capital and largest city of France
This article is about the capital of France. For other uses, see Paris ( disambiguation )
capital city in Île-de-France, France

Paris ( french pronunciation : ​ [ paʁi ] ( ) ) is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimate population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² ( 41 sq mile ), [ 4 ] making it the 34th most dumbly populate city in the worldly concern in 2020. [ 5 ] Since the seventeenth century, Paris has been one of the earth ‘s major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, gastronomy, skill, and arts, and has sometimes been referred to as the capital of the world. The City of Paris is the center and seat of government of the area and province of Île-de-France, or Paris Region, with an calculate population of 12,997,058 in 2020, [ 6 ] or about 18 % of the population of France, [ 7 ] making it in 2020 the irregular largest metropolitan sphere in the OECD, [ 6 ] and 14th largest in the earth in 2015. [ 8 ] The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion ( $ 808 billion ) in 2017. [ 9 ] According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, in 2021 Paris was the city with the second-highest cost of living in the universe, tied with Singapore, and after Tel Aviv. [ 10 ] Paris is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports : Paris–Charles de Gaulle ( the second-busiest airport in Europe ) and Paris–Orly. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Opened in 1900, the city ‘s underpass system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily ; [ 13 ] it is the second-busiest metro system in Europe after the Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th-busiest railway post in the world and the busiest located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. [ 14 ] Paris is specially known for its museums and architectural landmarks : the Louvre received 2.8 million visitors in 2021, despite the retentive museum closings caused by the COVID-19 virus. [ 15 ] The Musée d’Orsay, Musée Marmottan Monet and Musée de l’Orangerie are noted for their collections of french Impressionist art. The Pompidou Centre Musée National d’Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. The Musée Rodin and Musée Picasso exhibit the works of two celebrated Parisians. The historical zone along the Seine in the city concentrate has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991 ; popular landmarks there include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris on the Île de la Cité, now closed for renovation after the 15 April 2019 fire. early popular tourist sites include the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, besides on the Île de la Cité ; the Eiffel Tower, constructed for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 ; the Grand Palais and Petit Palais, built for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 ; the Arc de Triomphe on the Champs-Élysées, and the hill of Montmartre with its artistic history and its Basilica of Sacré-Coeur. [ 16 ] Paris hosts several United Nations organisations : the UNESCO, the Young Engineers / Future Leaders, the World Federation of Engineering Organizations, and other international organisations such as the OECD, the OECD Development Centre, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Energy Agency, the International Federation for Human Rights, the International Organisation of La Francophonie ; along with european bodies such as the european Space Agency, the Euro Banking Association or the european Securities and Markets Authority. other international organisations were founded in Paris such as the CIMAC in 1951 ( International Council on Combustion Engines | Conseil International des Machines à Combustion ), [ 17 ] or the modern Olympic Games in 1894 [ 18 ] which was then moved to Lausanne, Switzerland. tourism recovered in the Paris region in 2021, increasing to 22.6 million visitors, thirty percentage more than in 2020, but still well below 2019 levels. The phone number of visitors from the United States increased by 237 percentage over 2020. [ 19 ] Museums re-opened in 2021, with limitations on the number of visitors at a meter and a prerequisite that visitors wear masks. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby marriage cabaret Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbor commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual french Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red cadaver of Roland Garros. The city hosted the Olympic Games in 1900, 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, a well as the 1960, 1984 and 2016 UEFA European Championships were besides held in the city. Every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes on the Avenue des Champs-Élysées in Paris .

etymology [edit ]

See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in respective languages early than english and french. The ancient oppidum that corresponds to the advanced city of Paris was beginning mentioned in the mid-1st hundred BC by Julius Caesar as Luteciam Parisiorum ( ‘ Lutetia of the Parisii ‘ ) , and is later attested as Parision in the fifth hundred AD, then as Paris in 1265. [ 21 ] During the Roman period, it was normally known as Lutetia or Lutecia in Latin, and as Leukotekía in Greek, which is interpreted as either stemming from the celtic root *lukot- ( ‘mouse ‘ ), or from * luto- ( ‘marsh, swamp ‘ ), depending on whether the Latin or greek shape is the closest to the master Gaulish name. [ 21 ] The identify Paris is derived from its early inhabitants, the Parisii ( Gaulish : Parisioi ), a Gallic tribe from the Iron Age and the Roman period. The mean of the Gaulish ethnonym remains debated. According to Xavier Delamarre, it may derive from the celtic root pario- ( ‘cauldron ‘ ). Alfred Holder interpreted the name as ‘the makers ‘ or ‘the commanders ‘, by comparing it to the Welsh peryff ( ‘lord, commander ‘ ), both possibly descending from a Proto-Celtic shape reconstructed as * kwar-is-io -. alternatively, Pierre-Yves Lambert proposed to translate Parisii as the ‘spear people ‘, by connecting the first component to the Old Irish carr ( ‘spear ‘ ), derived from an earlier * kwar-sā. [ 21 ] In any case, the city ‘s name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is frequently referred to as the ‘City of Light ‘ ( La Ville Lumière ), both because of its run character during the Age of Enlightenment and more literally because Paris was one of the inaugural large european cities to use gas street lighting on a grand piano scale on its boulevards and monuments. Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carrousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were light. [ 27 ] By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late nineteenth hundred, Paris has besides been known as Panam(e) ( pronounce [ panam ] ) in french slang. Inhabitants are known in English as “ Parisians ” and in French as Parisiens ( [ paʁizjɛ̃ ] ( ) ). They are besides pejoratively called Parigots ( [ paʁiɡo ] ( ) ). [ eminence 1 ]

history [edit ]

Origins [edit ]

The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the center of the third century BC. One of the area ‘s major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité ; this meet place of bring and water trade routes gradually became an important trade concentrate. The Parisii traded with many river towns ( some as far aside as the Iberian Peninsula ) and minted their own coins for that function .
amber coins minted by the Parisii ( first century BC ) The Romans conquered the Paris Basin in 52 BC and began their village on Paris ‘s Left Bank. The Roman township was originally called Lutetia ( more in full, Lutetia Parisiorum, “ Lutetia of the Parisii ”, advanced french Lutèce ). It became a golden city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheater. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a latin name that would late become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the third hundred AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris : according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the mound which became known as Mons Martyrum ( Latin “ Hill of Martyrs ” ), later “ Montmartre “, from where he walked brainless to the north of the city ; the place where he fell and was buried became an crucial religious enshrine, the Basilica of Saint-Denis, and many french kings are buried there. Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. [ 39 ] As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the parisian Francien dialects were born. fortification of the Île de la Cité failed to avert sack by Vikings in 845, but Paris ‘s strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defense in the Siege of Paris ( 885–886 ), for which the then Count of Paris ( comte de Paris ), Odo of France, was elected king of West Francia. From the capetian dynasty that began with the 987 election of Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks ( duc des Francs ), as king of a unite West Francia, Paris gradually became the largest and most booming city in France .

high and late Middle Ages to Louis fourteen [edit ]

By the conclusion of the twelfth century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France. The Palais de la Cité, the royal residence, was located at the westerly end of the Île de la Cité. In 1163, during the reign of Louis VII, Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris, undertook the construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral at its easterly extremity. After the marsh between the river Seine and its slower ‘dead sleeve ‘ to its north was filled in from around the tenth hundred, Paris ‘s cultural center began to move to the Right Bank. In 1137, a newfangled city market ( today ‘s Les Halles ) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la Cité and Place de Grève ( Place de l’Hôtel de Ville ). The latter placement housed the headquarters of Paris ‘s river barter corporation, an organization that late became, unofficially ( although formally in late years ), Paris ‘s first municipal government. In the late twelfth hundred, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its beginning walls between 1190 and 1215, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its independent thoroughfares. In 1190, he transformed Paris ‘s former cathedral school into a student-teacher pot that would become the University of Paris and would draw students from all of Europe. With 200,000 inhabitants in 1328, Paris, then already the das kapital of France, was the most populous city of Europe. By comparison, London in 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants. [ 46 ] The Hôtel de Sens, one of many remnants of the Middle Ages in Paris During the Hundred Years ‘ War, Paris was occupied by England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry V of England entered the french capital in 1420 ; [ 47 ] in malice of a 1429 feat by Joan of Arc to liberate the city, it would remain under english occupation until 1436. In the belated 16th-century french Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic League, the organisers of 24 August 1572 St. Bartholomew ‘s Day massacre in which thousands of french Protestants were killed. [ 49 ] The conflicts ended when pretender to the throne Henry IV, after converting to Catholicism to gain submission to the capital, entered the city in 1594 to claim the pate of France. This king made several improvements to the das kapital during his reign : he completed the construction of Paris ‘s first exposed, sidewalk-lined bridge, the Pont Neuf, built a Louvre extension connecting it to the Tuileries Palace, and created the foremost Paris residential square, the Place Royale, now Place des Vosges. In hurt of Henry IV ‘s efforts to improve city circulation, the narrowness of Paris ‘s streets was a put up component in his character assassination near Les Halles market in 1610. During the seventeenth hundred, Cardinal Richelieu, head minister of Louis XIII, was determined to make Paris the most beautiful city in Europe. He built five newly bridges, a modern chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais-Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII. After Richelieu ‘s death in 1642, it was renamed the Palais-Royal. due to the parisian uprisings during the Fronde civil war, Louis XIV moved his court to a new palace, Versailles, in 1682. Although no longer the das kapital of France, arts and sciences in the city flourished with the Comédie-Française, the Academy of Painting, and the french Academy of Sciences. To demonstrate that the city was dependable from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands Boulevards of nowadays. early marks of his reign were the Collège des Quatre-Nations, the Place Vendôme, the Place des Victoires, and Les Invalides .

