scottish botanist ( 1773–1858 )

Robert Brown ( 21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858 ) was a scottish botanist and paleobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneer use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detail descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic stream ; the observation of Brownian movement ; early work on plant pollination and fertilization, including being the beginning to recognise the cardinal difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms ; and some of the earliest studies in palynology. He besides made numerous contributions to implant taxonomy, notably erecting a number of plant families that are however accepted today ; and numerous australian plant genus and species, the fruit of his exploration of that continent with Matthew Flinders .

early life [edit ]

Brown was born in Montrose on 21 December 1773, in a family that existed on the site where Montrose Library presently stands. He was the son of James Brown, a minister in the scottish Episcopal Church with Jacobite convictions so hard that in 1788 he defied his church ‘s decision to give commitment to George III. His mother was Helen Brown née Taylor, the daughter of a presbyterian minister. As a child Brown attended the local Grammar School ( now called Montrose Academy ), then Marischal College at Aberdeen, but withdrew in his fourth year when the family moved to Edinburgh in 1790. His father died late the comply year. [ 2 ]

Brown enrolled to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh, but developed an interest in vegetation, and ended up spending more of his time on the latter than the former. He attended the lectures of John Walker ; made botanical expeditions into the scottish Highlands, alone or with nurserymen such as George Don ; and wrote out meticulous botanic descriptions of the plants he collected. He besides began corresponding with and collecting for William Withering, one of the foremost british botanists of his day. Highlights for Brown during this period include his discovery of a new species of grass, Alopecurus alpinus ; and his first gear botanic composition, “ The botanic history of Angus “, read to the Edinburgh Natural History Society in January 1792, but not published in mark in Brown ‘s life. [ 3 ] Brown as a young serviceman Brown dropped out of his checkup course in 1793. Late in 1794, he enlisted in the Fifeshire Fencibles, and his regiment was posted to Ireland curtly after. In June 1795 he was appointed Surgeon ‘s Mate. His regiment saw very fiddling action, however, he had a good cope of leisure time, about all of which he spent on vegetation. He was frustrated by his itinerant life style, which prevented him from building his personal library and specimen collection as he would have liked, and cut him off from the most important herbaria and libraries. [ 4 ] During this period Brown was particularly concerned in cryptogams, and these would be the subjugate of Brown ‘s first, albeit unattributed, publication. Brown began a agreement with James Dickson, and by 1796 was sending him specimens and descriptions of mosses. Dickson incorporated Brown ‘s descriptions into his Fasciculi plantarum cryptogamicarum britanniae, with Brown ‘s permission but without any attribution. [ 4 ] By 1800, Brown was securely established amongst irish botanists, and was corresponding with a count of british and extraneous botanists, including Withering, Dickson, James Edward Smith and José Correia district attorney Serra. He had been nominated to the Linnean Society of London ; had contributed to Dickson ‘s Fasciculi ; was acknowledged in a total of other works ; and had had a species of alga, Conferva brownii ( now Aegagropila linnaei ) named after him by Lewis Weston Dillwyn. He had besides begun experimenting with microscopy. however, as an army surgeon stationed in Ireland there seemed little prospect of him attracting the notification of those who could offer him a career in vegetation. [ 4 ]

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To Australia on the Investigator [edit ]

In 1798, Brown heard that Mungo Park had withdrawn from a proposed expedition into the inside of New Holland ( now Australia ), leaving a void for a naturalist. At Brown ‘s request, Correia wrote to Sir Joseph Banks, suggesting Brown as a suitable surrogate :

science is the gainer in this change of man ; Mr Brown being a profess naturalist. He is a Scotchman, match to pursue an object with constance and cold judgment .

He was not selected, and the dispatch did not end up going ahead as in the first place proposed, though George Caley was sent to New South Wales as a botanic collector for Banks. In 1800, however, Matthew Flinders put to Banks a marriage proposal for an expedition that would answer the interrogate whether New Holland was one island or respective. Banks approved Flinders ‘ marriage proposal, and in December 1800 wrote to Brown offering him the position of naturalist to the expedition. Brown accepted immediately. [ 5 ]

Preparations [edit ]

