This article is about the city in Russia. For the city in the U.S. express of Florida, see St. Petersburg, Florida. For other uses, see Saint Petersburg ( disambiguation ) “ Leningrad ” redirects here. For other uses, see Leningrad ( disambiguation ) “ st ” redirects here. not to be confused with Petrovgrad
Reading: Saint Petersburg – Wikipedia
federal city in Northwestern, Russia
Saint Petersburg ( russian : Санкт-Петербург, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA : [ ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk ] ( ) ), once known as Petrograd ( 1914–1924 ) and late Leningrad ( 1924–1991 ), is the second-largest city in Russia. It is situated on the Neva River, at the oral sex of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, with a population of roughly 5.4 million residents. [ 9 ] Saint Petersburg is the fourth-most populous city in Europe, the most populous city on the Baltic Sea, vitamin a well as the earth ‘s northernmost city with over 1 million residents. As Russia ‘s Imperial capital, and a historically strategic port, it is governed as a federal city. The city was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703 on the locate of a get Swedish fortress, and was named after apostle Saint Peter. In Russia, Saint Petersburg is historically and culturally associated with the birth of the Russian Empire and Russia ‘s entrance into modern history as a european big ability. [ 10 ] It served as a das kapital of the Tsardom of Russia, and the subsequent Russian Empire, from 1713 to 1918 ( being replaced by Moscow for a abruptly menstruation of clock time between 1728 and 1730 ). [ 11 ] After the October Revolution in 1917, the Bolsheviks moved their politics to Moscow. [ 12 ] Saint Petersburg is known as the “ cultural capital of Russia, ” [ 13 ] and received over 15 million tourists in 2018. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] It is considered an authoritative economic, scientific, cultural, and tourism center of Russia and Europe. In advanced times, the city has the nickname of the “ Northern Capital ” and serves as a home to some federal government bodies such as the Constitutional Court of Russia and the Heraldic Council of the President of the russian Federation. It is besides a induct for the National Library of Russia and a planned localization for the Supreme Court of Russia, a well as the home to the headquarters of the Russian Navy, and the western Military District of the Russian Armed Forces. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museum in the world, the Lakhta Center, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and was one of the horde cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup and the UEFA Euro 2020 .
etymology [edit ]
A advocate of westernising Russia, Peter the Great, the then Tsar, who established the city, in the first place named it Sankt-Pieter-Burch ( Сан ( к ) т-Питер-Бурхъ ) in Dutch manner and former its spell was standardised as Sankt-Peterburg ( Санкт-Петербургъ [ a ] ) under german influence. [ 16 ] On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the imperial government renamed the city Petrograd ( russian : Петроград [ a ], IPA : [ pʲɪtrɐˈgrat ] ), [ 17 ] meaning ‘Peter ‘s city ‘, in ordering to expunge the german words Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, curtly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad ( russian : Ленинград, IPA : [ lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat ] ), meaning ‘Lenin ‘s City ‘. On 6 September 1991, the original identify, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned by citywide referendum. today, in English the city is known as Saint Petersburg. local residents often refer to the city by its abbreviated nickname, Piter ( russian : Питер, IPA : [ ˈpʲitʲɪr ] ). A former spell of the city ‘s name in English was Saint Petersburgh, under the charm of burgh. This spelling survives in the name of a street in the Bayswater district of London, near St Sophia ‘s Cathedral, named after a visit by the Tsar to London in 1814. [ 18 ] Saint Petersburg was traditionally called the “ Window to the West ” by the Russians. The northernmost city in the world, Saint Petersburg is often called the “ Venice of the North ” or the “ russian Venice ” due to its many water corridors, as the city is built on swamp and water. furthermore, it has strongly western European-inspired architecture and acculturation, which is combined with the city ‘s russian inheritance. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Another nickname of St. Petersburg is “ The City of the White Nights ” because of a natural phenomenon which arises due to the familiarity to the polar region and ensures that in summer the night skies of the city do not get wholly dark for a month. [ 22 ] [ 23 ]
history [edit ]
Imperial earned run average ( 1703–1917 ) [edit ]