18th and 19th centuries [edit ]

Paris grew in population from about 400,000 in 1640 to 650,000 in 1780. [ 55 ] A modern avenue, the Champs-Élysées, extended the city west to Étoile, while the wage-earning neighborhood of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine on the easterly site of the city grew more and more crowd with poor migrant workers from other regions of France .
Paris was the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific bodily process known as the Age of Enlightenment. Diderot and d’Alembert published their Encyclopédie in 1751, and the Montgolfier Brothers launched the foremost manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la Muette. Paris was the fiscal capital of continental Europe, the elementary european center of book publication and fashion and the fabrication of all right furniture and lavishness goods. In the summer of 1789, Paris became the kernel stage for the french Revolution. On 14 July, a mob seized the armory at the Invalides, acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority. The first independent Paris Commune, or city council, met in the Hôtel de Ville and, on 15 July, elected a Mayor, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly. Louis XVI and the royal family were brought to Paris and made prisoners within the Tuileries Palace. In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined ( executed ) in the Reign of Terror, along with more than 16,000 others throughout France. The property of the gentry and the church was nationalised, and the city ‘s churches were closed, sold or demolished. A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris until 9 November 1799 ( coup d’état du 18 brumaire ), when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul. The population of Paris had dropped by 100,000 during the Revolution, but between 1799 and 1815, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000. Napoleon Bonaparte replaced the elective government of Paris with a prefect reporting only to him. He began erecting monuments to military glory, including the Arc de Triomphe, and improved the fail infrastructure of the city with new fountains, the Canal de l’Ourcq, Père Lachaise Cemetery and the city ‘s first metal bridge, the Pont des Arts .
The Eiffel Tower, under construction in November 1888, startled Parisians — and the global — with its modernity. During the Restoration, the bridges and squares of Paris were returned to their pre-Revolution names ; the July Revolution in 1830 ( commemorated by the July Column on the Place de la Bastille ) brought a built-in monarch, Louis Philippe I, to office. The inaugural railroad track line to Paris opened in 1837, beginning a raw time period of massive migration from the provinces to the city. Louis-Philippe was overthrown by a popular originate in the streets of Paris in 1848. His successor, Napoleon III, alongside the newly appointed prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, launched a gigantic public works stick out to build wide-eyed new boulevards, a new opera house, a cardinal marketplace, new aqueducts, sewers and parks, including the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. In 1860, Napoleon III besides annexed the surround towns and created eight new arrondissements, expanding Paris to its current limits. During the Franco-Prussian War ( 1870–1871 ), Paris was besieged by the prussian Army. After months of blockade, hunger, and then barrage by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January 1871. On 28 March, a revolutionist government called the Paris Commune seized ability in Paris. The Commune held power for two months, until it was gratingly suppressed by the french united states army during the “ Bloody Week “ at the end of May 1871. late in the nineteenth century, Paris hosted two major international expositions : the 1889 Universal Exposition, was held to mark the centennial of the french Revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower ; and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which gave Paris the Pont Alexandre III, the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais and the first base Paris Métro line. Paris became the testing ground of Naturalism ( Émile Zola ) and Symbolism ( Charles Baudelaire and Paul Verlaine ), and of Impressionism in art ( Courbet, Manet, Monet, Renoir ) .

20th and 21st centuries [edit ]

By 1901, the population of Paris had grown to about 2,715,000. At the beginning of the hundred, artists from around the global including Pablo Picasso, Modigliani, and Henri Matisse made Paris their home. It was the birthplace of Fauvism, Cubism and abstract art, [ 70 ] and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring raw approaches to literature. During the First World War, Paris sometimes found itself on the front agate line ; 600 to 1,000 Paris taxis played a minor but highly significant symbolic function in transporting 6,000 soldiers to the front occupation at the First Battle of the Marne. The city was besides bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by german long-range guns. In the years after the war, known as Les Années Folles, Paris continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the universe, including Ernest Hemingway, Igor Stravinsky, James Joyce, Josephine Baker, Eva Kotchever, Henry Miller, Anaïs Nin, Sidney Bechet [ 73 ] Allen Ginsberg [ 74 ] and the surrealist Salvador Dalí. [ 75 ] In the years after the peace conference, the city was besides home to growing numbers of students and activists from french colonies and other asian and african countries, who late became leaders of their countries, such as Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai and Léopold Sédar Senghor. [ 76 ] General Charles de Gaulle on the Champs-Élysées celebrating the liberation of Paris, 26 August 1944 On 14 June 1940, the german army marched into Paris, which had been declared an “ open city “. On 16–17 July 1942, following german orders, the french patrol and gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews, including 4,115 children, and confined them during five days at the Vel d’Hiv ( Vélodrome d’Hiver ), from which they were transported by string to the extinction camp at Auschwitz. none of the children came rear. On 25 August 1944, the city was liberated by the french 2nd Armoured Division and the 4th Infantry Division of the United States Army. General Charles de Gaulle led a huge and emotional crowd down the Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris, and made a rousing address from the Hôtel de Ville. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Paris became one front of the Algerian War for independence ; in August 1961, the pro-independence FLN targeted and killed 11 Paris policemen, leading to the imposition of a curfew on Muslims of Algeria ( who, at that fourth dimension, were french citizens ). On 17 October 1961, an unauthorized but passive protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the patrol and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine. The anti-independence Organisation armée secrète ( OAS ), for their separate, carried out a series of bombings in Paris throughout 1961 and 1962. [ 81 ] In May 1968, protesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the latin quarter. Thousands of parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the campaign grew into a two-week general strike. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority. The May 1968 events in France resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 mugwump campuses. In 1975, the National Assembly changed the status of Paris to that of other french cities and, on 25 March 1977, Jacques Chirac became the first elective mayor of Paris since 1793. The Tour Maine-Montparnasse, the tallest build in the city at 57 storeys and 210 metres ( 689 feet ) high, was built between 1969 and 1973. It was highly controversial, and it remains the entirely build in the kernel of the city over 32 storeys high. The population of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 in 1954 to 2,152,000 in 1990, as middle-class families moved to the suburb. A suburban railway network, the RER ( Réseau Express Régional ), was built to complement the Métro ; the Périphérique expressway encircling the city, was completed in 1973. Most of the postwar ‘s Presidents of the Fifth Republic wanted to leave their own monuments in Paris ; President Georges Pompidou started the Centre Georges Pompidou ( 1977 ), Valéry Giscard d’Estaing began the Musée d’Orsay ( 1986 ) ; President François Mitterrand, in might for 14 years, built the Opéra Bastille ( 1985–1989 ), the new web site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France ( 1996 ), the Arche de la Défense ( 1985–1989 ), and the Louvre Pyramid with its metro court ( 1983–1989 ) ; Jacques Chirac ( 2006 ), the Musée du quai Branly .
western Paris in 2016, as photographed by a SkySat satellite. In the early twenty-first hundred, the population of Paris began to increase lento again, as more youthful people moved into the city. It reached 2.25 million in 2011. In March 2001, Bertrand Delanoë became the first Socialist Mayor of Paris. In 2007, in an effort to reduce car traffic in the city, he introduced the Vélib ‘, a system which rents bicycles for the manipulation of local residents and visitors. Bertrand Delanoë besides transformed a section of the highway along the Left Bank of the Seine into an urban promenade and parking lot, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine, which he inaugurated in June 2013. [ 89 ] In 2007, President Nicolas Sarkozy launched the Grand Paris undertaking, to integrate Paris more closely with the towns in the region around it. After many modifications, the newfangled area, named the Metropolis of Grand Paris, with a population of 6.7 million, was created on 1 January 2016. [ 90 ] In 2011, the City of Paris and the national government approved the plans for the Grand Paris Express, totalling 205 kilometres ( 127 miles ) of automated metro lines to connect Paris, the inmost three departments around Paris, airports and high-speed rail ( TGV ) stations, at an calculate monetary value of €35 billion. [ 91 ] The arrangement is scheduled to be completed by 2030. [ 92 ] Anti-terrorism demonstration on the Place de la République after the Charlie Hebdo shoot, 11 January 2015 In January 2015, Al-Qaeda in the arabian Peninsula claimed attacks across the Paris region. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] 1.5 million people marched in Paris in a show of solidarity against terrorism and in digest of exemption of actor’s line. [ 95 ] In November of the lapp year, terrorist attacks, claimed by ISIL, [ 96 ] killed 130 people and injured more than 350. [ 97 ]

geography [edit ]

placement [edit ]

Satellite effigy of Paris by Sentinel-2 Paris is located in northerly central France, in a north-bending bow of the river Seine whose crest includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. The river ‘s mouth on the english Channel ( La Manche ) is about 233 mi ( 375 kilometer ) downstream from the city. The city is go around wide on both banks of the river. [ 98 ] Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest point is 35 thousand ( 115 foot ) above ocean horizontal surface. Paris has respective outstanding hills, the highest of which is Montmartre at 130 m ( 427 foot ). Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, Paris covers an ellipse measure about 87 km2 ( 34 sq secret intelligence service ) in area, enclosed by the 35 kilometer ( 22 nautical mile ) ring road, the Boulevard Périphérique. The city ‘s last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but besides created the 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements ( municipal borough ). From the 1860 area of 78 km2 ( 30 sq mi ), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km2 ( 33.6 sq nautical mile ) in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were formally annexed to the city, bringing its area to about 105 km2 ( 41 sq mile ). [ 101 ] The metropolitan area of the city is 2,300 km2 ( 890 sq nautical mile ). [ 98 ] Measured from the ‘point zero ‘ in front of its Notre-Dame cathedral, Paris by road is 450 kilometres ( 280 mile ) southeast of London, 287 kilometres ( 178 mi ) south of Calais, 305 kilometres ( 190 secret intelligence service ) southwest of Brussels, 774 kilometres ( 481 nautical mile ) north of Marseille, 385 kilometres ( 239 security service ) northeast of Nantes, and 135 kilometres ( 84 mile ) southeast of Rouen. [ 102 ]

climate [edit ]

Autumn in Paris Paris has a distinctive western european oceanic climate ( Köppen : Cfb ), which is affected by the North Atlantic Current. The overall climate throughout the class is mild and moderately besotted. [ 103 ] Summer days are normally ardent and pleasant with modal temperatures between 15 and 25 °C ( 59 and 77 °F ), and a clean sum of sunlight. Each year, however, there are a few days when the temperature rises above 32 °C ( 90 °F ). Longer periods of more acute inflame sometimes occur, such as the hotness wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C ( 86 °F ) for weeks, reached 40 °C ( 104 °F ) on some days and rarely cooled down at night. spring and fall have, on average, meek days and bracing nights but are changing and fluid. amazingly strong or cool weather occurs frequently in both seasons. [ 106 ] In winter, sunlight is scarce ; days are cool, and nights are cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C ( 37 °F ). [ 107 ] Light night frosts are however quite common, but the temperature seldom dips below −5 °C ( 23 °F ). Snow falls every year, but rarely stays on the prime. The city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accretion. [ 108 ] Paris has an average annual precipitation of 641 millimeter ( 25.2 in ), and experiences light rain distributed evenly throughout the year. however, the city is known for intermittent, abrupt, heavy showers. The highest record temperature was 42.6 °C ( 108.7 °F ) on 25 July 2019, [ 109 ] and the lowest was −23.9 °C ( −11.0 °F ) on 10 December 1879. [ 110 ]

