Swiss-German painter
“ Klee ” redirects here. For other uses, see Klee ( disambiguation )
Paul Klee ( german : [ paʊ̯l ˈkleː ] ; 18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940 ) was a Swiss-born german artist. His highly individual manner was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and finally deeply explore color theory, writing about it extensively ; his lectures Writings on Form and Design Theory ( Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre ), published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as crucial for modern artwork as Leonardo da Vinci ‘s A Treatise on Painting for the Renaissance. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] He and his colleague, russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both teach at the Bauhaus school of art, design and architecture in Germany. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike position, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality.

early life and educate [edit ]

First of all, the art of living ; then as my ideal profession, poetry and philosophy, and as my real number profession, credit card arts ; in the final repair, for lack of income, illustrations .Paul Klee[4]

Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, as the second child of german music teacher Hans Wilhelm Klee ( 1849–1940 ) and swiss singer Ida Marie Klee, born Frick ( 1855–1921 ). [ a ] His sister Mathilde ( died 6 December 1953 ) was born on 28 January 1876 in Walzenhausen. Their father came from Tann and studied tattle, piano, organ and violin at the Stuttgart Conservatory, where he met his future wife Ida Frick. Hans Wilhelm Klee was active as a music teacher at the Bern State Seminary in Hofwil near Bern until 1931. Klee was able to develop his music skills as his parents encouraged and inspired him throughout his animation. [ 5 ] In 1880, his family moved to Bern, where they finally, in 1897, after a number of changes of residence, moved into their own house in the Kirchenfeld zone [ de ]. [ 6 ] From 1886 to 1890, Klee visited primary school and received, at the senesce of 7, violin classes at the Municipal Music School. He was sol talented on violin that, aged 11, he received an invitation to play as an extraordinary extremity of the Bern Music Association. [ 7 ] My Room (German: Meine Bude), 1896. Pen and ink wash, 120 by 190 mm ( 4

+

3

4

by 7

+

1

2

 in). In the collection of the Klee Foundation, ( german : Meine Bude ), 1896. Pen and ink wash, 120 by 190 mm ( byin ). In the collection of the Klee Foundation, Bern, Switzerland In his early years, following his parents ‘ wishes, Klee focused on becoming a musician ; but he decided on the ocular arts during his adolescent years, partially out of rebellion and partially because mod music lacked meaning for him. He stated, “ I did n’t find the idea of going in for music creatively peculiarly attractive in view of the decline in the history of musical accomplishment. ” [ 8 ] As a musician, he played and felt emotionally bound to traditional works of the eighteenth and nineteenth hundred, but as an artist he craved the exemption to explore radical ideas and styles. [ 8 ] At sixteen, Klee ‘s landscape drawings already show considerable skill. [ 9 ] Around 1897, Klee started his diary, which he kept until 1918, and which has provided scholars with valuable insight into his life and think. [ 10 ] During his school years, he avidly drew in his school books, in particular draw caricatures, and already demonstrating skill with line and volume. [ 11 ] He barely passed his final examination examination at the “ Gymnasium ” of Bern, where he qualified in the Humanities. With his characteristic dry wit, he wrote, “ After all, it ’ randomness rather unmanageable to achieve the exact minimum, and it involves risks. ” [ 12 ] On his own time, in addition to his deep interests in music and artwork, Klee was a big reader of literature, and late a writer on artwork theory and aesthetics. [ 13 ] With his parents ‘ reluctant permission, in 1898 Klee began studying art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich with Heinrich Knirr and Franz von Stuck. He excelled at drawing but seemed to lack any natural semblance sense. He late recalled, “ During the third winter I even realized that I credibly would never learn to paint. ” [ 12 ] During these times of youthful gamble, Klee spent much prison term in public house and had affairs with lower-class women and artists ‘ models. He had an illegitimate son in 1900 who died several weeks after parturition. [ 14 ] After receiving his fine Arts degree, Klee traveled in Italy from October 1901 to May 1902 [ 15 ] with supporter Hermann Haller. They visited Rome, Florence, Naples and the Amalfi Coast, studying the maestro painters of past centuries. [ 14 ] He exclaimed, “ The Forum and the Vatican have spoken to me. humanitarianism wants to suffocate me. ” [ 16 ] He responded to the colors of Italy, but sadly noted, “ that a long conflict lies in shop for me in this field of color. ” [ 17 ] For Klee, color represented the optimism and nobility in art, and a hope for easing from the pessimistic nature he expressed in his black-and-white grotesques and satires. [ 17 ] Returning to Bern, he lived with his parents for respective years, and took episodic artwork classes. By 1905, he was developing some experimental techniques, including drawing with a needle on a blacken paneling of glass, resulting in fifty-seven works including his Portrait of My Father ( 1906 ). [ 11 ] In the years 1903–05 he besides completed a hertz of football team zinc-plate etchings called Inventions, his beginning exhibited works, in which he illustrated several grotesque characters. [ 14 ] [ 18 ] He commented, “ though I ‘m fairly satisfied with my etchings I ca n’t go on like this. I ’ thousand not a specialist. ” [ 19 ] Klee was distillery dividing his time with music, playing the violin in an orchestra and writing concert and theater reviews. [ 20 ]

marriage and early years [edit ]

marriage [edit ]