Bronze Horseman, monument to Peter the Great The, memorial to Peter the Great Map of Saint Petersburg, 1744 swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, which was later called Ingermanland, which was inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians. The small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the seventeenth hundred, Peter the Great, who was interest in seafaring and nautical affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport to trade with the rest of Europe. [ 24 ] He needed a better seaport than the country ‘s main one at the time, Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter. On 12 May [ O.S. 1 May ] 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. [ 25 ] On 27 May [ O.S. 16 May ] 1703, [ 26 ] close to the estuary ( 5 kilometer ( 3 nautical mile ) inland from the gulf ), on Zayachy ( Hare ) Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone construct of the fresh city. [ 27 ] The city was built by conscript peasants from all over Russia ; several swedish prisoners of war were besides involved in some years under the supervision of Alexander Menshikov. [ 28 ] Tens of thousands of serf died building the city. [ 29 ] Later, the city became the center of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war ; he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital ( or seat of politics ) a early as 1704. [ 24 ] While the city was being built Peter lived in a three-room log cabin with Catherine, where she did the cook and wish for the children, and he tended a garden as though they were an ordinary couple. [ citation needed ]
During its beginning few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the mighty bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. however, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the swiss italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a undertaking whereby the city center would be on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed but is apparent in the layout of the streets. In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the headman architect of Saint Petersburg. [ 30 ] The expressive style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became outstanding in the city computer architecture of the early eighteenth hundred. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at age fifty-two. His endeavors to modernize Russia had met with resistance from the russian nobility —resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. [ 31 ] In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow. But four years belated, in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the russian Tsars, vitamin a well as the seat of the russian government, for another 186 years until the communist rotation of 1917. In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a newfangled plan in 1737. The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka .
It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty build up and are now known as Nevsky Prospect ( which is considered the main street of the city ), Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Avenue. Baroque computer architecture became dominant allele in the city during the beginning sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque computer architecture was succeeded by neoclassic architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled no structure in the city can be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings. During the predominate of Catherine the Great in the 1760s–1780s, the banks of the Neva were lined with granite embankments. however, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent wave bridge across the Neva, Annunciation Bridge, was allowed to open. Before that, entirely pontoon bridges were allowed. Obvodny Canal ( dig in 1769–1833 ) became the southerly limit of the city. The most big neoclassic and Empire-style architects in Saint Petersburg included :
In 1810, Alexander I established the first mastermind Higher education, the Saint Petersburg Main military mastermind School in Saint Petersburg. many monuments commemorate the russian victory over Napoleonic France in the Patriotic War of 1812, including the Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva Triumphal Arch. In 1825, the suppressed Decembrist revolt against Nicholas I took place on the Senate Square in the city, a day after Nicholas assumed the throne. By the 1840s, neoclassic architecture had given room to versatile sentimentalist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider ( Mariinsky Palace, Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, New Michael Palace ) and Konstantin Thon ( Moskovsky railway post ). With the emancipation of the serf undertaken by Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the inflow of former peasants into the capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the outskirts of the city. Saint Petersburg surpassed Moscow in population and industrial emergence ; it developed as one of the largest industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval basis ( in Kronstadt ), river, and seaport. The names of Saints Peter and Paul, bestowed upon master city ‘s bastion and its cathedral ( from 1725—a burial vault of russian emperors ) coincidentally were the names of the inaugural two assassinate russian Emperors, Peter III ( 1762, purportedly killed in a conspiracy led by his wife, Catherine the Great ) and Paul I ( 1801, Nikolay Alexandrovich Zubov and other conspirators who brought to ability Alexander I, the son of their victim ). The third emperor ‘s assassination took place in Saint Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II fell victim to terrorists ( see the Church of the Savior on Blood ). The Revolution of 1905 began in Saint Petersburg and spread quickly into the provinces. On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, [ 17 ] meaning “ Peter ‘s City ”, to remove the german words Sankt and Burg .
revolution and soviet earned run average ( 1917–1941 ) [edit ]
In March 1917, during the February Revolution Nicholas II abdicated for himself and on behalf of his son, ending the russian monarchy and over three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule .
Leningrad in 1935 On 7 November [ O.S. 25 October ] 1917, the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, stormed the Winter Palace in an event known thereafter as the October Revolution, which led to the end of the post-Tsarist probationary politics, the transfer of all political power to the Soviets, and the rise of the Communist Party. [ 32 ] After that the city acquired a new descriptive name, “ the city of three revolutions ”, [ 33 ] referring to the three major developments in the political history of Russia of the early twentieth hundred. In September and October 1917, german troops invaded the West estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with barrage and invasion. On 12 March 1918, the Soviets transferred the government to Moscow, to keep it aside from the state surround. During the Russian Civil War, in mid-1919 russian anti-communist forces with the help of Estonians attempted to capture the city, but Leon Trotsky mobilized the army and forced them to retreat back to Estonia. On 26 January 1924, five days after Lenin ‘s death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. late some streets and other place name were renamed accordingly. The city has over 230 places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums, [ 34 ] including the cruiser Aurora —a symbol of the October Revolution and the oldest ship in the russian Navy. In the 1920s and 1930s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into regularly planned boroughs. constructivist architecture flourished around that meter. Housing became a government-provided agreeableness ; many “ businessperson ” apartments were so big that numerous families were assigned to what were called “ communal ” apartments ( kommunalkas ). By the 1930s, 68 % of the population lived in such housing. In 1935 a newly cosmopolitan plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the south. constructivism was rejected in favor of a more grandiloquent Stalinist computer architecture. Moving the city centre further from the boundary line with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a raw city anteroom with a huge adjacent feather at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt, designated as the new main street of Leningrad. After the Winter ( Soviet-Finnish ) war in 1939–1940, the Soviet–Finnish molding moved northwards. Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Square maintained the functions and the character of a city centre. In December 1931, Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast. At that prison term it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in 1936 and turned into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District ( renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944 ). [ 35 ] On 1 December 1934, Sergey Kirov, the popular communist leader of Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the guise for the Great Purge. [ 36 ] In Leningrad, approximately 40,000 were executed during Stalin ‘s purges. [ 37 ]
World War II ( 1941–1945 ) [edit ]
Citizens of Leningrad during the 872-day siege, in which more than one million civilians died, by and large from starvation. Nevsky Prospect During World War II, german forces besieged Leningrad following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. [ 38 ] The siege lasted 872 days, or about two and a half years, [ 38 ] from 8 September 1941 to 27 January 1944. [ 39 ] The Siege of Leningrad proved one of the longest, most destructive, and most deadly sieges of a major city in advanced history. It isolated the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga, which could not make it through until the lake literally freeze. More than one million civilians were killed, chiefly from starvation. many others escaped or were evacuated, so the city became largely depopulated. On 1 May 1945 Joseph Stalin, in his Supreme Commander Order No. 20, named Leningrad, aboard Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odessa, hero cities of the war. A law acknowledging the honorary title of “ Hero City ” passed on 8 May 1965 ( the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War ), during the Brezhnev era. The presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded Leningrad as a Hero City the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal “ for the desperate resistance of the city and doggedness of the survivors of the Siege ”. The Hero-City Obelisk bearing the Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985 .
Post-war soviet era ( 1945–1991 ) [edit ]
In October 1946 some territories along the northerly slide of the Gulf of Finland, which had passed to the USSR from Finland in 1940 under the peace treaty following the Winter War, were transferred from Leningrad Oblast to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District. These included the town of Terijoki ( renamed Zelenogorsk in 1948 ). [ 35 ] Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to pre-war plans. The 1948 general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban development in the union equally well as in the south. In 1953 Pavlovsky District in Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its district, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo, Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with Leningrad. [ 35 ] Leningrad gave its name to the Leningrad Affair ( 1949–1952 ), a noteworthy event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR. It was a product of competition between Stalin ‘s likely successors where one side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party organization—the second most significant one in the state after Moscow. The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed, including the erstwhile mayor Kuznetsov, the acting mayor Pyotr Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies ; overall 23 leaders were sentenced to the death penalty, 181 to prison or expatriate ( exonerated in 1954 ). About 2,000 rank officials across the USSR were expelled from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions. They were accused of russian nationalism. [ 40 ] The Leningrad Metro underground rapid passage system, designed before the war, opened in 1955 with its beginning eight stations decorated with marble and tan. however, after Stalin ‘s end in 1953, the perceive ornamental excesses of the Stalinist computer architecture were abandoned. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts ; while the functionalist apartment blocks were about identical to each other, many families moved there from kommunalkas in the city centre to live in separate apartments .