SEE ALSO  Paul Klee - Wikipedia
Climate data for Paris (Parc Montsouris), elevation: 75 m (246 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1872–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.1
(61.0)
21.4
(70.5)
26.0
(78.8)
30.2
(86.4)
34.8
(94.6)
37.6
(99.7)
42.6
(108.7)
39.5
(103.1)
36.2
(97.2)
28.9
(84.0)
21.6
(70.9)
17.1
(62.8)
42.6
(108.7)
Average high °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
8.3
(46.9)
12.2
(54.0)
15.6
(60.1)
19.6
(67.3)
22.7
(72.9)
25.2
(77.4)
25.0
(77.0)
21.1
(70.0)
16.3
(61.3)
10.8
(51.4)
7.5
(45.5)
16.0
(60.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
5.6
(42.1)
8.8
(47.8)
11.5
(52.7)
15.2
(59.4)
18.3
(64.9)
20.5
(68.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.9
(62.4)
13.0
(55.4)
8.3
(46.9)
5.5
(41.9)
12.4
(54.3)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
2.8
(37.0)
5.3
(41.5)
7.3
(45.1)
10.9
(51.6)
13.8
(56.8)
15.8
(60.4)
15.7
(60.3)
12.7
(54.9)
9.6
(49.3)
5.8
(42.4)
3.4
(38.1)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low °C (°F) −14.6
(5.7)
−14.7
(5.5)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.1
(37.6)
2.7
(36.9)
6.3
(43.3)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
−14.0
(6.8)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−23.9
(−11.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.0
(2.01)
41.2
(1.62)
47.6
(1.87)
51.8
(2.04)
63.2
(2.49)
49.6
(1.95)
62.3
(2.45)
52.7
(2.07)
47.6
(1.87)
61.5
(2.42)
51.1
(2.01)
57.8
(2.28)
637.4
(25.09)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 9.9 9.0 10.6 9.3 9.8 8.4 8.1 7.7 7.8 9.6 10.0 10.9 111.1
Average snowy days 3.0 3.9 1.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 2.1 11.9
Average relative humidity (%) 83 78 73 69 70 69 68 71 76 82 84 84 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.5 79.2 128.9 166.0 193.8 202.1 212.2 212.1 167.9 117.8 67.7 51.4 1,661.6
Percent possible sunshine 22 28 35 39 42 42 43 49 43 35 26 21 35
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 3 4 6 7 7 6 4 3 1 1 4
Source 1: Meteo France,[111][112] Infoclimat.fr (relative humidity 1961–1990)[113]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (percent sunshine and UV Index)[114]

presidency [edit ]

City politics [edit ]

For about all of its long history, except for a few brief periods, Paris was governed immediately by representatives of the baron, emperor, or president of the united states of France. The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until 1974. For all but 14 months from 1794 to 1977, Paris was the only french commune without a mayor, and therefore had less autonomy than the smallest village. For most of the clock time from 1800 to 1977 ( except briefly in 1848 and 1870–71 ), it was immediately controlled by the departmental prefect ( the prefect of the Seine until 1968, and the prefect of Paris from 1968 to 1977 ). The first mod elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac, elected 20 March 1977, becoming the city ‘s first mayor since 1871 and only the fourthly since 1794. The current mayor is Anne Hidalgo, a socialist, inaugural elected 5 April 2014 [ 116 ] and re-elected 28 June 2020. [ 117 ] The mayor of Paris is elected indirectly by Paris voters ; the voters of each of the city ‘s 20 arrondissements chosen members to the Conseil de Paris ( Council of Paris ), which subsequently elects the mayor. The council is composed of 163 members, with each arrondissement allocated a act of seats dependent upon its population, from 10 members for each of the least-populated arrondissements ( 1st through 9th ) to 34 members for the most populated ( the 15th ). The council is elected using closed list proportional representation in a two-round arrangement. [ 118 ] Party lists winning an absolute majority in the first attack – or at least a battalion in the second rung – mechanically win half the seats of an arrondissement. [ 118 ] The remaining half of seats are distributed proportionately to all lists which win at least 5 % of the vote using the highest averages method. [ 119 ] This ensures that the winning party or coalition always wins a majority of the seats, even if they do n’t win an absolute majority of the vote. [ 118 ] The Hôtel de Ville, or city dormitory, has been at the like web site since 1357. once elected, the council plays a largely passive voice function in the city government, primarily because it meets only once a month. The council is divided between a alliance of the leave of 91 members, including the socialists, communists, greens, and extreme leave ; and 71 members for the centre-right, plus a few members from smaller parties. [ 120 ] [ needs update ] Each of Paris ‘s 20 arrondissements has its own town hall and a directly elected council ( conseil d’arrondissement ), which, in turn, elects an arrondissement mayor. The council of each arrondissement is composed of members of the Conseil de Paris and besides members who serve only on the council of the arrondissement. The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population. There are a sum of 20 arrondissement mayors and 120 deputy mayors. The budget of the city for 2018 is 9.5 billion Euros, with an expected deficit of 5.5 billion Euros. 7.9 billion Euros are designated for city government, and 1.7 billion Euros for investment. The number of city employees increased from 40,000 in 2001 to 55,000 in 2018. The largest part of the investment budget is earmarked for populace housing ( 262 million Euros ) and for very estate ( 142 million Euros ). [ 122 ]

Métropole du Grand Paris [edit ]

A map of the Greater Paris Metropolis ( Métropole du Grand Paris ) and its govern territories. The Métropole du Grand Paris, or just Grand Paris, formally came into universe on 1 January 2016. [ 123 ] It is an administrative social organization for co-operation between the City of Paris and its nearest suburb. It includes the City of Paris, plus the communes of the three departments of the inner suburbs ( Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne ), plus seven communes in the knocked out suburb, including Argenteuil in Val d’Oise and Paray-Vieille-Poste in Essonne, which were added to include the major airports of Paris. The Metropole covers 814 square kilometres ( 314 square miles ) and has a population of 6.945 million persons. [ 124 ] [ 125 ] The newfangled structure is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210 members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the member Communes. By 2020 its basic competencies will include urban planning, house and protective covering of the environment. [ 123 ] [ 125 ] The first president of the united states of the metropolitan council, Patrick Ollier, a Republican and the mayor of the township of Rueil-Malmaison, was elected on 22 January 2016. Though the Metropole has a population of about seven million people and accounts for 25 percentage of the GDP of France, it has a very little budget : just 65 million Euros, compared with eight billion Euros for the City of Paris. [ 126 ]

regional politics [edit ]

The Region of Île de France, including Paris and its encompassing communities, is governed by the Regional Council, which has its headquarter in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is composed of 209 members representing the different communes within the region. On 15 December 2015, a tilt of candidates of the Union of the Right, a coalition of centrist and rightist parties, led by Valérie Pécresse, narrowly won the regional election, defeating a coalescence of Socialists and ecologists. The Socialists had governed the area for seventeen years. The regional council has 121 members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme correct National Front. [ 127 ]

National government [edit ]

As the capital of France, Paris is the seat of France ‘s national politics. For the executive, the two foreman officers each have their own official residences, which besides serve as their offices. The President of the french Republic resides at the Élysée Palace in the 8th arrondissement, [ 128 ] while the Prime Minister ‘s seat is at the Hôtel Matignon in the 7th arrondissement. [ 129 ] Government ministries are located in assorted parts of the city ; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near the Hôtel Matignon. Both houses of the french Parliament are located on the Rive Gauche. The upper theater, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement, while the more crucial lower house, the National Assembly, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. The President of the Senate, the second-highest populace official in France ( the President of the Republic being the sole superior ), resides in the Petit Luxembourg, a smaller palace annex to the Palais du Luxembourg. [ 132 ] France ‘s highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation, the highest motor hotel in the judicial arrange, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité, [ 134 ] while the Conseil d’État, which provides legal advice to the administrator and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement. [ 135 ] The Constitutional Council, an advisory consistency with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and politics decrees, besides meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal. [ 136 ] Paris and its area host the headquarters of several external organisations including UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris Club, the european Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau, and the International Federation for Human Rights. Following the motto “ alone Paris is worthy of Rome ; only Rome is worthy of Paris ” ; [ 137 ] the entirely sister city of Paris is Rome, although Paris has partnership agreements with many early cities around the populace. [ 137 ]

Police force [edit ]

Police ( Gendarmerie ) motorcyclists in Paris The security of Paris is chiefly the province of the prefecture of Police of Paris, a subsection of the Ministry of the Interior. It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is besides responsible for providing hand brake services, including the Paris Fire Brigade. Its headquarter is on Place Louis Lépine on the Île de la Cité. [ 138 ] There are 30,200 officers under the prefecture, and a evanesce of more than 6,000 vehicles, including patrol cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters. [ 138 ] The home patrol has its own particular unit for riot operate and crowd command and security of public buildings, called the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité ( CRS ), a unit formed in 1944 proper after the dismissal of France. Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the center of the city when there are demonstrations and public events. The patrol are supported by the National Gendarmerie, a outgrowth of the french Armed Forces, though their police operations immediately are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. The traditional kepi of the gendarmes were replaced in 2002 with caps, and the coerce modernised, though they hush wear kepis for ceremony occasions. [ 139 ] crime in Paris is similar to that in most large cities. violent crime is relatively rare in the city center. political ferocity is rare, though identical big demonstrations may occur in Paris and early french cities simultaneously. These demonstrations, normally managed by a potent police bearing, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence. [ 140 ]

cityscape [edit ]

Panorama of Paris as seen from the Eiffel Tower in a wax 360-degree view ( river flowing from northeast to southwest, right to left )

Urbanism and architecture [edit ]

Paris is one of the few populace capitals that has rarely seen end by catastrophe or war. For this, even its earliest history is still visible in its streetmap, and centuries of rulers adding their respective architectural marks on the capital has resulted in an accrued wealth of history-rich monuments and buildings whose beauty played a big separate in giving the city the repute it has today. [ 141 ] At its origin, before the Middle Ages, the city was composed of respective islands and sandbanks in a deflect of the Seine ; of those, two remain today : Île Saint-Louis and the Île de la Cité. A one-third one is the 1827 artificially created Île aux Cygnes. mod Paris owes a lot of its business district plan and architectural harmony to Napoleon III and his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. Between 1853 and 1870 they rebuilt the city center, created the wide business district boulevards and squares where the boulevards intersected, imposed standard facades along the boulevards, and required that the facades be built of the classifiable cream-grey “ Paris rock “. They besides built the major parks around the city centre. [ 142 ] The high residential population of its city center besides makes it much different from most other western major cities .
Paris ‘s urbanism laws have been under stern control since the early seventeenth hundred, [ 144 ] particularly where street-front conjunction, building stature and build distribution is concerned. In late developments, a 1974–2010 build height limitation of 37 metres ( 121 foot ) was raised to 50 m ( 160 foot ) in central areas and 180 metres ( 590 foot ) in some of Paris ‘s peripheral quarters, however for some of the city ‘s more cardinal quarters, even older building-height laws still remain in effect. [ 144 ] The 210 metres ( 690 foot ) Tour Montparnasse was both Paris ‘s and France ‘s tallest build since 1973, [ 145 ] but this record has been held by the La Défense quarter Tour First tower in Courbevoie since its 2011 construction. parisian examples of historic architectural styles date back more than a millennium, including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés ( 1014–1163 ), the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint-Denis ( 1144 ), the Notre Dame Cathedral ( 1163–1345 ), the Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle ( 1239–1248 ), the Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis ( 1627–1641 ) and Les Invalides ( 1670–1708 ). The nineteenth century produced the neoclassic church of La Madeleine ( 1808–1842 ), the Palais Garnier serving as an opera house ( 1875 ), the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur ( 1875–1919 ), deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the ebullient Belle Époque modernity of the Eiffel Tower ( 1889 ). Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano ( 1977 ), the Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie by respective architects ( 1986 ), the Arab World Institute by Jean Nouvel ( 1987 ), the Louvre Pyramid by I. M. Pei ( 1989 ) and the Opéra Bastille by Carlos Ott ( 1989 ). contemporary computer architecture includes the Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac by Jean Nouvel ( 2006 ), the contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation by Frank Gehry ( 2014 ) [ 146 ] and the modern Tribunal de grande case de Paris by Renzo Piano ( 2018 ) .

