dutch painter ( 1872–1944 )
“ mondrian ” redirects hera. For other uses, see mondrian ( disambiguation ) Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan ( dutch : [ ˈpitər kɔrˈneːlɪs ˈmɔndrijaːn ] ), after 1906 Piet Mondrian (, besides, dutch : [ hell ˈmɔndrijɑn ] ; 7 March 1872 – 1 February 1944 ), was a dutch painter and artwork theorist who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the twentieth century. He is known for being one of the pioneers of 20th-century abstract art, as he changed his aesthetic direction from figural paint to an increasingly outline style, until he reached a point where his artistic vocabulary was reduced to simple geometric elements.

mondrian ‘s art was highly utopian and was concerned with a search for universal values and aesthetics. He proclaimed in 1914 : “ art is higher than world and has no direct relation to reality. To approach the spiritual in art, one will make as little consumption as possible of reality, because reality is opposed to the religious. We find ourselves in the presence of an abstract art. artwork should be above reality, otherwise it would have no value for man. ” His artwork, however, constantly remained rooted in nature. He was a contributor to the De Stijl artwork bowel movement and group, which he co-founded with Theo vanguard Doesburg. He evolved a non-representational form which he termed Neoplasticism. This was the new ‘pure formative artwork ‘ which he believed was necessary in order to create ‘universal beauty ‘. To express this, Mondrian finally decided to limit his courtly vocabulary to the three primary coil colors ( crimson, blue and scandalmongering ), the three primary values ( black, white and gray ) and the two elementary directions ( horizontal and vertical ). Mondrian ‘s arrival in Paris from the Netherlands in 1911 marked the begin of a time period of heavy exchange. He encountered experiments in Cubism and with the purpose of integrating himself within the parisian avant-garde removed an ‘a ‘ from the Dutch spell of his name ( Mondriaan ). mondrian ‘s work had an enormous influence on twentieth hundred artwork, influencing not only the course of abstract paint and numerous major styles and artwork movements ( e.g. Color Field paint, Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism ), but besides fields outside the domain of painting, such as design, computer architecture and fashion. Design historian Stephen Bayley said : “ mondrian has come to mean Modernism. His name and his work total up the High Modernist ideal. I do n’t like the bible ‘iconic ‘, so permit ‘s say that he ‘s become totemic – a totem for everything Modernism set out to be. ”

life [edit ]

Netherlands ( 1872–1911 ) [edit ]