Flower Myth (Blumenmythos) 1918, watercolor on pastel foundation on fabric and newsprint mounted on board, ) 1918, watercolor on pastel basis on fabric and newspaper mounted on display panel, Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany Klee married bavarian pianist Lily Stumpf in 1906 and they had one son named Felix Paul in the following year. They lived in a suburb of Munich, and while she gave piano lessons and occasional performances, he kept house and tended to his art work. His try to be a cartridge holder illustrator failed. [ 20 ] Klee ‘s artwork bring progressed slowly for the future five years, partially from having to divide his time with domestic matters, and partially as he tried to find a newly approach to his artwork. In 1910, he had his first solo exhibition in Bern, which then travelled to three swiss cities .

affiliation to the “ Blaue Reiter ”, 1911 [edit ]

In January 1911, Alfred Kubin met Klee in Munich and encouraged him to illustrate Voltaire ‘s Candide. His attendant drawings were published former in a 1920 version of the book edited by Kurt Wolff. Around this prison term, Klee ‘s graphic exercise increased. His early dip towards the absurd and the sarcastic was well received by Kubin, who befriended Klee and became one of his inaugural meaning collectors. [ 21 ] Klee met, through Kubin, the art critic Wilhelm Hausenstein in 1911. Klee was a initiation penis and director of the Munich artists ‘ union Sema that summer. [ 22 ] In fall he made an acquaintance with August Macke and Wassily Kandinsky, and in winter he joined the column team of the almanac Der Blaue Reiter, founded by Franz Marc and Kandinsky. On meeting Kandinsky, Klee recorded, “ I came to feel a deep trust in him. He is person, and has an exceptionally beautiful and lucid mind. ” [ 23 ] other members included Macke, Gabriele Münter and Marianne von Werefkin. Klee became in a few months one of the most authoritative and independent members of the Blaue Reiter, but he was not so far fully integrated. [ 24 ] The release of the almanac was delayed for the benefit of an exhibition. The first Blaue Reiter exhibition took place from 18 December 1911 to 1 January 1912 in the Moderne Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser in Munich. Klee did not attend it, but in the second exhibition, which occurred from 12 February to 18 March 1912 in the Galerie Goltz, 17 of his graphic works were shown. The name of this artwork exhibition was Schwarz-Weiß, as it only regarded graphic painting. [ 25 ] initially planned to be released in 1911, the exhaust date of the Der Blau Reiter almanac by Kandinsky and Marc was delayed in May 1912, including the reproduce ink drawing Steinhauer by Klee. At the same time, Kandinsky published his artwork history writing Über das Geistige in der Kunst. [ 26 ]

participation in art exhibitions, 1912–1913 [edit ]

The association opened Klee ‘s mind to modern theories of color. His travels to Paris in 1912 besides exposed him to the ferment of Cubism and the initiate examples of “ pure paint ”, an early term for abstract artwork. The use of bold color by Robert Delaunay and Maurice de Vlaminck besides inspired him. [ 27 ] Rather than copy these artists, Klee began working out his own color experiments in pale watercolors and did some archaic landscapes, including In the Quarry ( 1913 ) and Houses near the Gravel Pit ( 1913 ), using blocks of color with limited overlap. [ 28 ] Klee acknowledged that “ a long struggle lies in store for me in this airfield of color ” in decree to reach his “ distant noble bearing. ” soon, he discovered “ the style which connects draw and the kingdom of color. ” [ 17 ]

trip to Tunis, 1914 [edit ]

Klee ‘s artistic discovery came in 1914 when he concisely visited Tunisia with August Macke and Louis Moilliet and was impressed by the choice of the light up there. He wrote, “ color has taken self-control of me ; no longer do I have to chase after it, I know that it has hold of me forever … Color and I are one. I am a painter. ” [ 29 ] With that realization, fidelity to nature faded in importance. alternatively, Klee began to delve into the “ cool romanticism of abstractedness ”. [ 29 ] In gaining a moment artistic vocabulary, Klee added color to his abilities in drawing, and in many works combined them successfully, as he did in one series he called “ operatic paintings ”. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] One of the most actual examples of this newly synthesis is The Bavarian Don Giovanni ( 1919 ). [ 32 ] After returning home, Klee painted his beginning arrant outline, In the Style of Kairouan ( 1914 ), composed of colored rectangles and a few circles. [ 33 ] The biased rectangle became his basic build block, what some scholars associate with a musical note, which Klee combined with other color blocks to create a semblance harmony analogous to a musical composition. His choice of a especial color palette emulates a musical samara. sometimes he uses complementary pairs of colors, and early times “ unresolved ” colors, again reflecting his connection with musicality. [ 34 ]

military career [edit ]