Brown was told to expect to sail at the end of 1800, only a few weeks after being offered the put. A sequence of delays meant the voyage did not get under way until July 1801. Brown spent much of the meanwhile preparing for the voyage by studying Banks ‘ australian plant specimens and copying out notes and descriptions for use on the voyage. [ 6 ] Though Brown ‘s abbreviated was to collect scientific specimens of all sorts, he was told to give precedence to plants, insects, and birds, and to treat other fields, such as geology, as secondary pursuits. In addition to Brown, the scientific staff comprised the celebrated botanical illustrator Ferdinand Bauer ; the gardener Peter Good, whose tax was to collect live plants and viable seed for the function of Kew Gardens ; the miner John Allen, appointed as mineralogist ; the landscape artist William Westall ; and the astronomer John Crosley, who would fall ill on the voyage out and leave the ship at the Cape of Good Hope, being late replaced at Sydney by James Inman. Brown was given authority over Bauer and Good, both of whom were instructed to give any specimens they might collect to Brown, rather than forming classify collections. Both men would provide enthusiastic and hard-working companions for Brown, and frankincense Brown ‘s specimen collections contain material collected by all three men. [ 6 ]

Desertas, Madeira and the Cape of Good Hope [edit ]

Investigator sailed from London on 18 July. They made brief landfalls at Bugio Island ( Desertas Islands ) and Madeira, but Brown was disappointed to collect about nothing of note from either locate. They arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 16 October, staying a little over two weeks, during which time Brown made extensive botanic expeditions, and climbed Table Mountain at least doubly. many years late he would write to William Henry Harvey, who was considering emigrating there, that “ some of the pleasantest botanize he always had was on Devil ‘s Mountain, near Cape Town, and he thought I could not pitch on a more delightful field of study. ” [ 7 ] Amongst the plants collected at the Cape were two new species of Serruria ( Proteaceae ), S. foeniculacea and S. flagellaris. [ 8 ]

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Australia [edit ]

Investigator arrived in King George Sound in what is now western Australia in December 1801. For three and a half years Brown did intensifier botanic research in Australia, collecting about 3400 species, of which about 2000 were previously unknown. A large part of this collection was lost when Porpoise was wrecked en route to England. [ citation needed ] Brown remained in Australia until May 1805. He then returned to Britain where he spent the following five years working on the material he had gathered. He published numerous species descriptions ; in Western Australia alone he is the generator of closely 1200 species. The tilt of major australian genus that he named includes : Livistona, Triodia, Eriachne, Caladenia, Isolepis, Prasophyllum, Pterostylis, Patersonia, Conostylis, Thysanotus, Pityrodia, Hemigenia, Lechenaultia, Eremophila, Logania, Dryandra, Isopogon, Grevillea, Petrophile, Telopea, Leptomeria, Jacksonia, Leucopogon, Stenopetalum, Ptilotus, Sclerolaena and Rhagodia. [ 9 ]

subsequent career [edit ]

[10] Use your cursor to see who is who.[11] Distinguished man of Science.Use your cursor to see who is who. In early on 1809 he read his newspaper called On the natural order of plants called Proteaceae to the Linnean Society of London. This was subsequently published in March 1810 as On the Proteaceae of Jussieu. It is significant for its contribution to the systematics of Proteaceae, and to the floristics of Australia, and besides for its application of palynology to systematics. This solve was extensively plagiarised by Richard Anthony Salisbury, who had memorised much of the Linnean read and then inserted it in Joseph Knight ‘s 1809 issue On the cultivation of the plants belonging to the natural order of Proteeae. [ citation needed ] In 1810, he published the results of his gather in his celebrated Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, the first systematic report of the australian plant. Over half of New Zealand ‘s orchid genus were first described in the ferment. [ 12 ] That class, he succeeded Jonas C. Dryander as Sir Joseph Banks ‘ librarian, and on Banks ‘ death in 1820 Brown inherited his library and herbarium. This was transferred to the british Museum in 1827, and Brown was appointed Keeper of the Banksian Botanical Collection. [ citation needed ]

