −10.6%
2000 38,978 −8.3%
2010 36,856 −5.4%
2020 33,945 −7.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[13]

2000 census [edit ]

As of the census of 2000, there were 38,978 people, 16,456 households, and 10,252 families living in the city. The population density was 1,083.6 people per square mile ( 418.4/km2 ). There were 18,797 house units at an average concentration of 522.6 per feather mile ( 201.8/km2 ). The racial constitution of the city was 62.7 % White, 34.0 % Black or african American, 0.3 % native American, 0.5 % asian, 0.1 % Pacific Islander, 1.2 % from other races, and 1.2 % from two or more races. 2.6 % of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race .
There were 16,456 households, out of which 24.9 % had children under the senesce of 18 support with them, 40.5 % were married couples living in concert, 18.1 % had a female homeowner with no conserve present, and 37.7 % were non-families. 33.9 % of all households were made up of individuals, and 16.9 % had person living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The median family size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.0 % under the age of 18, 9.5 % from 18 to 24, 25.3 % from 25 to 44, 22.0 % from 45 to 64, and 20.1 % who were 65 years of senesce or older. The median old age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and all over, there were 80.1 males. The median income for a family in the city was $ 24,823, and the median income for a syndicate was $ 31,740. Males had a median income of $ 29,400 versus $ 19,840 for females. The per head income for the city was $ 15,610. About 18.1 % of families and 22.9 % of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9 % of those under age 18 and 14.6 % of those age 65 or over .

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2010 census [edit ]

As of the census of 2010, there were 36,856 people, 15,171 households, and 9,183 families living in the city. The population density was 990.8 people per square nautical mile ( 382.7/km2 ). There were 17,672 housing units at an average concentration of 475.1 per square mile ( 183.5/km2 ). The racial constitution of the city was 57.3 % White, 36.3 % Black or african American, 0.4 % native American, 0.6 % asian, 0.4 % Pacific Islander, 3.2 % from other races, and 1.9 % from two or more races. 5.4 % of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any raceway. There were 15,171 households, out of which 24.3 % had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.9 % were married couples living together, 19.5 % had a female homeowner with no conserve give, and 39.5 % were non-families. 34.9 % of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.6 % had person living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The modal family size was 2.31 and the average class size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out, with 22.5 % under the age of 18, 9.7 % from 18 to 24, 25.0 % from 25 to 44, 26.1 % from 45 to 64, and 16.8 % who were 65 years of long time or older. The median long time was 39.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females long time 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.

The median income for a family in the city was $ 28,386, and the median income for a family was $ 34,643. Males had a medial income of $ 33,827 versus $ 27,342 for females. The per caput income for the city was $ 18,610. About 20.2 % of families and 24.9 % of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.9 % of those under old age 18 and 14.3 % of those age 65 or over .

2020 census [edit ]

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 33,945 people, 13,766 households, and 8,133 families residing in the city .

employment [edit ]

The Spirit of American Citizenship Monument on Rainbow Drive ( US 411 ), just before the Broad Street Bridge. The Coosa River and East Gadsden are visible in the background. Citing statistics from the Alabama Department of Industrial Relations and the Center for Business and Economic Research at the University of Alabama, the Gadsden-Etowah County Industrial Development Authority reports that approximately 12,000 residents of Etowah County were underemployed and 2,179 residents were unemployed as of 2008. [ 15 ]

religion [edit ]

Gadsden houses numerous churches : episcopalian, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Church of Christ, Pentecostal, Catholic, and Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. The city was home to Congregation Beth Israel, a Reform synagogue founded in 1908. In a 1960 attack, the synagogue was fire-bombed, its windows smashed, and two members shoot and wounded by a Nazi sympathizer. [ 16 ] Because of declining numbers as some members moved away and others died, the congregation ceased operations in 2010 .

law enforcement [edit ]

Gadsden is served by a 106-member municipal patrol department that includes a Patrol Division and Detective Division. The Patrol Division operates patrol, a bomb calorimeter team unit, especial projects team, and a joint SWAT team with the Etowah County Sheriff Office. The Detective Division serves a homicide or persons unit, property crime unit, fiscal crimes whole, and juvenile unit. In May 2010, the Gadsden Police Department acquired two unman aeriform vehicles ( UAVs ) under the auspices of a $ 150,000 federal grant. The drones are equipped with video cameras and wireless transmitters, designed to be used for antenna surveillance. [ 17 ]