Paul Klee as a soldier, 1916 A few weeks late, World War I began. At first, Klee was slightly detached from it, as he wrote ironically, “ I have long had this war in me. That is why, inwardly, it is none of my concern. ” [ 35 ] Klee was conscripted as a Landsturmsoldat ( soldier of the reserve forces in Prussia or Imperial Germany ) on 5 March 1916. The deaths of his friends August Macke and Franz Marc in battle began to affect him. Venting his straiten, he created several pen and ink lithographs on war themes including Death for the Idea ( 1915 ). [ 36 ] After finishing the military education course, which began on 11 March 1916, he was committed as a soldier behind the front. Klee moved on 20 August to the aircraft sustenance company [ b-complex vitamin ] in Oberschleissheim, executing skilled manual exercise, such as restoring aircraft camouflage, and accompanying aircraft transports. On 17 January 1917, he was transferred to the Royal Bavarian flying school in Gersthofen ( which 54 years subsequently became the USASA Field Station Augsburg ) to work as a clerk for the treasurer until the end of the war. This allowed him to stay in a small board outside of the barrack block and continue painting. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] He continued to paint during the entire war and managed to exhibit in respective shows. By 1917, Klee ‘s work was selling well and art critics acclaimed him as the best of the new german artists. [ 39 ] His Ab ovo ( 1917 ) is particularly noteworthy for its sophisticated proficiency. It employs watercolor on gauze and paper with a methamphetamine ground, which produces a rich texture of trilateral, circular, and crescent patterns. [ 29 ] Demonstrating his compass of exploration, mixing color and production line, his Warning of the Ships ( 1918 ) is a color absorb filled with symbolic images on a plain of suppressed color. [ 40 ]

Mature career [edit ]

Red Balloon, 1922, oil on muslin primed with chalk, 31.8 × 31.1 cm. The , 1922, vegetable oil on muslin primed with chalk, 31.8 × 31.1 curium. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York In 1919, Klee applied for a teach post at the Academy of Art in Stuttgart. [ 41 ] This try failed but he had a major achiever in securing a three-year narrow ( with a minimum annual income ) with dealer Hans Goltz, whose influential gallery gave Klee major exposure, and some commercial success. A retrospective of over 300 works in 1920 was besides celebrated. [ 42 ] Klee teach at the Bauhaus from January 1921 to April 1931. [ 43 ] He was a “ form ” master in the bookbinding, stained glass, and mural painting workshops and was provided with two studios. [ 44 ] In 1922, Kandinsky joined the staff and resumed his friendship with Klee. Later that year the first Bauhaus exhibition and festival was held, for which Klee created several of the advertising materials. [ 45 ] Klee welcomed the many at odds theories and opinions within the Bauhaus : “ I besides approve of these forces competing one with the other if the leave is accomplishment. ” [ 46 ] Tropical Gardening, 1923 watercolor and oil transfer drawing on paper, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York., 1923 watercolor and petroleum transfer drawing on paper, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Klee was besides a member of Die Blaue Vier ( The Blue Four ), with Kandinsky, Lyonel Feininger, and Alexej von Jawlensky ; formed in 1923, they lectured and exhibited together in the US in 1925. That lapp year, Klee had his first base exhibits in Paris, and he became a hit with the french Surrealists. [ 47 ] Klee visited Egypt in 1928, which impressed him less than Tunisia. In 1929, the first major monograph on Klee ‘s workplace was published, written by Will Grohmann. [ 48 ] Nocturnal Festivity, 1921, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York., 1921, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Klee besides taught at the Düsseldorf Academy from 1931 to 1933, and was singled out by a Nazi newspaper, “ then that big boyfriend Klee comes onto the scene, already famed as a Bauhaus teacher in Dessau. He tells everyone he ‘s a thoroughbred Arab, but he ‘s a distinctive galician Jew. ” [ 49 ] His home was searched by the Gestapo and he was fired from his speculate. [ 3 ] [ 50 ] His self-portrait Struck from the List ( 1933 ) commemorates the sad occasion. [ 49 ] In 1933–34, Klee had shows in London and Paris, and ultimately met Pablo Picasso, whom he greatly admired. [ 51 ] The Klee family emigrated to Switzerland in recently 1933. [ 51 ] Klee was at the top out of his creative output. His Ad Parnassum ( 1932 ) is considered his masterpiece and the best exemplar of his pointillist expressive style ; it is besides one of his largest, most finely sour paintings. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] He produced about 500 works in 1933 during his last year in Germany. [ 54 ] however, in 1933, Klee began experiencing the symptoms of what was diagnosed as scleroderma after his death. The progress of his fatal disease, which made swallowing identical unmanageable, can be followed through the art he created in his end years. His output in 1936 was merely 25 pictures. In the later 1930s, his health recovered reasonably and he was encouraged by a travel to from Kandinsky and Picasso. [ 55 ] Klee ‘s simple and larger designs enabled him to keep up his output in his final years, and in 1939 he created over 1,200 works, a career senior high school for one year. [ 56 ] He used heavier lines and chiefly geometric forms with fewer but larger blocks of color. His varied color palettes, some with bright colors and others somber, possibly reflected his alternating moods of optimism and pessimism. [ 57 ] Back in Germany in 1937, seventeen of Klee ‘s pictures were included in an exhibition of “ Degenerate artwork “ and 102 of his works in populace collections were seized by the Nazis. [ 58 ]