Housing [edit ]

The most expensive residential streets in Paris in 2018 by average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne ( 8th arrondissement ), at 22,372 euros per straight meter ; Place Dauphine ( 1st arrondissement ; 20,373 euro ) and the Rue de Furstemberg ( 6th arrondissement ) at 18,839 euros per square meter. [ 147 ] The entire count of residences in the City of Paris in 2011 was 1,356,074, up from a early gamey of 1,334,815 in 2006. Among these, 1,165,541 ( 85.9 percentage ) were chief residences, 91,835 ( 6.8 percentage ) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percentage were empty ( down from 9.2 percentage in 2006 ). [ 148 ] sixty-two percentage of its buildings date from 1949 and before, 20 percentage were built between 1949 and 1974, and only 18 percentage of the buildings remaining were built after that go steady. [ 149 ] Two-thirds of the city ‘s 1.3 million residences are studio apartment and two-room apartments. Paris averages 1.9 people per mansion, a number that has remained changeless since the 1980s, but it is a lot less than Île-de-France ‘s 2.33 person-per-residence average. entirely 33 percentage of star residence Parisians own their habitation ( against 47 percentage for the stallion Île-de-France ) : the major share of the city ‘s population is a rent-paying matchless. [ 149 ] Social or populace house represented 19.9 percentage of the city ‘s total residences in 2017. Its distribution varies wide throughout the city, from 2.6 percentage of the house in the affluent 7th arrondissement, to 24 percentage in the twentieth arrondissement, 26 percentage in the 14th arrondissement and 39.9 percentage in the 19th arrondissement, on the poor southwesterly and northern edges of the city. [ 150 ] On the night of 8–9 February 2019, during a period of cold weather, a Paris NGO conducted its annual citywide count of homeless persons. They counted 3,641 homeless persons in Paris, of whom twelve percentage were women. More than one-half had been homeless for more than a year. 2,885 were living in the streets or parks, 298 in educate and metro stations, and 756 in early forms of temp shelter. This was an increase of 588 persons since 2018. [ 151 ]

Paris and its suburb [edit ]

Paris and its suburb, as seen from the Spot Satellite West of Paris seen from Tour Montparnasse in 2019 aside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Paris heliport, Paris ‘s administrative limits have remained unaltered since 1860. A greater administrative Seine department had been governing Paris and its suburbs since its universe in 1790, but the rising suburban population had made it unmanageable to maintain as a unique entity. To address this problem, the parent “ District de la région parisienne ” ( ‘district of the Paris region ‘ ) was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 : Paris became a department in itself, and the administration of its suburb was divided between the three raw departments surrounding it. The district of the Paris region was renamed “ Île-de-France “ in 1977, but this abbreviated “ Paris region ” name is still normally used today to describe the Île-de-France, and as a obscure address to the entire Paris agglomeration. [ 152 ] Long-intended measures to unite Paris with its suburbs began on 1 January 2016, when the Métropole du Grand Paris came into being. [ 123 ] Paris ‘s gulf with its suburbs, its miss of suburban transportation system, in finical, became all besides apparent with the Paris agglomeration ‘s growth. Paul Delouvrier promised to resolve the Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of the Paris region in 1961 : two of his most ambitious projects for the Region were the construction of five suburban “ villes nouvelles ” ( “ new cities ” ) and the RER commuter coach net. many other suburban residential districts ( grands ensembles ) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a quickly expanding population : These districts were socially desegregate at first, but few residents actually owned their homes ( the growing economy made these accessible to the in-between classes lone from the 1970s ). [ 158 ] Their poor structure timbre and their haphazard interpolation into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities. [ 158 ] These areas, quartiers sensibles ( “ sensitive quarters ” ), are in northerly and easterly Paris, namely around its Goutte d’Or and Belleville neighbourhoods. To the north of the city, they are grouped chiefly in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, and to a lesser extreme point to the east in the Val-d’Oise department. other difficult areas are located in the Seine valley, in Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes ( Essonne ), in Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie ( Yvelines ), and scattered among sociable caparison districts created by Delouvrier ‘s 1961 “ ville nouvelle ” political first step. [ 159 ] The Paris agglomeration ‘s urban sociology is basically that of 19th-century Paris : its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. The remaining areas are by and large middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due to reasons of diachronic importance, namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés to the east and Enghien-les-Bains to the north of Paris. [ 160 ]

Demographics [edit ]

The official estimated population of the City of Paris was 2,165,423 on 1 January 2022, according to the INSEE, the official french statistical agency. This was a worsen of 11,000 from January 2021, and a drop of 65,000 over six years. [ 163 ] Despite the drop, Paris remains the most densely-populated city in Europe, with 252 residents per hectare, not counting parks. [ 164 ] This shed was attributed partially to a lower give birth rate, the passing of middle-class residents and the possible personnel casualty of housing in the city due to short-run rentals for tourism. [ 165 ] Paris is the one-fourth largest municipality in the European Union, following Berlin, Madrid and Rome. Eurostat places Paris ( 6.5 million people ) behind London ( 8 million ) and ahead of Berlin ( 3.5 million ), based on the 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls “ urban audited account congress of racial equality cities ”. [ 166 ] City proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2010 The population of Paris nowadays is lower than its diachronic vertex of 2.9 million in 1921. [ 167 ] The principal reasons were a significant refuse in family size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburb between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, eminent economic rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city ‘s population loss came to a impermanent stem at the begin of the twenty-first hundred ; the population increased from 2,125,246 in 1999 to 2,240,621 in 2012, before declining again slightly in 2017, 2018, and again in 2021. [ 168 ] [ 169 ] Paris is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its limits : normally referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine ( a measuring stick of urban sphere ), the Paris agglomeration ‘s population of 10,784,830 in 2017 [ 170 ] made it the largest urban area in the European Union. [ 171 ] City-influenced commuter activeness reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de Paris ( “ urban area ”, but a statistical method acting comparable to a metropolitan area [ 172 ] ), that had a population of 12,628,266 in 2017, [ 173 ] 19 % the population of France, [ 174 ] and the largest metropolitan area in the Eurozone. [ 171 ] According to Eurostat, the EU statistical agency, in 2012 the Commune of Paris was the most densely populate city in the European Union, with 21,616 people per square kilometer within the city limits ( the NUTS-3 statistical area ), ahead of Inner London West, which had 10,374 people per feather kilometer. According to the like census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometer, ranking among the 10 most dumbly populate areas of the EU. [ 175 ] [ verification needed ]

migration [edit ]

According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City of Paris, or 26.2 percentage, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris Region ( Île-de-France ), or 23.4 percentage, were born outside of metropolitan France ( the last figure up from 22.4 % at the 2007 census ). [ 176 ] 26,700 of these in the City of Paris and 210,159 in the Paris Region were people born in oversea France ( more than two-thirds of whom in the french West Indies ) and are consequently not counted as immigrants since they were legally french citizens at parentage. [ 176 ] A foster 103,648 in the City of Paris and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in extraneous countries with french citizenship at birth. [ 176 ] This concerns in particular the many Christians and Jews from North Africa who moved to France and Paris after the times of independence and are not counted as immigrants ascribable to their being born french citizens. The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no french citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under french law. According to the 2012 census, 135,853 residents of the City of Paris were immigrants from Europe, 112,369 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 70,852 from sub-saharan Africa and Egypt, 5,059 from Turkey, 91,297 from Asia ( outside Turkey ), 38,858 from the Americas, and 1,365 from the South Pacific. [ 177 ] note that the immigrants from the Americas and the South Pacific in Paris are vastly outnumbered by migrants from french abroad regions and territories located in these regions of the earth. [ 176 ] In the Paris Region, 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe, 627,078 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 435,339 from sub-saharan Africa and Egypt, 69,338 from Turkey, 322,330 from Asia ( outside Turkey ), 113,363 from the Americas, and 2,261 from the South Pacific. [ 178 ] These last two groups of immigrants are again vastly outnumbered by migrants from french abroad regions and territories located in the Americas and the South Pacific. [ 176 ] [ clarification needed ] In 2012, there were 8,810 british citizens and 10,019 United States citizens know in the City of Paris ( Ville de Paris ) and 20,466 british citizens and 16,408 United States citizens living in the entire Paris Region ( Île-de-France ). [ 179 ] [ 180 ]

religion [edit ]

At the begin of the twentieth hundred, Paris was the largest catholic city in the earth. [ 181 ] french census data does not contain information about religious affiliation. [ 182 ] According to a 2011 survey by the Institut français d’opinion publique ( IFOP ), a french public public opinion research constitution, 61 percentage of residents of the Paris Region ( Île-de-France ) identified themselves as Roman Catholic. In the lapp surveil, 7 percentage of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percentage as Protestants, 2 percentage as jewish and 25 percentage as without religion. According to the INSEE, between 4 and 5 million french residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominantly Muslim state, particularly Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. An IFOP surveil in 2008 reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percentage went to the mosque regularly ; 41 percentage practised the religion, and 34 percentage were believers but did not exercise the religion. [ 183 ] [ 184 ] In 2012 and 2013, it was estimated that there were about 500,000 Muslims in the City of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de-France region and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France. [ 185 ] [ 186 ] The jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in 2014 to be 282,000, the largest concentration of Jews in the universe outside of Israel and the United States. [ 187 ]

International organisations [edit ]

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) has had its headquarters in Paris since November 1958. Paris is besides the home of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ). [ 188 ] Paris hosts the headquarter of the european Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, European Securities and Markets Authority and, since 2019, the European Banking Authority .

economy [edit ]