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In 1818 he published Observations, systematical and geographical, on the herbarium collected by Professor Christian Smith, in the vicinity of the Congo. In 1822, he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society and a alien penis of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1827 he became correspondent of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands, three years late he became associate penis. When the institute became the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1851 Brown joined as foreign member. [ 13 ] He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849. [ 14 ] In a newspaper read to the Linnean club in 1831 and published in 1833, Brown named the cell nucleus. The core had been observed before, possibly a early as 1682 by the dutch microscopist Leeuwenhoek, and Franz Bauer had noted and drawn it as a regular feature of implant cells in 1802, but it was Brown who gave it the name it bears to this day ( while giving credit to Bauer ‘s drawings ). Neither Bauer nor Brown thought the core to be universal, and Brown thought it to be chiefly confined to Monocotyledons. [ 15 ] After the division of the Natural History Department of the british Museum into three sections in 1837, Robert Brown became the inaugural Keeper of the Botanical Department, remaining thus until his death. He was succeeded by John Joseph Bennett. [ citation needed ] He served as President of the Linnean Society from 1849 to 1853. [ citation needed ]

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Brown in 1855 Brown died at 17 Dean Street, Soho Square in London, on 10 June 1858. [ 1 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] He was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery in London. Brown ‘s name is commemorated in the Australia herb genus Brunonia a well as numerous australian species such as Eucalyptus brownii, Banksia brownii and the moss Brown ‘s Tetrodontium Moss ( Tetrodontium brownianum ), a species which he discovered growing at Roslin near Edinburgh whilst silent a scholar. The plant can placid be found at the site of its discovery. [ 18 ] Passing through the suburb of Kingston, south of Hobart, Tasmania, once Van Diemen ‘s Land, is Brown ‘s River, named in his honor, upon the banks of which, he collected botanical samples. In South Australia, Mount Brown and Point Brown ( near Smoky Bay ) were named for him by Flinders during the Investigator expedition. [ 19 ] Mount Brown in British Columbia, Canada was named for him [ 20 ] by David Douglas. [ 21 ] : 30 In 1938 the London County Council commemorated Brown, a well as botanists Joseph Banks and David Don, and meetings of the Linnean Society, with a orthogonal stone plaque at 32 Soho Square. [ 22 ] A small New Zealand tree Pisonia brunoniana was named in recognition of him, [ 12 ] and Cape Brown ( Greenland ) was named by William Scoresby ( 1789–1857 ) in 1822 in his honor. [ 23 ] The standard writer abbreviation is used to indicate this person as the writer when citing a botanical appoint. [ 24 ]

Brownian gesticulate [edit ]

In 1827, while examining grains of pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella suspended in body of water under a microscope, Brown observed hour particles, nowadays known to be amyloplasts ( starch organelles ) and spherosomes ( lipid organelles ), ejected from the pollen grains, executing a continuous jittery gesticulate. He then observed the lapp gesture in particles of inorganic count, enabling him to rule out the hypothesis that the effect was life-related. Although Brown did not provide a theory to explain the motion the phenomenon is now known as Brownian gesticulate. In recent years controversy rebel over whether Brown ‘s microscopes were sufficient to reveal phenomenon of this holy order. Brown ‘s discoveries were denied in a brief newspaper in 1991. [ 25 ] Shortly thereafter, in an illustrate presentation, british microscopist Brian J. Ford presented to Inter Micro 1991 in Chicago a reprise of the demonstration using Brown ‘s original microscope. His television sequences substantiated Brown ‘s observations, suggesting Brown ‘s microscope was sufficient to allow him to see apparent motion. [ 26 ] Physicist Phil Pearle and colleagues presented a detailed discussion of Brown ‘s original observations of particles from pollen of Clarkia pulchella undergoing Brownian motion, including the relevant history, botany, microscopy, and physics. [ 27 ]

Publications [edit ]

For a list of Brown ‘s publications, see Wikisource .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

far read [edit ]

  • Brown, Robert (1866). The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown. Vol. 1. London: Robert Hardwicke.
  • Brown, Robert (1866). The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown. Vol. 2. London: Robert Hardwicke.
  • Mabberley, David (1985). Jupiter botanicus: Robert Brown of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History). ISBN 978-3-7682-1408-7.
  • Mabberley, David (2002), ‘Brown, Robert’, in R. Aitken and M. Looker (eds), Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens, South Melbourne, Oxford University Press, pp. 108–10.
  • Moore, D. T. and Groves, E.W. A catalogue of plants written by Robert Brown (1773–1858) in New South Wales: first impressions of the flora of the Sydney region. Archives of Natural History 24 (2): 281–293 (June 1997).
  • Munster, P., (2002), ‘Robert Brown at Swan Bay’, Australian Garden History, 14 (3), p. 10.
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