death [edit ]

Klee ‘s sculpt in Schosshalden cemetery In 1935, 2 years after moving to Switzerland and working in a identical confine position, Klee developed scleroderma, an autoimmune disease resulting in harden of conjunction tissue. [ 59 ] He endured annoyance that seems to be reflected in his last works of art. [ citation needed ] In his last months he created 50 drawings of angels. [ 59 ] One of his last paintings, Death and Fire, features a skull in the center with the german parole for death, “ Tod ”, appearing in the face. He died in Muralto, Locarno, Switzerland, on 29 June 1940 without having obtained swiss citizenship, despite his give birth in that nation. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] His artwork knead was considered besides revolutionary, even degenerate, by the swiss authorities, but finally they accepted his request six days after his death. [ 62 ] His bequest comprised about 9,000 works of art. [ 17 ] The words on his gravestone, Klee ‘s creed, placed there by his son Felix, say, “ I can not be grasped in the hera and immediately, for my dwell place is equally much among the dead as the so far unborn. slightly closer to the heart of creation than usual, but however not close up enough. ” [ 63 ] He was buried at Schosshaldenfriedhof, Bern, Switzerland .

Style and methods [edit ]

Tale à la Hoffmann (1921), watercolor, ink, and pencil on paper. 31.1 × 24.1 cm. In the collection of the ( 1921 ), watercolor, ink, and pencil on paper. 31.1 × 24.1 curium. In the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Klee has been variously associated with Expressionism, Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism, and Abstraction, but his pictures are difficult to classify. He broadly worked in isolation from his peers, and interpreted new art trends in his own way. He was imaginative in his methods and technique. Klee worked in many different media— oil paint, watercolor, ink, pastel, etching, and others. He often combined them into one work. He used canvas, burlap, muslin, linen, gauze, cardboard, alloy foils, framework, wallpaper, and newspaper. [ 64 ] Klee employed spray paint, knife application, stamping, glaze, and impasto, and desegregate media such as oil with watercolor, watercolor with pen and India ink, and anoint with tempera. [ 65 ] He was a natural draftsman, and through long experiment developed a mastery of color and key. many of his works combine these skills. He uses a capital variety of color palettes from closely monochromatic to highly polychromatic. His works frequently have a fragile childlike quality to them and are normally on a minor scale. He much used geometric forms and grid format compositions angstrom well as letters and numbers, frequently combined with playful figures of animals and people. Some works were completely abstract. many of his works and their titles reflect his dry wit and varying moods ; some express political convictions. They frequently allude to poetry, music and dreams and sometimes include words or musical notation. The belated works are distinguished by arachnoid hieroglyph -like symbols. Rainer Maria Rilke wrote about Klee in 1921, “ even if you hadn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate told me he plays the violin, I would have guessed that on many occasions his drawings were transcriptions of music. ” [ 13 ] Pamela Kort observed : “ Klee ‘s 1933 drawings present their perceiver with an alone opportunity to glimpse a central aspect of his aesthetics that has remained largely thankless : his lifelong concern with the possibilities of parody and brain. Herein lies their real significance, particularly for an hearing unaware that Klee ‘s art has political dimensions. ” [ 66 ] Among the few plastic works are hired hand puppets made between 1916 and 1925, for his son Felix. The artist neither counted them as a component of his oeuvre, nor did he list them in his catalogue raisonné. thirty of the preserved puppets are stored at the Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern. [ 67 ]

Works [edit ]

early works [edit ]