The economy of the City of Paris is based largely on services and commerce ; of the 390,480 enterprises in the city, 80.6 percentage are engaged in department of commerce, department of transportation, and divers services, 6.5 percentage in construction, and just 3.8 percentage in diligence. [ 190 ] The story is like in the Paris Region ( Île-de-France ) : 76.7 percentage of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percentage in industry. [ 191 ] At the 2012 census, 59.5 % of jobs in the Paris Region were in commercialize services ( 12.0 % in wholesale and retail trade, 9.7 % in professional, scientific, and technical foul services, 6.5 % in data and communication, 6.5 % in transportation and repositing, 5.9 % in finance and insurance, 5.8 % in administrative and support services, 4.6 % in accommodation and food services, and 8.5 % in assorted early market services ), 26.9 % in non-market services ( 10.4 % in human health and sociable work activities, 9.6 % in public administration and defense mechanism, and 6.9 % in education ), 8.2 % in manufacture and utilities ( 6.6 % in fabrication and 1.5 % in utilities ), 5.2 % in construction, and 0.2 % in department of agriculture. [ 192 ] [ 193 ] The Paris Region had 5.4 million compensated employees in 2010, of whom 2.2 million were concentrated in 39 pôles d’emplois or business districts. The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in french as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires ; it is in the westerly character of the City of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements. In 2010, it was the workplace of 500,000 compensable employees, about 30 percentage of the salaried employees in Paris and 10 percentage of those in the Île-de-France. The largest sectors of action in the central business zone were finance and indemnity ( 16 percentage of employees in the district ) and clientele services ( 15 percentage ). The district besides includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, ampere well a government offices and ministries. [ 194 ] The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense, just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. In 2010, it was the workplace of 144,600 employees, of whom 38 percentage worked in finance and indemnity, 16 percentage in business support services. Two early important districts, Neuilly-sur-Seine and Levallois-Perret, are extensions of the Paris business district and of La Défense. Another zone, including Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern contribution of the 15th arrondissement, is a center of bodily process for the media and information engineering. [ 194 ] The acme french companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2021 all have their headquarters in the Paris Region ; six in the central occupation district of the City of Paris ; and four close up to the city in the Hauts-de-Seine Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt. Some companies, like Société Générale, have offices in both Paris and La Défense. The Paris Region is France ‘s go region for economic activity, with a GDP of € 681 billion ( ~US $ 850 billion ) and €56,000 ( ~US $ 70,000 ) per caput. [ 9 ] In 2011, its GDP ranked second among the regions of Europe and its per-capita GDP was the fourth highest in Europe. [ 195 ] [ 196 ] While the Paris region ‘s population accounted for 18.8 percentage of metropolitan France in 2011, [ 197 ] the Paris area ‘s GDP accounted for 30 percentage of metropolitan France ‘s GDP. [ 198 ] The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from diligence to high-value-added service industries ( finance, IT services ) and high-tech manufacture ( electronics, optics, aerospace, etc. ). [ 199 ] The Paris region ‘s most intense economic natural process through the central Hauts-de-Seine department and suburban La Défense occupation district places Paris ‘s economic center to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine. [ 199 ] While the Paris economy is dominated by services, and use in manufacture sector has declined sharply, the region remains an authoritative manufacture center, particularly for aeronautics, automobiles, and “ eco ” industries. [ 199 ] In the 2017 worldwide cost of living view by the Economist Intelligence Unit, based on a view made in September 2016, Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second base most expensive in Europe, after Zurich. [ 200 ] In 2018, Paris was the most expensive city in the world with Singapore and Hong Kong. [ 201 ] Station F is a commercial enterprise incubator for startups, located in 13th arrondissement of Paris. Noted as the worldly concern ‘s largest startup facility. [ 202 ]

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employment [edit ]

employment by economic sector in the Paris area ( petite couronne ), with population and unemployment figures ( 2015 ) According to 2015 INSEE figures, 68.3 percentage of employees in the City of Paris work in commerce, transportation, and services ; 24.5 percentage in populace administration, health and social services ; 4.1 percentage in diligence, and 0.1 percentage in agribusiness. [ 203 ] The majority of Paris ‘s salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements. [ 204 ] Paris ‘s fiscal military service companies are concentrated in the central-western 8th and 9th arrondissement bank and insurance zone. [ 204 ] Paris ‘s department memory district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ ten-spot percentage of by and large female Paris workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail craft. [ 204 ] Fourteen percentage of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals. [ 204 ] Nineteen percentage of Paris employees work for the State in either government or education. The majority of Paris ‘s healthcare and sociable workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements. [ 204 ] Outside Paris, the westerly Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense zone specialising in finance, insurance and scientific research district, employs 144,600, [ 199 ] and the north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms and 10 major film studios. [ 199 ] Paris ‘s manufacture is largely focused in its suburb, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacture workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades. [ 199 ] Paris region fabrication specialises in transportation system, chiefly automobiles, aircraft and trains, but this is in a sharp decline : Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped by 64 percentage between 1990 and 2010, and the Paris region lost 48 percentage during the same period. Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. The Paris region ‘s 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000. [ 199 ] Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers : many of these are centred in the Yvelines department around the Renault and PSA-Citroën plants ( this department entirely employs 33,000 ), [ 199 ] but the diligence as a hale suffered a major loss with the 2014 close of a major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroën assembly plant. [ 199 ] The southern Essonne department specialises in science and engineering, [ 199 ] and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne, with its wholesale Rungis food market, specialises in food action and beverages. [ 199 ] The Paris region ‘s manufacture decline is promptly being replaced by eco-industries : these employ about 100,000 workers. [ 199 ] In 2011, while alone 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris itself, [ 205 ] its metropolitan sphere employed 246,639, [ 203 ] in an natural process centred largely on the Seine-Saint-Denis ( 41,378 ) [ 206 ] and Hauts-de-Seine ( 37,303 ) [ 207 ] departments and the modern business-park centres appearing there.

unemployment [edit ]

THe unemployment rate in Paris in the 4th clean-cut of 2021 was six percentage, compared with 7.2 percentage in the whole ile-de-france, and 7.4 percentage in the solid of France. This was the lowest rate in thirteen years. [ 208 ] [ 209 ]

Incomes [edit ]

median income in Paris and its nearest departments The modal internet family income ( after social, pension and health indemnity contributions ) in Paris was €36,085 for 2011. [ 210 ] It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissement [ 211 ] to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement. [ 212 ] The medial taxable income for 2011 was around €25,000 in Paris and €22,200 for Île-de-France. [ 213 ] Generally public speaking, incomes are higher in the western part of the city and in the western suburbs than in the northern and easterly parts of the urban area. [ 214 ] While Paris has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it besides has some of the poorest, by and large on the eastern side of the city. In 2012, 14 percentage of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. twenty-five percentage of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty pipeline ; 24 percentage in the 18th, 22 percentage in the twentieth and 18 percentage in the tenth. In the city ‘s wealthiest neighborhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percentage lived below the poverty line ; 8 percentage in the 6th arrondissement ; and 9 percentage in the 16th arrondissement. [ 215 ]

tourism [edit ]

Tourists from around the global make the Louvre the most-visited art museum in the earth. Paris received 12.6 million visitors in 2020, measured by hotel stays, a drop of 73 percentage from 2019, due to the COVID-19 virus. The count of foreign visitors declined by 80.7 percentage. [ 216 ] Greater Paris, comprising Paris and its three surrounding departments, received 38 million visitors in 2019, a phonograph record, measured by hotel arrivals. [ 217 ] These included 12.2 million french visitors. Of foreign visitors, the greatest count came from the United States ( 2.6 million ), United Kingdom ( 1.2 million ), Germany ( 981 thousand ) and China ( 711 thousand ). [ 217 ] however, tourism to Paris and its region fell to 17.5 million in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with a 78 percentage drop in alien tourists measured by hotel stays, and a drop of 56 percentage in french guests, for an overall drop curtain of 68 percentage. This caused a drop 15 billion Euros in hotel receipts. [ 218 ] In 2018, measured by the Euromonitor Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the second-busiest airline address in the universe, with 19.10 million visitors, behind Bangkok ( 22.78 million ) but ahead of London ( 19.09 million ). [ 219 ] According to the Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Greater Paris, or 12.4 % of the entire work force, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transportation and leisure. [ 220 ]

Monuments and attractions [edit ]

The city ‘s top cultural attraction in 2019 was the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur ( 11 million visitors ), followed by the Louvre ( 9.6 million visitors ) ; the Eiffel Tower ( 6.1 million visitors ) ; the Centre Pompidou ( 3.5 million visitors ) ; and the Musée d’Orsay ( 3.3 million visitors ). [ 217 ] The kernel of Paris contains the most visit monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral ( immediately closed for restoration ) and the Louvre ampere well as the Sainte-Chapelle ; Les Invalides, where the grave of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank southwest of the center. The Panthéon and the Catacombs of Paris are besides located on the Left Bank of the Seine. The banks of the Seine from the Pont de Sully to the Pont d’Iéna have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991. [ 221 ] early landmarks are laid out east to west along the diachronic axis of Paris, which runs from the Louvre through the Tuileries Garden, the Luxor Column in the Place de la Concorde, and the Arc de Triomphe, to the Grande Arche of La Défense. respective other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburb of the city ; the Basilica of St Denis, in Seine-Saint-Denis, is the birthplace of the Gothic stylus of architecture and the royal cemetery of french kings and queens. [ 222 ] The Paris region hosts three early UNESCO Heritage sites : the Palace of Versailles in the west, [ 223 ] the Palace of Fontainebleau in the confederacy, [ 224 ] and the chivalric fairs locate of Provins in the east. [ 225 ] In the Paris area, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, 32 kilometres ( 20 miles ) east of the center of Paris, received 9.66 million visitors in 2017. [ 226 ]

Hotels [edit ]

In 2019, Greater Paris had 2,056 hotels, including 94 five-star hotels, with a sum of 121,646 rooms. [ 217 ] Paris has long been celebrated for its grand hotels. The Hotel Meurice, opened for british travellers in 1817, was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris. The arrival of the railways and the Paris Exposition of 1855 brought the first gear flood of tourists and the first gear modern deluxe hotels ; the Hôtel du Louvre ( immediately an antiques marketplace ) in 1855 ; the Grand Hotel ( now the InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel ) in 1862 ; and the Hôtel Continental in 1878. The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde in 1909 ; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1925 ; and the Hotel George V in 1928. In addition to hotels, in 2019 Greater Paris had 60,000 homes registered with Airbnb. [ 217 ] Under french jurisprudence, renters of these units must pay the Paris tourism tax. The caller paid the city government 7.3 million euros in 2016. [ 229 ]

polish [edit ]

Painting and sculpture [edit ]