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education [edit ]

The Gadsden City Board of Education oversees fourteen schools : eight elementary schools, three middle schools, one senior high school school, and two forte schools ( one alternative kernel and one technical center ). A new high school, Gadsden City High School, replaced the three former city senior high school schools ( Emma Sansom High School, Gadsden High School, and Litchfield High School ) via fusion for the 2006–2007 school year. Gadsden is home to Gadsden State Community College, the second base largest of the 27 biennial institutions in the Alabama Community College System. This was founded by early Governor George Wallace. Small satellites of Jacksonville State University and the University of Alabama besides offer college courses in Gadsden. Gadsden is home to the first statewide day-treatment broadcast for juvenile offenders. The Community Intensive Treatment for Youth Program ( C.I.T.Y. ) was founded in January 1981 by Edward E. Earnest ( 1943-2005 ). With the aid and subscribe of the Honorable Judge Robert E. Lewis ( 1927-1993 ), the city of Gadsden, and the Gadsden City Board of Education, the C.I.T.Y. Program began enrolling students on February 1, 1981. C.I.T.Y. is designed to be a multi-dimensional program emphasizing habilitation ( i.e., equipping at-risk young person on adolescent probation with skills needed to meet the demands of modern society ). Its objectives are : 1. to identify the at-risk youth ‘s individual strengths and weaknesses, 2. to provide an individualize environment in which the at-risk young person can develop skills, and 3. to alter the lifelike environment of the at-risk young person so that new acquired skills are nurtured and encouraged. To achieve these objectives, C.I.T.Y. offers academic redress in learn, mathematics, linguistic process ; intensifier rede that involves behavior change, consumer education, and job readiness educate. After all objectives have been met, C.I.T.Y. provides GED formulation, return to populace school, and placement into technical school, college, speculate, or military service. In 1983, C.I.T.Y. Program of Etowah County ( Gadsden ) received the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Unique and Innovative Project Award. On October 1, 2009, C.I.T.Y. ’ s name was changed to Special Programming for Achievement Network ( S.P.A.N. ) It operates under the directorship of the Alabama Department of Youth Services. There are eleven SPAN programs in the submit of Alabama. [ 18 ]

Media [edit ]

Newspapers

  • The Gadsden Times: Daily morning paper. Previously owned by the New York Times, now owned by Halifax Media Group.
  • Gadsden Messenger: Weekly, locally owned newspaper
  • The Reporter: Monthly, locally owned newspaper

Television Gadsden is located in the Birmingham DMA ( Designated Market Area ) for television stations. Two of the marketplace ‘s stations are licensed to Gadsden .

  • WTJP Channel 60 – Trinity Broadcasting Network
  • WPXH Channel 44 – ION Television affiliate
  • W15AP Channel 15 – repeater for WBRC Fox 6 in Birmingham

AM radio
FM radio

infrastructure [edit ]

fare [edit ]

Health care [edit ]

  • Gadsden Regional Medical Center: 346-bed facility
  • Riverview Regional Medical Center: 281-bed facility
  • Mountain View Hospital: Psychiatric and chemical dependency facility

noteworthy people [edit ]

Points of interest [edit ]

representation in other media [edit ]

  • Joshua Kristal, a professional photographer, completed a project in 2012 of taking photographs in three southern states at sites of lynchings that were documented in historic photographs. One of his photographs was taken in Gadsden, at the site of Bunk Richardson’s 1906 lynching.[23]
  • Poet Jake Adam York grew up in Etowah County and wrote the poem “Bunk Richardson”, inspired by his having read stories about the lynching in the Gadsden Times.[23]
  • Each county in the US where a lynching took place is represented in the new Memorial for Peace and Justice in Montgomery, Alabama, opened in April 2018.[24]

References [edit ]

  • Goodson, Mike. Gadsden: City of Champions. Illustrated by Brock Cole. Arcadia, 2002; ISBN 0-7385-2375-5. Part of the “Making of America” series.
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