Some of Klee ‘s early preserved children ‘s drawings, which his grandma encouraged, were listed on his catalog raisonné. A total of 19 etchings were produced during the Bern years ; ten of these were made between 1903 and 1905 in the cycle “ Inventionen ” ( Inventions ), [ 68 ] which were presented in June 1906 at the “ Internationale Kunstausstellung des Vereins bildender Künstler Münchens ‘ Secession ‘ ” ( International Art Exhibition of the Association for Graphic Arts, Munich, Secession ), his first appearance as a painter in the populace. [ 69 ] Klee had removed the third Invention, Pessimistische Allegorie des Gebirges ( Pessimistic Allegory of the Mountain ), in February 1906 from his hertz. [ 70 ] The satirical etchings, for exercise Jungfrau im Baum/Jungfrau (träumend) ( Virgin on the tree/Virgin ( dreaming ) ) from 1903 and Greiser Phoenix ( Aged Phoenix ) from 1905, were classified by Klee as “ phantasmagoric outposts ”. Jungfrau im Baum ties on the motivative Le cattive madri ( 1894 ) by Giovanni Segantini. The mental picture was influenced by grotesque lyric poetries of Alfred Jarry, Max Jacob and Christian Morgenstern. [ 71 ] It features a cultural pessimism, which can be found at the turn of the twentieth century in works by Symbolists. The Invention Nr. 6, the 1903 etching Zwei Männer, einander in höherer Stellung vermutend ( Two Men, Supposing the other to be in a Higher situation ), depicts two bare men, presumably emperor butterfly Wilhelm II and Franz Joseph I of Austria, recognizable by their hairdo and beards. As their clothes and insignia were bereft, “ both of them have no clue if their conventional salute [ … ] is in order or not. As they assume that their counterpart could have been higher rated ”, they bow and scrape. [ 72 ]

Klee began to introduce a newfangled proficiency in 1905 : scratch on a blackened glass panel with a needle. In that manner he created about 57 Verre églomisé pictures, among those the 1905 Gartenszene ( Scene on a Garden ) and the 1906 Porträt des Vaters ( Portrait of a Father ), with which he tried to combine painting and rub. [ 73 ] Klee ‘s hermit early on knead ended in 1911, the year he met and was inspired by the graphic artist Alfred Kubin, and became associated with the artists of the Blaue Reiter. [ 74 ] During his twelve-day educational trip to Tunis in April 1914 Klee produced with Macke and Moilliet watercolor paintings, which implement the potent light and color stimulation of the union african countryside in the fashion of Paul Cézanne and Robert Delaunays ‘ cubist form concepts. The aim was not to imitate nature, but to create compositions analogous to nature ‘s formative rationale, as in the works In den Häusern von Saint-Germain ( In the Houses of Saint-Germain ) and Straßencafé ( Streetcafé ). Klee conveyed the scenery in a grid, so that it dissolves into color harmony. He besides created pilfer works in that menstruation such as Abstract and Farbige Kreise durch Farbbänder verbunden ( Colored Circles Tied Through Inked Ribbons ). [ 75 ] He never abandoned the object ; a permanent segregation never took target. It took over ten years that Klee worked on experiments and psychoanalysis of the discolor, resulting to an freelancer artificial study, whereby his design ideas were based on the colored oriental global .
Föhn im Marc’schen Garten ( Foehn at Marc ‘s Garden ) was made after the Turin trip. It indicates the relations between color and the stimulation of Macke and Delaunay. Although elements of the garden are clearly visible, a farther steer towards abstractedness is obtrusive. In his diary Klee wrote the follow note at that time :

In the boastfully cast stone are lying ruins, on which one partially hangs. They provide the substantial for the abstraction. [ … ] The severe the earth, the abstract the artwork, while a happy global produces secularistic art. [ 76 ]

Under the depression of his military service he created the painting Trauerblumen ( Velvetbells ) in 1917, which, with its graphic signs, vegetal and phantastic shapes, is a precursor of his future works, harmonically combining graphic, color and object. For the first time birds appear in the pictures, such as in Blumenmythos ( Flower Myth ) from 1918, mirroring the vanish and falling planes he saw in Gersthofen, and the photograph plane crashes. In the 1918 watercolor painting Einst dem Grau der Nacht enttaucht, a compositional enforced poem, possibly written by Klee, he incorporated letters in small, in terms of color separated squares, cutting off the first verse from the second matchless with silver medal newspaper. At the top of the cardboard, which carries the mental picture, the verses are inscribed in manuscript form. here, Klee did not lean on Delaunay ‘s colors, but on Marc ‘s, although the movie content of both painters does not correspond with each early. Herwarth Walden, Klee ‘s art dealer, see in them a “ Wachablösung ” ( changing of the guard ) of his art. [ 77 ] Since 1919 he frequently used petroleum colors, with which he combined watercolors and colored pencil. The Villa R ( Kunstmuseum Basel ) from 1919 unites visible realities such as sun, moon, mountains, trees and architectures, equally well as phantasmagoric pledges and opinion readings. [ 78 ]

Works in the Bauhaus period and in Düsseldorf [edit ]