Pierre Mignard, Self-portrait, between 1670 and 1690, oil on canvas, 235 cm × 188 cm (93 in × 74 in), , between 1670 and 1690, vegetable oil on canvas, 235 curium × 188 centimeter ( 93 in × 74 in ), The Louvre For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the earth, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek divine guidance from its huge pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a consequence, Paris has acquired a repute as the “ City of Art ”. italian artists were a fundamental influence on the development of artwork in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in sculpt and easing. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the french monarchy and the french royal family commissioned many parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the french Baroque and Classicism era. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this time period. In 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture ( Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture ) was established to accommodate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. This served as France ‘s acme artwork school until 1793 .
Paris was in its artistic choice in the nineteenth hundred and early twentieth hundred, when it had a colony of artists established in the city and in art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times : Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others. The french Revolution and political and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Géricault. Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism and Art Deco movements all evolved in Paris. In the deep nineteenth hundred, many artists in the french provinces and global flocked to Paris to exhibit their works in the numerous salons and expositions and make a name for themselves. Artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Vincent avant-garde Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani and many others became associated with Paris. Picasso, living in Le Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre, painted his celebrated La Famille de Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d’Avignon between 1905 and 1907. [ 233 ] Montmartre and Montparnasse became centres for artistic production. The most prestigious names of french and alien sculptors, who made their repute in Paris in the modern era, are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi ( Statue of Liberty – Liberty Enlightening the World ), Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel, Antoine Bourdelle, Paul Landowski ( statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro ) and Aristide Maillol. The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars .

photography [edit ]

The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris in 1825. In 1839, after the death of Niépce, Louis Daguerre patented the Daguerrotype, which became the most common phase of photography until the 1860s. The work of Étienne-Jules Marey in the 1880s contributed well to the development of mod photography. photography came to occupy a central character in parisian Surrealist natural process, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard. [ 234 ] numerous photographers achieved fame for their photography of Paris, including Eugène Atget, noted for his depictions of street scenes, Robert Doisneau, noted for his playful pictures of people and marketplace scenes ( among which Le baiser de l’hôtel de ville has become iconic of the romantic vision of Paris ), Marcel Bovis, noted for his night scenes, arsenic well as others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Henri Cartier-Bresson. Poster artwork besides became an important art imprint in Paris in the late nineteenth hundred, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Paul Gavarni and Alphonse Mucha .

Museums [edit ]

Paris Museums were closed for much of 2020, but gradually re-opened in 2021, with limitations on the number of visitors at a time and a necessity that visitors wear masks and show proof of vaccination. The Louvre received 2,8 million visitors in 2021, about the lowest since 1986, but up from 2.7 million in 2020. [ 236 ] Its treasures include the Mona Lisa ( La Joconde ), the Venus de Milo statue, Liberty Leading the People. The second-most visited museum in the city in 2021, with 1.5 million visitors, was the Centre Georges Pompidou, besides known as Beaubourg, which houses the Musée National d’Art Moderne The third most visit Paris museum in 2021 in a construction constructed for the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1900 as the Orsay railway station, was the Musée d’Orsay, which had one million visitors, thirty percentage up from 2020. [ 236 ] The Orsay displays French art of the nineteenth hundred, including major collections of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. The Musée de l’Orangerie, near both the Louvre and the Orsay, besides exhibits Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, including most of Claude Monet ‘s large Water Lilies murals. The Musée national du Moyen Âge, or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval artwork, including the celebrated tapestry motorbike of The Lady and the Unicorn. The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of asian artwork in Europe. There are besides luminary museums devoted to individual artists, including the Musée Picasso, the Musée Rodin and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix .
Paris hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie at La Villette. It attracted 648,828 visitors in 2020. [ 237 ] The National Museum of Natural History located near the Jardin des plantes attracted 879,203 visitors in 2020. [ 238 ] It is celebrated for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections and its Gallery of Evolution. The military history of France, from the Middle Ages to World War II, is vividly presented by displays at the Musée de l’Armée at Les Invalides, near the grave of Napoleon. In addition to the national museums, run by the Ministry of Culture, the City of Paris operates 14 museums, including the Carnavalet Museum on the history of Paris, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Palais de Tokyo, the House of Victor Hugo, the House of Balzac and the Catacombs of Paris. [ 239 ] There are besides luminary secret museums ; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne .

dramaturgy [edit ]

The largest opera houses of Paris are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier ( historic Paris Opéra ) and modern Opéra Bastille ; the erstwhile tends toward the more classical ballets and operas, and the latter provides a desegregate repertory of classical and modern. In middle of the nineteenth hundred, there were three other active and competing opera houses : the Opéra-Comique ( which calm exists ), Théâtre-Italien and Théâtre Lyrique ( which in modern times changed its visibility and name to Théâtre de la Ville ). Philharmonie de Paris, the modern symphonic concert manor hall of Paris, opened in January 2015. Another melodious landmark is the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, where the first performances of Diaghilev ‘s Ballets Russes took stead in 1913 .
Theatre traditionally has occupied a large position in parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors nowadays are besides stars of french television. The oldest and most celebrated Paris dramaturgy is the Comédie-Française, founded in 1680. Run by the Government of France, it performs largely french classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal at 2 rue de Richelieu, adjacent to the Louvre. of early celebrated theatres include the Odéon-Théâtre de l’Europe, adjacent to the Luxembourg Gardens, besides a country institution and theatrical landmark ; the Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse. [ 243 ] The music hall and cabaret are celebrated Paris institutions. The Moulin Rouge was opened in 1889. It was highly visible because of its large crimson fake windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dancing known as the french Cancan. It helped make celebrated the singers Mistinguett and Édith Piaf and the painter Toulouse-Lautrec, who made posters for the venue. In 1911, the dancing manor hall Olympia Paris invented the grand stairway as a decide for its shows, competing with its great rival, the Folies Bergère. Its stars in the 1920s included the american singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Later, Olympia Paris presented Dalida, Edith Piaf, Marlene Dietrich, Miles Davis, Judy Garland and the Grateful Dead. The Casino de Paris presented many celebrated french singers, including Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier and Tino Rossi. other celebrated Paris music halls include Le Lido, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946 ; and the Crazy Horse Saloon, featuring strip-tease, dancing and magic, opened in 1951. A half twelve music halls exist today in Paris, attended by and large by visitors to the city .

literature [edit ]

The first gear book printed in France, Epistolae ( “ Letters ” ), by Gasparinus de Bergamo ( Gasparino da Barzizza ), was published in Paris in 1470 by the press established by Johann Heynlin. Since then, Paris has been the concentrate of the french publication diligence, the home of some of the worldly concern ‘s best-known writers and poets, and the fructify for many classic works of french literature. Almost all the books published in Paris in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than french. Paris did not become the acknowledge capital of french literature until the seventeenth hundred, with authors such as Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Molière, Racine, Charles Perrault, [ 245 ] several coming from the provinces, american samoa well as the foundation of the Académie française. In the eighteenth century, the literary life of Paris revolved around the cafés and salons ; it was dominated by Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pierre de Marivaux and Pierre Beaumarchais. During the nineteenth hundred, Paris was the home and national for some of France ‘s greatest writers, including Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Mérimée, Alfred de Musset, Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Alexandre Dumas, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant and Honoré de Balzac. Victor Hugo ‘s The Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired the renovation of its determine, the Notre-Dame de Paris. [ 247 ] Another of Victor Hugo ‘s works, Les Misérables, written while he was in exile outside France during the Second Empire, described the social change and political tumult in Paris in the early 1830s. [ 248 ] One of the most democratic of all french writers, Jules Verne, worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library. [ 249 ] [ verification needed ] In the twentieth hundred, the Paris literary residential district was dominated by figures such as Colette, André Gide, François Mauriac, André Malraux, Albert Camus, and, after World War II, by Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre. Between the wars it was the home of many significant exile writers, including Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, Miguel Ángel Asturias, Alejo Carpentier and, Arturo Uslar Pietri. The achiever of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature, Patrick Modiano ( who lives in Paris ), based most of his literary ferment on the word picture of the city during World War II and the 1960s–1970s. [ 250 ] Paris is a city of books and bookstores. In the 1970s, 80 percentage of French-language publish houses were found in Paris, about all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas. It is besides a city of humble bookstores. There are about 150 bookstores in the fifth arrondissement alone, plus another 250 book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris bookstores are protected against contest from discount rate booksellers by french law ; books, even e-books, can not be discounted more than five percentage below their publisher ‘s cover price. [ 252 ]

music [edit ]

In the late twelfth century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Among the Trouvères of northern France, a group of parisian aristocrats became known for their poetry and songs. Troubadours, from the south of France, were besides popular. During the reign of François I, in the Renaissance earned run average, the lute became popular in the french court. The french royal family and courtiers “ disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy ”, and a home musical print house was established. In the Baroque-era, noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and François Couperin. The Conservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded in 1795. By 1870, Paris had become an authoritative center for symphony orchestra, ballet and operatic music. Romantic-era composers ( in Paris ) include Hector Berlioz ( La Symphonie fantastique ), Charles Gounod ( Faust ), Camille Saint-Saëns ( Samson et Delilah ), Léo Delibes ( Lakmé ) and Jules Massenet ( Thaïs ), among others. Georges Bizet ‘s Carmen premiered 3 March 1875. Carmen has since become one of the most democratic and frequently-performed operas in the classical music canon. [ 254 ] [ 255 ] Among the Impressionist composers who created modern works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in especial, Claude Debussy ( Suite bergamasque, and its well-known third movement, Clair de lune, La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande ), Erik Satie ( Gymnopédies, “ Je ti veux “, Gnossiennes, Parade ) and Maurice Ravel ( Miroirs, Boléro, La valse, L’heure espagnole ). several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin ( Poland ), Franz Liszt ( Hungary ), Jacques Offenbach ( Germany ), Niccolò Paganini ( Italy ), and Igor Stravinsky ( Russia ), established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works and their influence in Paris .
Bal-musette is a expressive style of french music and dance that foremost became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s ; by 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls in the wage-earning neighbourhoods of the city. Patrons danced the bourrée to the escort of the cabrette ( a bellows -blown bagpipe locally called a “ musette ” ) and much the vielle à rake ( barrel organ ) in the cafés and bars of the city. parisian and italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars specially in the 19th arrondissement, and the romanticist sounds of the accordion has since become one of the melodious icons of the city. Paris became a major center for wind and calm attracts wind musicians from all around the worldly concern to its clubs and cafés. Paris is the apparitional home of itinerant jazz in particular, and many of the parisian jazzmen who developed in the first one-half of the twentieth hundred began by playing Bal-musette in the city. Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having moved to the 18th arrondissement in a van as a young male child, and performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette du Hot Club de France in the 1930s and 1940s. [ 259 ] immediately after the War the Saint-Germain-des-Pres one-fourth and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home plate to many little jazz clubs, by and large found in cellars because of a lack of space ; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most celebrated, Le Tabou. They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, and Henri Salvador. Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock candy and roll. Some of the finest manouche musicians in the universe are found here playing the cafés of the city at night. [ 259 ] Some of the more celebrated jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord. [ 259 ] several annually festivals take station in Paris, including the Paris Jazz Festival and the rock ‘n’ roll festival Rock en Seine. [ 261 ] The Orchestre de Paris was established in 1967. [ 262 ] On 19 December 2015, Paris and early worldwide fans commemorated the hundredth anniversary of the parentage of Edith Piaf —a cabaret singer-songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France ‘s national chanteuse, angstrom well as being one of France ‘s greatest external stars. [ 263 ] other singers—of exchangeable style—include Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, angstrom well as Charles Trenet. Paris has a big pelvis hop scene. This music became popular during the 1980s. [ 264 ] The bearing of a boastfully African and Caribbean community helped to its development, it gave a voice, a political and social condition for many minorities. [ 265 ]

cinema [edit ]