Piet Mondrian lived in this house from 1880 to 1892 now the Villa Mondriaan, in Winterswijk Villa Mondriaan, in Piet Mondrian lived in this house, nowadays the, in Winterswijk, from 1880 to 1892. mondrian was born in Amersfoort, state of Utrecht in the Netherlands, the irregular of his parents ‘ children. He was descended from christian Dirkzoon Monderyan who lived in The Hague a early as 1670. [ 2 ] The kin moved to Winterswijk when his founder, Pieter Cornelius Mondrian, was appointed head teacher at a local anesthetic primary school. mondrian was introduced to art from an early old age. His don was a modify draw teacher, and, with his uncle, Fritz Mondrian ( a student of Willem Maris of the Hague School of artists ), the younger Piet much painted and drew along the river Gein. After a rigid Protestant breeding, in 1892, Mondrian entered the Academy for Fine Art in Amsterdam. He was already qualified as a teacher. He began his career as a teacher in primary department of education, but he besides practiced painting. Most of his work from this period is naturalistic or impressionistic, consisting largely of landscapes. These pastoral images of his native nation portray windmills, fields, and rivers, initially in the dutch Impressionist manner of the Hague School and then in a variety of styles and techniques that attest to his search for a personal expressive style. These paintings are representational, and they illustrate the influence that assorted aesthetic movements had on Mondrian, including pointillism and the graphic colors of Fauvism .
Piet Mondrain painting Willow Grove: Impression of Light and Shadow in the Dallas Museum of Art Willow Grove: Impression of Light and Shadow, c. 1905, oil on canvas, 35 × 45 cm, , c. 1905, anoint on analyze, 35 × 45 centimeter, Dallas Museum of Art Piet Mondrian painting Spring Sun (Lentezon): Castle Ruin: Brederode in the Dallas Museum of Art Spring Sun (Lentezon): Castle Ruin: Brederode, c. late 1909 – early 1910, oil on masonite, 62 × 72 cm, , c. late 1909 – early 1910, oil on masonite, 62 × 72 centimeter, Dallas Museum of Art On display in the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag are a number of paintings from this period, including such postimpressionist works as The Red Mill and Trees in Moonrise. Another painting, Evening ( Avond ) ( 1908 ), depicting a tree in a field at dusk, even augurs future developments by using a pallette consisting about wholly of loss, yellow, and blue. Although Avond is only limitedly outline, it is the earliest mondrian paint to emphasize basal colors .
Piet Mondrian painting View from the Dunes with Beach and Piers, Domburg, in the Museum of Modern Art View from the Dunes with Beach and Piers, Domburg, 1909, oil and pencil on cardboard, Piet Mondrian,1909, vegetable oil and pencil on cardboard, Museum of Modern Art, New York Mondrian ‘s earliest paintings showing a degree of abstraction are a series of canvases from 1905 to 1908 that picture blur scenes of indistinct trees and houses reflected in hush water. Although the result leads the viewer to begin focusing on the forms over the content, these paintings are still hard rooted in nature, and it is merely the cognition of Mondrian ‘s late achievements that leads one to search in these works for the roots of his future abstraction. mondrian ‘s art was closely related to his apparitional and philosophical studies. In 1908, he became interest in the theosophical movement launched by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in the late nineteenth century, and in 1909 he joined the Dutch branch of the Theosophical Society. The work of Blavatsky and a analogue spiritual motion, Rudolf Steiner ‘s Anthroposophy, significantly affected the farther growth of his aesthetic. Blavatsky believed that it was possible to attain a more profound cognition of nature than that provided by empirical means, and much of Mondrian ‘s work for the rest of his life was inspired by his search for that religious cognition. In 1918, he wrote “ I got everything from the Secret Doctrine ”, referring to a book written by Blavatsky. In 1921, in a letter to Steiner, Mondrian argued that his neoplasticism was “ the art of the foreseeable future for all true Anthroposophists and Theosophists ”. He remained a committed theosophist in subsequent years, although he besides believed that his own artistic current, neoplasticism, would finally become contribution of a larger, cosmopolitan spiritualty. mondrian and his later work were profoundly influenced by the 1911 Moderne Kunstkring exhibition of Cubism in Amsterdam. His search for reduction is shown in two versions of Still Life with Ginger Pot ( Stilleven met Gemberpot ). The 1911 adaptation, [ 8 ] is Cubist ; in the 1912 adaptation, [ 9 ] the objects are reduced to a round off form with triangles and rectangles .

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Paris ( 1911–1914 ) [edit ]

In 1911, Mondrian moved to Paris and changed his diagnose, dropping an “ a ” from “ Mondriaan ”, to emphasize his deviation from the Netherlands, and his integration within the parisian avant-garde. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] While in Paris, the influence of the Cubist dash of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque appeared about immediately in Mondrian ‘s oeuvre. Paintings such as The Sea ( 1912 ) and his assorted studies of trees from that class hush contain a measurement of representation, but, increasingly, they are dominated by geometric shapes and interlocking planes. While mondrian was eager to absorb the Cubist charm into his study, it seems net that he saw Cubism as a “ port of call ” on his artistic travel, preferably than as a address .

Netherlands ( 1914–1918 ) [edit ]

Unlike the Cubists, Mondrian however attempted to reconcile his painting with his religious pursuits, and in 1913 he began to fuse his art and his theosophical studies into a theory that signaled his final transgress from representational paint. While Mondrian was visiting the Netherlands in 1914, World War I began, forcing him to remain there for the duration of the conflict. During this period, he stayed at the Laren artists ‘ colony, where he met Bart van five hundred Leck and Theo avant-garde Doesburg, who were both undergoing their own personal journeys toward abstraction. Van five hundred Leck ‘s use of only primary colors in his art greatly influenced Mondrian. After a meet with Van five hundred Leck in 1916, mondrian wrote, “ My proficiency which was more or less cubist, and consequently more or less pictorial, came under the influence of his accurate method. ” [ 14 ] With Van Doesburg, Mondrian founded De Stijl ( The Style ), a diary of the De Stijl Group, in which he first published essays defining his theory, which he called neoplasticism. mondrian published “ De Nieuwe Beelding in de schilderkunst “ ( “ The New Plastic in Painting ” ), [ 15 ] in twelve installments during 1917 and 1918. This was his first major try to express his artistic theory in writing. Mondrian ‘s best and most-often quote expression of this theory, however, comes from a letter he wrote to H. P. Bremmer in 1914 :

I construct lines and color combinations on a flat surface, in order to express general smasher with the utmost awareness. nature ( or, that which I see ) inspires me, puts me, as with any cougar, in an emotional state so that an urge comes about to make something, but I want to come american samoa close as possible to the truth and abstract everything from that, until I reach the foundation ( still just an external foundation garment ! ) of things… I believe it is possible that, through horizontal and vertical lines constructed with awareness, but not with calculation, led by high intuition, and brought to harmony and cycle, these basic forms of beauty, supplemented if necessity by other target lines or curves, can become a study of art, ampere strong as it is true. [ 16 ]

Over the future two decades, Mondrian methodically developed his signature manner embracing the Classical, Platonic, Euclidean worldview where he simply focused on his, nowadays iconic, horizontal and vertical black lines forming squares and rectangles filled with chief hues .