His works during this time include Camel (in rhythmic landscape with trees) ampere well as early paintings with pilfer graphic elements such as betroffener Ort ( Affected Place ) ( 1922 ). From that period he created Die Zwitscher-Maschine ( The Twittering Machine ), which was late removed from the National Gallery. After being named calumniatory in the Munich exhibition “ Entartete Kunst “, the paint was later bought by the Buchholz Gallery, New York, and then transferred in 1939 to the Museum of Modern Art. The “ chitter ” in the title refers to the open-beaked birds, while the “ machine ” is illustrated by the methamphetamine. [ 79 ] In Engelshut, 1931, watercolor and colored inks on paper, mounted on paper, 1931, watercolor and bleached inks on newspaper, mounted on newspaper, Guggenheim Museum The watercolour paint appears at a foremost glance childish, but it allows more interpretations. The photograph can be interpreted as a critic by Klee, who shows through denaturation of the birds, that the global technization heist the creatures ‘ self-government. [ 80 ] other examples from that period are der Goldfisch ( The Goldfish ) from 1925, Katze und Vogel ( Cat and Bird ), from 1928, and Hauptweg und Nebenwege ( Main Road and Byways ) from 1929. Through variations of the canvas reason and his combine painting techniques Klee created newfangled discolor effects and mental picture impressions. From 1916 to 1925, Klee created 50 hand puppets for his son Felix. The puppets are not mentioned in the Bauhaus catalogue of works, since they were intended as individual toys from the begin. [ 81 ] Nevertheless, they are an impressive exercise of Klee ‘s imagination. He not merely dealt with puppet shows privately, but besides in his artistic work at the Bauhaus. [ 82 ] In 1931, Klee transferred to Düsseldorf to teach at the Akademie ; the Nazis shut down the Bauhaus soon after. [ 83 ] During this meter, Klee illustrated a serial of defender angels. Among these figurations is “ In Engelshut ” ( In the Angel ‘s Care ). Its overlaying proficiency evinces the polyphonic character of his drawing method between 1920 and 1932. [ 84 ] The 1932 paint Ad Parnassum was besides created in the Düsseldorf period. 100 curium × 126 curium ( 39 in × 50 in ) This is one of his largest paintings, as he normally worked with small formats. In this mosaic-like knead in the style of pointillism he combined different techniques and compositional principles. Influenced by his trip to Egypt from 1928 to 1929, Klee built a discolor battlefield from individually stamped dots, surrounded by similarly stamped lines, which results in a pyramid. Above the roof of the “ Parnassus “ there is a sunday. The deed identifies the visualize as the home of Apollo and the Muses. [ 85 ] During his 1929 travels through Egypt, Klee developed a sense of association to the land, described by art historian Olivier Berggruen as a mystic feel : “ In the defect, the sunday ‘s intense rays seemed to envelop all surviving things, and at night, the drift of the stars felt even more palpable. In the computer architecture of the ancient funerary moments Klee discovered a sense of proportion and standard in which human beings appeared to establish a convert relationship with the enormousness of the landscape ; furthermore, he was drawn to the esoteric numerology that governed the room in which these monuments had been built. ” [ 86 ] In 1933, his last year in Germany, he created a roll of paintings and drawings ; the catalogue raisonné comprised 482 works. The self-portrait in the same year—with the programmatic title von der Liste gestrichen ( removed from the list ) —provides information about his feeling after losing his professorship. The abstract portrait was painted in night colors and shows closed eyes and compressed lips, while on the back of his question there is a large “ adam ”, symbolizing that his artwork was no longer valued in Germany. [ 87 ]

death works in Switzerland [edit ]

In this period Klee chiefly worked on large-sized pictures. After the attack of illness, there were about 25 works in the 1936 catalogue, but his productivity increased in 1937 to 264 pictures, 1938 to 489, and 1939—his most productive year—to 1254. They dealt with ambivalent themes, expressing his personal destiny, the political position and his wit. Examples are the watercolour paint Musiker ( musician ), a stick-man face with partially serious, partially smiling mouth ; and the Revolution des Viadukts ( Revolution of the Viadukt ), an anti-fascist art. In Viadukt ( 1937 ) the bridge arches split from the bank as they refuse to be linked to a chain and are consequently rioting. [ 88 ] Since 1938, Klee worked more intensively with hieroglyphic-like elements. The painting Insula dulcamara from the same year, which is one of his largest ( 88 curium × 176 centimeter ( 35 in × 69 in ) ), shows a white confront in the middle of the elements, symbolizing death with its black-circled center sockets. Bitterness and sadness are not rare in much of his works during this time .
Klee created in 1940 a picture which strongly differs from the previous works, leaving it unsigned on the scaffold. The relatively naturalistic still life, Ohne Titel, belated named as Der Todesengel ( Angel of Death ), depicts flowers, a green pot, sculpt and an saint. The moon on black footing is separated from these groups. During his sixtieth birthday Klee was photographed in front of this picture. [ 89 ]

reception and bequest [edit ]

contemporaneous view [edit ]

Was fehlt ihm? (What Is He Missing?), 1930, stamp drawing in ink, ( What Is He Missing ? ), 1930, stamp drawing in ink, Ingres newspaper on cardboard, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen near Basel

artwork does not reproduce the visible ; rather, it makes visible .