The movie industry was born in Paris when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the inaugural apparent motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895. many of Paris ‘s concert/dance halls were transformed into cinema when the media became popular begin in the 1930s. late, most of the largest film were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris ‘s largest film room today is in the Grand Rex theater with 2,700 seats. [ 267 ]
Big multiplex cinema have been built since the 1990s. UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles with 27 screens, MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens and UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens are among the largest. [ 268 ] Parisians tend to partake the lapp movie-going trends as many of the world ‘s global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment. french cinema comes a finale moment, with major directors ( réalisateurs ) such as Claude Lelouch, Jean-Luc Godard, and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. european and asian films are besides wide shown and appreciated. [ 269 ] On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first gear digital cinema expulsion in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA engineering developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris. [ 270 ] [ 271 ]

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Restaurants and cuisine [edit ]

Dining room of the Vagenende Since the late eighteenth century, Paris has been celebrated for its restaurants and haute cuisine, food meticulously cook and disingenuously presented. A lavishness restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers ; it featured an elegant dine room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters ; it became a model for future Paris restaurants. The restaurant Le Grand Véfour in the Palais-Royal dates from the same time period. The celebrated Paris restaurants of the nineteenth century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were by and large located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens ; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola. Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris today appeared during the Belle Époque, including Maxim ‘s on Rue Royale, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, and the Tour d’Argent on the Quai de la Tournelle. today, due to Paris ‘s cosmopolitan population, every french regional cuisine and about every national cuisine in the earth can be found there ; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants. The Michelin Guide has been a standard steer to french restaurants since 1900, awarding its highest award, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. In 2018, of the 27 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, ten are located in Paris. These include both restaurants which serve classical french cuisine, such as L’Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menu, such as L’Astrance, which combines French and Asian cuisines. respective of France ‘s most celebrated chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire, Alain Ducasse, Yannick Alléno and Alain Passard, have three-star restaurants in Paris. [ 275 ] [ 276 ] In summation to the classical restaurants, Paris has several other kinds of traditional eat places. The café arrived in Paris in the seventeenth hundred, when the beverage was first bring from Turkey, and by the eighteenth hundred parisian cafés were centres of the city ‘s political and cultural animation. The Café Procope on the Left Bank dates from this time period. In the twentieth century, the cafés of the Left Bank, particularly Café de la Rotonde and Le Dôme Café in Montparnasse and Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots on Boulevard Saint Germain, all still in business, were crucial meeting places for painters, writers and philosophers. A bistro is a type of eating place loosely defined as a neighborhood restaurant with a modest interior decoration and prices and a regular clientele and a congenial atmosphere. Its name is said to have come in 1814 from the russian soldiers who occupied the city ; “ bistro ” means “ cursorily ” in russian, and they wanted their meals served quickly so they could get back their camping. real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper cultural restaurants, and different eating habits of parisian diners. A brasserie originally was a tavern located future to a brewery, which served beer and food at any hour. Beginning with the Paris Exposition of 1867 ; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular german costumes for beer. now brasseries, like cafés, serve food and drinks throughout the day .

manner [edit ]

Since the nineteenth century, Paris has been an international fashion capital, particularly in the knowledge domain of haute couture ( clothing hand-made to club for individual clients ). [ 279 ] It is home to some of the largest fashion houses in the earth, including Dior and Chanel, equally well as many early long-familiar and more contemporaneous fashion designers, such as Karl Lagerfeld, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Yves Saint Laurent, Givenchy, and Christian Lacroix. Paris Fashion Week, held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre among other celebrated city locations, is one of the top four events on the international manner calendar. The early fashion capitals of the world, Milan, London, and New York, besides host fashion weeks. [ 280 ] [ 281 ] furthermore, Paris is besides the home of the worldly concern ‘s largest cosmetics caller : L’Oréal angstrom well as three of the clear five global makers of lavishness fashion accessories : Louis Vuitton, Hermés, and Cartier. [ 282 ] Most of the major manner designers have their showrooms along the Avenue Montaigne, between the Champs-Élysées and the Seine .

Holidays and festivals [edit ]

Bastille Day, a celebration of the storm of the Bastille in 1789, the biggest festival in the city, is a military parade taking place every year on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées, from the Arc de Triomphe to Place de la Concorde. It includes a flyover over the Champs Élysées by the Patrouille de France, a parade of military units and equipment, and a display of fireworks in the even, the most dramatic being the one at the Eiffel Tower. Some other annual festivals are Paris-Plages, a gay event that lasts from mid-july to mid-august when the Right Bank of the Seine is converted into a temp beach with sand, deck chairs and decoration trees ; Journées du Patrimoine, Fête de la Musique, Techno Parade, Nuit Blanche, Cinéma au clair de lune, Printemps des rues, Festival d’automne, and Fête des jardins. The Carnaval de Paris, one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages .

education [edit ]

Paris is the département with the highest proportion of highly educated people. In 2009, around 40 percentage of Parisians held a licence -level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France, [ 284 ] while 13 percentage have no diploma, the third-lowest percentage in France. education in Paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions. [ 285 ] The University of Paris, founded in the twelfth hundred, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original chivalric colleges. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the scholar demonstrations in 1968. Most of the campuses today are in the latin quarter where the erstwhile university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburb. The Paris region hosts France ‘s highest concentration of the grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside or inside the public university structure. The esteemed public universities are normally considered grands établissements. Most of the grandes écoles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s, in fresh campuses much larger than the old campuses within the herd City of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure, PSL University has remained on sorrow d’Ulm in the fifth arrondissement. [ 287 ] There are a high number of technology schools, led by the PSL University ( which comprises several colleges such as École des Mines, École nationale supérieure de chimie, École Pratique des Hautes Études and Paris-Dauphine ), the Paris-Saclay University ( which comprises several colleges such as AgroParisTech, CentraleSupélec and ENS Paris-Saclay ) the Polytechnic Institute of Paris ( which comprises several colleges such as École Polytechnique, Télécom Paris and École nationale de la statistique et de l’administration économique ) and besides independent colleges such as École des Ponts et Chaussées or Arts et Métiers. There are besides many business schools, including HEC, INSEAD, ESSEC, and ESCP Europe. While ENA, the school training higher-level civil servants, has been relocated from Paris to Strasbourg, three of the most esteemed social sciences universities, Sciences Po ( 7th arrondissement ), École des hautes études en sciences sociales ( 6th arrondissement ), and Paris-Dauphine ( 16th arrondissement ) are still located in Paris. The parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine. [ 288 ] Paris is besides dwelling to several of France ‘s most celebrated high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri-IV, Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Condorcet. The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical department of education establish and high-level train concentrate for elect athletes .

Libraries [edit ]

The Bibliothèque nationale de France ( BnF ) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library. [ 289 ] There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. The Forney Library, in the Marais zone, is dedicated to the cosmetic arts ; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building, and has a bombastic collection on french literature ; and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, besides in Le Marais, contains the Paris historical research avail. The Sainte-Geneviève Library is in 5th arrondissement ; designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the mid-1800s, it contains a rare book and manuscript division. [ 290 ] Bibliothèque Mazarine, in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections related to music. The François Mitterrand Library ( nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque ) in the 13th arrondissement was completed in 1994 to a blueprint of Dominique Perrault and contains four glass towers. [ 290 ] There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the fifth arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. In addition to the Sorbonne location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d’Art et d’Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques. [ 291 ] other academician libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library. [ 292 ]

Sports [edit ]

Paris ‘s most popular sport clubs are the association football cabaret Paris Saint-Germain F.C. and the rugby union clubs Stade Français and Racing 92, the last of which is based merely outside the city proper. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located good north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis. It is used for football, rugby union and racetrack and field athletics. It hosts the french national football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, annually hosts the french national rugby team ‘s home matches of the Six Nations Championship, and hosts several crucial matches of the Stade Français rugby team. In addition to Paris Saint-Germain F.C., the city has a number of early professional and amateur football clubs : Paris FC, Red Star, RCF Paris and Stade Français Paris .
Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games. The city besides hosted the finals of the 1938 FIFA World Cup ( at the Stade Olympique de Colombes ), a well as the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup Final ( both at the Stade de France ). Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have besides been played in the Stade de France : the 2000 and 2006. [ 294 ] Paris has most recently been the host for UEFA Euro 2016, both at the Parc des Princes in the city proper and besides at Stade de France, with the latter hosting the opening equal and final examination, and will reprise its function for the 2022 Final. [ citation needed ] The final degree of the most celebrated bicycle race in the world, Tour de France, always finishes in Paris. Since 1975, the raceway has finished on the Champs-Elysées. [ 295 ] Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France ; the french Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre, [ 296 ] is one of the four Grand Slam events of the populace professional tennis tour. The 17,000-seat Bercy Arena ( officially named AccorHotels Arena and once known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy ) is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent locate of home and international tournaments in basketball, packing, motorbike, handball, internal-combustion engine ice hockey, show chute and other sports. The Bercy Arena besides hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship, in concert with Cologne, Germany. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1951 and EuroBasket 1999 were besides played in Paris, the latter at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy. The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4,000 capability Stade Pierre de Coubertin. [ 297 ] Another top-level professional team, Nanterre 92, plays in Nanterre .

infrastructure [edit ]

transport [edit ]

Paris is a major vilify, highway, and air out transmit hub. Île-de-France Mobilités ( IDFM ), once the Syndicat des transports d’Île-de-France ( STIF ) and before that the Syndicat des transports parisiens ( STP ), oversees the transit network in the region. [ 298 ] The consortium coordinates populace ecstasy and contracts it out to the RATP ( operating 347 busbar lines, the Métro, eight tramway lines, and sections of the RER ), the SNCF ( operating suburban rails, one tramline line and the other sections of the RER ) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus lines. [ 299 ] According to a 2018 INSEE survey, a large majority of Parisians ( 64.3 percentage ) use public transportation to get to work. entirely 10.6 percentage commuted to work by car. 10.5 percentage walked or used roller skates ; 5.5 percentage commuted by bicycle ; and 4.4 percentage commuted by minibike. [ 300 ] Bike lanes are being doubled, while electric car incentives are being created. The french capital is banning the most pollute automobiles from key districts. [ 301 ] [ 302 ]

Railways [edit ]

A central hub of the national rail network, Paris ‘s six major railroad track stations ( Gare du Nord, Gare de l’Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d’Austerlitz, Gare Montparnasse, Gare Saint-Lazare ) and a minor one ( Gare de Bercy ) are connected to three networks : the TGV serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal accelerate Corail trains, and the suburban rails ( Transilien ) .