Paris ( 1918–1938 ) [edit ]

Piet Mondrian and Pétro (Nelly) van Doesburg in Mondrian's Paris studio, in 1923 Piet Mondrian and Pétro ( Nelly ) van Doesburg in Mondrian ‘s Paris studio, 1923 When World War I ended in 1918, Mondrian returned to France, where he would remain until 1938. Immersed in post-war Paris culture of artistic invention, he flourished and amply embraced the art of pure abstraction for the rest of his life. mondrian began producing grid-based paintings in late 1919, and in 1920, the dash for which he came to be renowned began to appear. In the early paintings of this dash, the lines delineating the orthogonal forms are relatively thin, and they are gray, not black. The lines besides tend to fade as they approach the edge of the painting, rather than stopping abruptly. The shape themselves, smaller and more numerous than in late paintings, are filled with primary colors, black, or grey, and about all of them are colored ; only a few are left flannel .
During late 1920 and 1921, Mondrian ‘s paintings arrive at what is to casual observers their definitive and suppurate shape. Thick bootleg lines now separate the forms, which are larger and fewer in count, and more of the forms are left flannel. This was not the climax of his artistic evolution, however. Although the refinements became subtle, Mondrian ‘s exploit continued to evolve during his years in Paris. In the 1921 paintings, many, though not all, of the total darkness lines stop shortstop at a apparently arbitrary distance from the boundary of the canvas, although the divisions between the rectangular forms remain intact. here, excessively, the rectangular forms remain largely colored. As the years passed and Mondrian ‘s work evolved far, he began extending all of the lines to the edges of the canvas, and he began to use fewer and fewer colored forms, favoring white alternatively.

These tendencies are particularly obvious in the “ lozenge ” works that mondrian began producing with regularity in the mid-1920s. The “ lozenge ” paintings are square canvases tilted 45 degrees, so that they have a baseball diamond condition. Typical of these is Schilderij No. 1: Lozenge With Two Lines and Blue ( 1926 ). One of the most minimal of Mondrian ‘s canvases, this painting consists alone of two black, perpendicular lines and a minor gloomy trilateral form. The lines extend all the way to the edges of the canvas tent, about giving the mental picture that the painting is a break up of a larger work. Although one ‘s position of the paint is hampered by the glass protecting it, and by the bell that age and handling have obviously taken on the canvas, a close examination of this painting begins to reveal something of the artist ‘s method acting. The painting is not composed of perfectly flat planes of color, as one might expect. Subtle brush strokes are apparent throughout. The artist appears to have used different techniques for the respective elements. [ 18 ] The black lines are the flattest elements, with the least sum of depth. The discolor forms have the most obvious brush strokes, all running in one steering. Most matter to, however, are the white forms, which clearly have been painted in layers, using brush strokes running in different directions. This generates a greater feel of depth in the white forms so that they appear to overwhelm the lines and the colors, which indeed they were doing, as Mondrian ‘s paintings of this period came to be increasingly dominated by white space. In 1926, Katherine Dreier, co-founder of New York City ‘s Society of Independent Artists ( along with Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray ), visited Piet Mondrian ‘s studio in Paris and acquired one of his diamond compositions, Painting I. This was then shown during an exhibition organized by the Society of Independent Artists in the Brooklyn Museum — the inaugural major exhibition of mod artwork in America since the Armory Show. She stated in the catalog that “ Holland has produced three great painters who, though a coherent formulation of their own nation, rose above it through the energy of their personality – the beginning was Rembrandt, the irregular was Van Gogh, and the third is mondrian. ” [ 19 ] As the years progressed, lines began to take priority over forms in Mondrian ‘s paintings. In the 1930s, he began to use thin lines and double lines more frequently, punctuated with a few little colored forms, if any at all. double lines particularly excite Mondrian, for he believed they offered his paintings a raw dynamism which he was eager to explore. The presentation of the double line in his work was influenced by the work of his friend and contemporary Marlow Moss. [ page needed ] From 1934 to 1935, three of Mondrian ‘s paintings were exhibited as function of the “ Abstract and Concrete ” exhibitions in the UK at Oxford, London, and Liverpool. [ 21 ]