“ Klee ‘s act is identical prestigious. In a minimum of one cable he can reveal his wisdom. He is everything ; heavy, pacify and many more of the good things, and this because : he is advanced ”, wrote Oskar Schlemmer, Klee ‘s future artist colleague at the Bauhaus, in his September 1916 diary. [ 90 ] novelist and Klee ‘s supporter Wilhelm Hausenstein wrote in his work Über Expressionismus in der Malerei ( On expressionism in Painting ), “ possibly Klee ‘s attitude is in general apprehensible for melodious people—how Klee is one of the most delightsome violinist playing Bach and Händel, who always walked on earth. [ … ] For Klee, the german classic painter of the Cubism, the populace music became his companion, possibly even a contribution of his art ; the composition, written in notes, seems to be not unalike. ” [ 91 ] When Klee visited the Paris surrealism exhibition in 1925, Max Ernst was impressed by his exploit. His partially morbid motifs appealed to the surrealists. André Breton helped to develop the surrealism and renamed Klee ‘s 1912 painting Zimmerperspektive mit Einwohnern ( Room Perspective with People ) to chambre spirit in a catalogue. critic René Crevel called the artist a “ escapist ” who “ releases a pour of small lyrical louses from mysterious abysses. ” Paul Klee ‘s confidante Will Grohmann argued in the Cahiers d’art that he “ stands decidedly well solid on his feet. He is by no means a escapist ; he is a modern person, who teaches as a professor at the Bauhaus. ” Whereupon Breton, as Joan Miró remembers, was critical of Klee : “ Masson and I have both discovered Paul Klee. Paul Éluard and Crevel are besides interest in Klee, and they have tied visited him. But Breton despises him. ” [ 92 ] The art of mentally ill people cheer Klee equally well as Kandinsky and Max Ernst, after Hans Prinzhorns reserve Bildnerei der Geisteskranken ( Artistry of the Mentally Ill ) was published in 1922. In 1937, some papers from Prinzhorn ‘s anthology were presented at the National Socialist propaganda exhibition “ Entartete Kunst “ in Munich, with the purpose of defaming the works of Kirchner, Klee, Nolde and early artists by likening them to the works of the harebrained. [ 93 ] In 1949 Marcel Duchamp commented on Paul Klee : “ The first reaction in movement of a Klee painting is the identical pleasant discovery, what everyone of us could or could have done, to try drawing like in our childhood. Most of his compositions show at the first glance a plain, primitive expression, found in children ‘s drawings. [ … ] At a second analyze one can discover a proficiency, which takes as a basis a large adulthood in think. A deep understanding of dealing with watercolors to paint a personal method in oil, structured in cosmetic shapes, let Klee stand out in the contemporary artwork and make him incomparable. On the other slope, his experiment was adopted in the last 30 years by many other artists as a basis for newer creations in the most unlike areas in paint. His extreme point productiveness never shows evidence of repeat, as is normally the case. He had thus much to say, that a Klee never became another Klee. ” [ 94 ] One of Klee ‘s paintings, Angelus Novus, was the object of an interpretative text by german philosopher and literary critic Walter Benjamin, who purchased the painting in 1921. In his “ Theses on the philosophy of History ” Benjamin suggests that the saint depicted in the painting might be seen as representing the saint of history. Another aspect of his bequest, and one demonstrating his multi-faceted presence in the modern aesthetic imagination, is his appeal for those concerned in the history of the algorithm as exemplified by Homage to Paul Klee by calculator art initiate Frieder Nake. [ 95 ]

musical interpretations [edit ]