Métro, RER and tramline [edit ]

The Paris Métro is the busiest underpass network in the European Union. Since the inauguration of its first channel in 1900, Paris ‘s Métro network has grown to become the city ‘s most widely used local transmit system ; today it carries about 5.23 million passengers daily [ 303 ] through 16 lines, 303 stations ( 385 stops ) and 220 kilometer ( 136.7 mi ) of rails. Superimposed on this is a ‘regional express network ‘, the RER, whose five lines ( A, B, C, D, and E ), 257 stops and 587 kilometer ( 365 mile ) of rails connect Paris to more distant parts of the urban area. Over €26.5 billion will be invested over the future 15 years to extend the Métro network into the suburbs, with notably the Grand Paris Express undertaking. In addition, the Paris region is served by a abstemious railing net of nine lines, the tramway : Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons to Porte de Versailles, Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes to Porte d’Asnières, Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis to Garges-Sarcelles, Line T6 runs from Châtillon to Viroflay, Line T7 runs from Villejuif to Athis-Mons, Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis to Épinay-sur-Seine and Villetaneuse, all of which are operated by the RATP Group, [ 305 ] and line T4 runs from Bondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF. Five newly light fulminate lines are presently in assorted stages of development. [ 306 ]

Air [edit ]

Paris is a major external air transport hub with the fifth interfering airport system in the worldly concern. The city is served by three commercial international airports : Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Paris–Orly and Beauvais–Tillé Airport. Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers in 2014. [ 308 ] There is besides one general aviation airport, Paris-Le Bourget, historically the oldest parisian airport and close to the city concentrate, which is nowadays used only for individual business flights and air shows. orly Airport, located in the southerly suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the chief airport of Paris from the 1950s to the 1980s. [ 309 ] Charles de Gaulle Airport, located on the edge of the northerly suburbs of Paris, opened to commercial traffic in 1974 and became the busiest parisian airport in 1993. [ 310 ] For the year 2017 it was the fifth busy airport in the earth by international traffic and it is the hub for the nation ‘s flag carrier Air France. Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located 69 kilometres ( 43 miles ) north of Paris ‘s city concentrate, is used by rent airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair. domestically, air locomotion between Paris and some of France ‘s largest cities such as Lyon, Marseille, or Strasbourg has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed track due to the opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from the 1980s. For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014. [ 311 ] After the LGV Est opened in 2007, air travel traffic between Paris and Strasbourg declined from 1,006,327 passengers in 2006 to 157,207 passengers in 2014. [ 311 ] internationally, air travel traffic has increased markedly in late years between Paris and the Gulf airports, the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China, whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the british Isles, Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan. [ 312 ] [ 313 ]

Motorways [edit ]

Ring roads of Paris The city is besides the most crucial hub of France ‘s expressway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways : the Périphérique, which follows the estimate path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 expressway in the inner suburbs, and ultimately the Francilienne expressway in the outer suburb. Paris has an across-the-board road network with over 2,000 km ( 1,243 mile ) of highways and motorways .

Waterways [edit ]

The Paris region is the most active water enchant area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris. The rivers Loire, Rhine, Rhône, Meuse, and Scheldt can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l’Ourcq .

cycling [edit ]

There are 440 km ( 270 myocardial infarction ) of cycle paths and routes in Paris. These include piste cyclable ( bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a curb ) and bande cyclable ( a bicycle lane denoted by a paint path on the road ). Some 29 km ( 18 mile ) of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cyclists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles. Cyclists have besides been given the correct to ride in both directions on certain one-way streets. Paris offers a bicycle sharing system called Vélib ‘ with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 park stations, which can be rented for short-circuit and medium distances including one means trips .

electricity [edit ]

electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. In 2012, around 50 % of electricity generated in the Île-de-France came from cogeneration energy plants located near the out limits of the region ; other energy sources included thermal power ( 35 % ), waste incineration ( 9 % – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heating system as well ), methane accelerator ( 5 % ), hydraulics ( 1 % ), solar world power ( 0.1 % ) and a negligible sum of weave might ( 0.034 GWh ). [ 317 ] A quarter of the city ‘s district heating is to come from a plant in Saint-Ouen-sur-Seine, burning a 50/50-mix of char and 140,000 tonnes of forest pellets from the United States per year. [ 318 ]

Water and sanitation [edit ]

Paris in its early history had alone the rivers Seine and Bièvre for body of water. From 1809, the Canal de l’Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the northeast of the das kapital. [ 319 ] From 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand, under Napoleon III, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around the city to respective reservoirs built atop the Capital ‘s highest points of elevation. From then on, the fresh reservoir system became Paris ‘s principal reference of drink water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoir, were from then on used for the clean of Paris ‘s streets. This system is even a major region of Paris ‘s mod water-supply network. nowadays Paris has more than 2,400 kilometer ( 1,491 michigan ) of underground passageways [ 321 ] dedicated to the elimination of Paris ‘s liquid wastes. In 1982, Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove frump faeces from Paris streets. [ 322 ] The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which cad owners can be fined up to €500 for not removing their cad faeces. [ 323 ] The tune pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate count ( PM10 ), is the highest in France with 38 μg/m3. [ 324 ] From the point of horizon of nitrogen dioxide befoulment, Paris has one of the highest levels in the EU. [ 325 ]

Parks and gardens [edit ]

Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3,000 hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees. Two of Paris ‘s oldest and most celebrated gardens are the Tuileries Garden ( created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace and remake by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672 ) and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de ‘ Medici in 1612, which today houses the Senate. The Jardin des plantes was the inaugural botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII ‘s sophisticate Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicative plants. [ 329 ] between 1853 and 1870, Emperor Napoleon III and the city ‘s foremost director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, arsenic well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris ‘s quarters. Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the Parc de la Villette ( 1987 ), Parc André Citroën ( 1992 ), Parc de Bercy ( 1997 ) and Parc Clichy-Batignolles ( 2007 ). One of the newest parks, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine ( 2013 ), built on a erstwhile highway on the forget bank of the Seine between the Pont de l’Alma and the Musée d’Orsay, has floating gardens and gives a position of the city ‘s landmarks. weekly Parkruns take put in the Bois de Boulogne and the Parc Montsouris [ 332 ] [ 333 ]

Cemeteries [edit ]

The Paris Catacombs hold the remains of approximately 6 million people. During the Roman earned run average, the city ‘s independent cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the get up of Catholic Christianity, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris ‘s growth many of these, particularly the city ‘s largest cemetery, the Holy Innocents ‘ Cemetery, were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris ‘s parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovate section of Paris ‘s stone mines outside the “ Porte d’Enfer ” city gate, nowadays plaza Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement. The process of moving bones from the Cimetière des Innocents to the catacombs took position between 1786 and 1814 ; part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official go of the catacomb. After a probationary creation of respective smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive parisian cemeteries outside the city limits. Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and belated Passy ; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbor communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early twentieth century : The largest of these are the Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière parisien de Pantin ( besides known as Cimetière parisien de Pantin – Bobigny ), the Cimetière parisien five hundred ‘ Ivry, and the Cimetière parisien de Bagneux. [ 338 ] Some of the most celebrated people in the world are buried in parisian cemeteries, such as Oscar Wilde, Frederic Chopin, Jim Morrison, Édith Piaf and Serge Gainsbourg among others. [ 339 ]

healthcare [edit ]

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, the oldest hospital in the city Health care and emergency medical serve in the City of Paris and its suburbs are provided by the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris ( AP-HP ), a populace hospital system that employs more than 90,000 people ( including practitioners, defend personnel, and administrators ) in 44 hospitals. [ 340 ] It is the largest hospital arrangement in Europe. It provides health caution, education, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of music. The hospitals receive more than 5.8 million annual affected role visits. [ 340 ] One of the most noteworthy hospitals is the Hôtel-Dieu, founded in 651, the oldest hospital in the city, [ 341 ] although the current build is the product of a reconstruction of 1877. other hospitals include Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital ( one of the largest in Europe ), Hôpital Cochin, Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Bicêtre Hospital, Beaujon Hospital, the Curie Institute, Lariboisière Hospital, Necker–Enfants Malades Hospital, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hôpital de la Charité and the american english Hospital of Paris .

Media [edit ]

Agence France-Presse Headquarters in Paris Paris and its close suburbs is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Canard enchaîné, La Croix, Pariscope, Le Parisien ( in Saint-Ouen ), Les Échos, Paris Match (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Réseaux & Télécoms, Reuters France, and L’Officiel des Spectacles. [ 342 ] France ‘s two most esteemed newspapers, Le Monde and Le Figaro, are the centrepieces of the parisian publish industry. [ 343 ] Agence France-Presse is France ‘s oldest, and one of the world ‘s oldest, continually operating newsworthiness agencies. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since 1835. [ 344 ] France 24 is a television receiver newsworthiness channel owned and operated by the french government, and is based in Paris. [ 345 ] Another news means is France Diplomatie, owned and operated by the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and pertains entirely to diplomatic news and occurrences. [ 346 ] The most-viewed network in France, TF1, is in nearby Boulogne-Billancourt. France 2, France 3, Canal+, France 5, M6 ( Neuilly-sur-Seine ), Arte, D8, W9, NT1, NRJ 12, La Chaîne parlementaire, France 4, BFM television, and Gulli are other stations located in and around the das kapital. [ 347 ] Radio France, France ‘s public radio broadcaster, and its assorted channels, is headquartered in Paris ‘s 16th arrondissement. Radio France Internationale, another public broadcaster is besides based in the city. [ 348 ] Paris besides holds the headquarters of the La Poste, France ‘s national postal carrier. [ 349 ]

luminary people [edit ]

International relations [edit ]

Twin towns – sister cities [edit ]

sculpture dedicated to Rome in the feather Paul Painlevé in Paris Since 9 April 1956, Paris is entirely and inversely twinned only with : [ 350 ] [ 351 ]

Seule Paris est digne de Rome ; seule Rome est digne de Paris. ( in French )
Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. ( in Italian )
“Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris.”[352]

other relationships [edit ]

Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with : [ 350 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ The news was most likely created by Parisians of the lower popular class who spoke *argot*, then *parigot* was used in a provocative manner outside the parisian region and throughout France to mean Parisians in general .

References [edit ]

Citations [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

far read [edit ]

For a more comprehensive examination tilt, see Bibliography of Paris

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