London and New York ( 1938–1944 ) [edit ]

In September 1938, mondrian left Paris in the face of advancing fascism and moved to London. After the Netherlands was invaded and Paris fell in 1940, he left London for Manhattan in New York City, where he would remain until his death. Some of Mondrian ‘s by and by works are difficult to place in terms of his artistic development because there were quite a few canvases that he began in Paris or London and lone completed months or years belated in Manhattan. The finished works from this late period are visually busy, with more lines than any of his work since the 1920s, placed in an overlap arrangement that is about cartographic in appearance. He spent many long hours painting on his own until his hands blistered, and he sometimes cried or made himself ghastly. mondrian produced Lozenge Composition With Four Yellow Lines ( 1933 ), a bare paint that innovated blockheaded, colored lines rather of total darkness ones. After that one painting, this practice remained dormant in Mondrian ‘s work until he arrived in Manhattan, at which meter he began to embrace it with abandon. In some examples of this new direction, such as Composition ( 1938 ) / Place de la Concorde ( 1943 ), he appears to have taken unfinished black-line paintings from Paris and completed them in New York by adding short vertical lines of different colors, running between the longer black lines, or from a blacken line to the edge of the sail. The newly colored areas are thick, about bridging the gap between lines and forms, and it is startling to see coloring material in a mondrian paint that is unbounded by black. other works mix long lines of red amidst the familiar black lines, creating a new sense of depth by the addition of a color layer on peak of the black one. His painting Composition No. 10, 1939–1942, characterized by chief colors, white grate and black grid lines distinctly defined Mondrian ‘s free radical but classical access to the rectangle .
On 23 September 1940 Mondrian left Europe for New York aboard the Cunard White Star Line ship RMS Samaria ( 1920 ), departing from Liverpool. [ 23 ] The new canvases that Mondrian began in Manhattan are flush more startling, and indicate the get down of a new artistic style that was cut short by the artist ‘s death. New York City ( 1942 ) is a complex wicket of loss, blue, and jaundiced lines, occasionally interlacing to create a greater feel of astuteness than his previous works. An unfinished 1941 interpretation of this work uses strips of painted paper videotape, which the artist could rearrange at will to experiment with different designs .
His painting Broadway Boogie-Woogie ( 1942–43 ) at The Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan was highly influential in the school of outline geometric paint. The piece is made up of a count of shimmering squares of bright discolor that leap from the canvas, then appear to shimmer, drawing the spectator into those neon lights. In this paint and the bare Victory Boogie Woogie ( 1942–1944 ), Mondrian replaced former solid lines with lines created from small adjoining rectangles of coloring material, created in function by using belittled pieces of newspaper tape in respective colors. Larger unbounded rectangles of color punctuate the plan, some with smaller concentric rectangles inside them. While Mondrian ‘s works of the 1920s and 1930s tend to have an about scientific austerity about them, these are bright, alert paintings, reflecting the upbeat music that inspired them and the city in which they were made. In these concluding works, the forms have indeed usurped the character of the lines, opening another new door for Mondrian ‘s growth as an abstractionist. The Boogie-Woogie paintings were clearly more of a rotatory change than an evolutionary one, representing the most fundamental development in Mondrian ‘s work since his abandonment of representational art in 1913. In 2008 the dutch television platform Andere Tijden found the alone know movie footage with Mondrian. [ 25 ] The discovery of the film footage was announced at the end of a biennial research program on the Victory Boogie Woogie. The research found that the painting was in very good condition and that Mondrian painted the writing in one school term. It besides was found that the musical composition was changed radically by Mondrian curtly before his end by using small pieces of color tape .

Wall works [edit ]