Unlike his taste for adventurous modern experiment in paint, Klee, though musically talented, was attracted to older traditions of music ; he appreciated neither composers of the former nineteenth century, such as Wagner, Bruckner and Mahler, nor contemporary music. Bach and Mozart were for him the greatest composers ; he most enjoy playing the works by the latter. [ 96 ] Klee ‘s exercise has influenced composers such as argentinian Roberto García Morillo in 1943, with Tres pinturas de Paul Klee. Others include the American composer David Diamond in 1958, with the four-part Opus Welt von Paul Klee ( World of Paul Klee ). Gunther Schuller composed Seven Studies on Themes of Paul Klee in the years 1959/60, consisting of Antique Harmonies, Abstract Trio, Little Blue Devil, Twittering Machine, Arab Village, An Eerie Moment, and Pastorale. The spanish composer Benet Casablancas wrote Alter Klang, Impromptu for Orchestra after Klee ( 2006 ) ; [ 97 ] [ 98 ] Casablancas is generator besides of the Retablo on texts by Paul Klee, Cantata district attorney camera for Soprano, Mezzo and Piano ( 2007 ). [ 99 ] [ 100 ] In 1950, Giselher Klebe performed his orchestral influence Die Zwitschermaschine with the subtitle Metamorphosen über das Bild von Paul Klee at the Donaueschinger Musiktage. [ 101 ] 8 Pieces on Paul Klee is the championship of the debut album by the Ensemble Sortisatio, recorded February and March 2002 in Leipzig and August 2002 in Lucerne, Switzerland. The typography “ Wie five hundred Klee vierblättrig wurde ” ( How the clover became four-leaved ) was inspired by the watercolor painting Hat Kopf, Hand, Fuss und Herz ( 1930 ), Angelus Novus and Hauptweg und Nebenwege. In 1968, a jazz group called The National Gallery featuring composer Chuck Mangione released the album Performing Musical Interpretations of the Paintings of Paul Klee. [ 102 ] In 1995 the greek experimental film maker, Kostas Sfikas, created a movie based wholly on Paul Klee ‘s paintings. The movie is entitled “ Paul Klee’s Prophetic Bird of Sorrows “, and draws its title from Klee ‘s Landscape with Yellow Birds. It was made using portions and cutouts from Paul Klee ‘s paintings .

extra musical interpretations [edit ]

architectural honors [edit ]

Since 1995, the “ Paul Klee-Archiv ” ( Paul Klee archive ) of the University of Jena houses an across-the-board collection of works by Klee. It is located within the artwork history department, established by Franz-Joachim Verspohl. It encompasses the private library of book collector Rolf Sauerwein which contains closely 700 works from 30 years composed of monograph about Klee, exhibition catalogues, across-the-board junior-grade literature ampere well as in the first place illustrated issues, a postcard and a sign photography portrayal of Klee. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] Architect Renzo Piano constructed the Zentrum Paul Klee in June 2005. Located in Bern, the museum exhibits about 150 ( of 4000 Klee works overall ) in a six-month rotation, as it is impossible to show all of his works at once. furthermore, his pictures require rest periods ; they contain relatively light-sensitive colors, inks and papers, which may bleach, change, turn brown and become brittle if exposed to light up for excessively long. [ 107 ] The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art has a comprehensive Klee collection, donated by Carl Djerassi. other exhibitions include the Sammlung Rosengart in Luzern, the Albertina in Wien and the Berggruen Museum in Berlin. Schools in Gersthofen, Lübeck ; Klein-Winternheim, Overath ; his set of parentage Münchenbuchsee and Düsseldorf bear his name .

tribute [edit ]

In 2018, a Google Doodle was created to celebrate his 139th birthday. [ 108 ]

Publications [edit ]

Books, essays and lectures by Paul Klee [edit ]

  • 1922 Beiträge zur bildnerischen Formlehre (‘Contributions to a pictorial theory of form’, part of his 1921–22 lectures at the Bauhaus)
  • 1923 Wege des Naturstudiums (‘Ways of Studying Nature’), 4 pages. Published in the catalogue for the Erste Bauhaus Ausstellung (First Bauhaus Exhibition) in Summer 1923. Also published in Paul Klee Notebooks vol 1.
  • 1924 Über moderne Kunst (‘On Modern Art’), lecture held at Paul Klee’s exhibition at the Kunstverein in Jena on 26 January 1924
  • 1924 Pädagogisches Skizzenbuch (‘Pedagogical Sketchbook’)
  • 1949 Documente und Bilder aus den Jahren 1896–1930, (‘Documents and images from the years 1896–1930’), Berne, Benteli
  • 1956 Graphik, (‘Graphics’), Berne, Klipstein & Kornfeld
  • 1956 Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre (‘Writings on form and design theory’) edited by Jürg Spiller (English edition: ‘Paul Klee Notebooks’)
    • 1956 Band I: Das bildnerische Denken., (‘Volume I: the creative thinking’). 572 pages review. (English translation from German by Ralph Manheim: ‘The thinking eye’)
    • 1964 Band 2: Unendliche Naturgeschichte (‘Volume 2: Infinite Natural History’) (English translation from German by Heinz Norden: ‘The Nature of Nature’)
  • 1964 The Diaries of Paul Klee 1898–1918 ed. Felix Klee Berkeley, University of California
  • 1976 Schriften, Rezensionen und Aufsätze edited by Ch. Geelhaar, Köln,
  • 1960 Gedichte, poems, edited by Felix Klee
  • 1962 Some poems by Paul Klee ed Anselm Hollo. London

See besides [edit ]

Notes and references [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

further read [edit ]

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