When the 47-year-old Piet Mondrian left the Netherlands for unchained Paris for the moment and last time in 1919, he set about at once to make his studio apartment a nourish environment for paintings he had in mind that would increasingly express the principles of neoplasticism about which he had been writing for two years. To hide the studio ‘s geomorphologic flaws promptly and cheaply, he tacked up bombastic rectangular placards, each in a single color or achromatic hue. Smaller colored newspaper squares and rectangles, composed together, accented the walls. then came an intense period of painting. Again he addressed the walls, repositioning the colored cutouts, adding to their numeral, altering the dynamics of color and space, producing modern tensions and chemical equilibrium. Before hanker, he had established a creative schedule in which a menstruation of painting took turns with a time period of experimentally regrouping the smaller papers on the walls, a march that directly fed the next period of painting. It was a pattern he followed for the stay of his life, through wartime moves from Paris to London ‘s Hampstead in 1938 and 1940, across the Atlantic to Manhattan. At the senesce of 71 in the fall of 1943, mondrian moved into his second and final examination Manhattan studio at 15 East 59th Street, and set about to recreate the environment he had learned over the years was most congenial to his modest way of life and most stimulant to his artwork. He painted the high walls the same bone he used on his easel and on the seats, tables and memory cases he designed and fashioned meticulously from discarded orange and apple-crates. He glossed the lead of a white metallic stool in the lapp brilliant elementary red he applied to the cardboard sheath he made for the radio-phonograph that spilled away his beloved jazz from well-traveled records. Visitors to this stopping point studio apartment rarely saw more than one or two newfangled canvases, but found, much to their astonishment, that eight big compositions of biased bits of paper he had tacked and re-tacked to the walls in changing relationships constituted together an environment that, paradoxically and simultaneously, was both kinetic and calm, stimulate and restful. It was the best space, Mondrian said, that he had inhabited. He was there for only a few months, as he died in February 1944. After his death, Mondrian ‘s friend and sponsor in Manhattan, artist Harry Holtzman, and another cougar friend, Fritz Glarner, carefully documented the studio on film and in silent photographs before opening it to the public for a six-week exhibition. Before dismantling the studio apartment, Holtzman ( who was besides Mondrian ‘s successor ) traced the wall compositions precisely, prepare accurate portable facsimiles of the quad each had occupied, and affixed to each the original surviving cut-out components. These portable mondrian compositions have become known as “ The Wall Works ”. Since Mondrian ‘s end, they have been exhibited doubly at Manhattan ‘s Museum of Modern Art ( 1983 and 1995–96 ), [ 26 ] once in SoHo at the Carpenter + Hochman Gallery ( 1984 ), once each at the Galerie Tokoro in Tokyo, Japan ( 1993 ), the XXII Biennial of Sao Paulo ( 1994 ), the University of Michigan ( 1995 ), and – the first time shown in Europe – at the Akademie five hundred Künste ( Academy of The Arts ), in Berlin ( 22 February – 22 April 2007 ). His work was besides shown in a retrospective exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery in London, which ran from August – September 1955 .

Death and bequest [edit ]

Piet Mondrian died of pneumonia on 1 February 1944 and was interred at the Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York. [ 27 ] On 3 February 1944 a memorial was held for mondrian at the Universal Chapel on Lexington Avenue and 52nd Street in Manhattan. The servicing was attended by about 200 people including Alexander Archipenko, Marc Chagall, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, Alexander Calder and Robert Motherwell. [ 28 ] The mondrian / Holtzman Trust functions as Mondrian ‘s official estate, and “ aims to promote awareness of Mondrian ‘s artwork and to ensure the integrity of his make ”. [ 29 ] mondrian has been described by critic Robert Hughes, in his 1980 book The Shock of the New, as “ one of the supreme artists of the twentieth hundred. ” besides in his television documentaries of The Shock of the New, Hughes referred to Mondrian as “ one of the greatest artists of the twentieth century ( … ) who was one of the last painters who believed that the conditions of human animation could be changed by making pictures ”. [ 31 ] Dutch artwork historian Carel Blotkamp, who is considered an authority on De Stijl, has described Mondrian as “ one of the great artists of the twentieth century ” .

Claims for Nazi looted art [edit ]

In October 2020, Mondrian ‘s heirs filed a lawsuit in a U.S. court against the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum in Krefeld, Germany for the return of four paintings by Mondrian. [ 33 ] In December 2021, Mondrian ‘s heirs sued the Philadelphia Museum of Art for the return of Mondrian ‘s Composition with Blue ( 1928 ) which had been seized by the Nazis, and passed through the art dealers Karl Buchholz and Curt Valentin before being gifted to the museum by Albert E. Gallatin. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ]

References in culture [edit ]

commemoration [edit ]

From 6 June to 5 October 2014, the Tate Liverpool displayed the largest united kingdom collection of Mondrian ‘s works, in memorial of the seventieth anniversary of his death. Mondrian and his Studios included a life-size reconstruction of his Paris studio apartment. Charles Darwent, in The Guardian, wrote : “ With its black floor and white walls hang with movable panels of loss, yellow and blue, the studio at Rue du Départ was not equitable a set for making Mondrians. It was a mondrian – and a generator of Mondrians. ” [ 11 ] He has been described as “ the populace ’ s greatest abstract geometrist ”. [ 58 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

far take [edit ]

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