contemporary earned run average ( 1991–present ) [edit ]
On 12 June 1991, simultaneously with the first russian presidential elections, the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and a referendum upon the city ‘s diagnose, when the mention reverted to Saint Petersburg. The turnout was 65 % ; 66.13 % of the total consider of votes went to Anatoly Sobchak, who became the inaugural immediately elected mayor of the city. meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the area tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the 1940s, food ration was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food help from afield. [ 41 ] This dramatic time was depicted in photographic series of russian photographer Alexey Titarenko. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] Economic conditions began to improve only at the begin of the twenty-first hundred. [ 44 ] In 1995 a northern section of the Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro was cut off by underground flood, creating a major obstacle to the city growth for about ten years. On 13 June 1996 Saint Petersburg, aboard Leningrad Oblast and Tver Oblast, signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy. [ 45 ] This agreement was abolished on 4 April 2002. [ 46 ] In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev defeated Anatoly Sobchak in the elections for the oral sex of the city presidency. The title of the city head was changed from “ mayor ” to “ governor ”. In 2000 Yakovlev won re-election. His second term expired in 2004 ; the long-awaited renovation of the better metro connection was expected to finish by that time. But in 2003 Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor ‘s position to Valentina Matviyenko .
The police on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the custom of democratic election by cosmopolitan right to vote. In 2006 the city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. residential building had intensified again ; real-estate prices inflated greatly, which caused many new problems for the preservation of the diachronic part of the city. Although the cardinal separate of the city has a UNESCO designation ( there are about 8,000 architectural monuments in Petersburg ), the conservation of its historic and architectural environment became controversial. [ 47 ] After 2005, the demolition of older buildings in the historic center was permitted. [ 48 ] In 2006 Gazprom announced an ambitious project to erect a 403 megabyte ( 1,322 foot ) skyscraper ( the Okhta Center ) opposite to Smolny, which [ according to whom? ] could result in the loss of the singular credit line of Petersburg landscape. [ citation needed ] pressing protests by citizens and outstanding public figures of Russia against this undertaking were not considered by Governor Valentina Matviyenko and the city authorities until December 2010, when after the affirmation of President Dmitry Medvedev, the city decided to find a more allow location for this project. In the like year, the fresh localization for the plan was relocated to Lakhta, a diachronic area northwest of the city center, and the raw project would be named Lakhta Center. construction was approved by Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in 2012. The 462 meter ( 1,516 foot ) senior high school Lakhta Center has become the first tallest skyscraper in Russia and Europe outside of Moscow .
geography [edit ]
Satellite effigy of Saint Petersburg and its suburb The area of Saint Petersburg city proper is 605.8 km2 ( 233.9 hearty miles ). The sphere of the federal subject is 1,439 km2 ( 556 sq secret intelligence service ), which contains Saint Petersburg proper ( consisting of eighty-one municipal okrugs ), nine municipal towns – ( Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Petergof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk ) – and twenty-one municipal settlements. Petersburg is on the center taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, and islands of the river delta. The largest are Vasilyevsky Island ( besides the artificial island between Obvodny canal and Fontanka, and Kotlin in the Neva Bay ), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky. The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny Island are covered largely by parks. The karelian Isthmus, North of the city, is a popular haunt area. In the south, Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Plateau. The elevation of Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea flush to its highest point of 175.9 meter ( 577 foot ) at the Orekhovaya Hill in the Duderhof Heights in the south. part of the city ‘s territory west of Liteyny Prospekt is no higher than 4 thousand ( 13 foot ) above sea tied, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea, caused by meteorologic conditions, winds and superficiality of the Neva Bay. The five most black floods occurred in 1824 ( 4.21 megabyte or 13 foot 10 in above sea level, during which over 300 buildings were destroyed [ b-complex vitamin ] ) ; 1924 ( 3.8 thousand, 12 foot 6 in ) ; 1777 ( 3.21 m, 10 foot 6 in ) ; 1955 ( 2.93 m, 9 foot 7 in ) ; and 1975 ( 2.81 megabyte, 9 foot 3 in ). To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed. [ 49 ] Since the eighteenth hundred, the city ‘s terrain has been raised artificially, at some places by more than 4 megabyte ( 13 foot ), making mergers of respective islands, and changing the hydrology of the city. Besides the Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint Petersburg are Sestra, Okhta and Izhora. The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes, and early smaller lakes. due to its north wind location at c. 60° N latitude the day length in Petersburg varies across seasons, ranging from 5 hours 53 minutes to 18 hours 50 minutes. A menstruation from mid-may to mid-july during which twilight may last all nox is called the white nights. Saint Petersburg is about 165 km ( 103 miles ) from the border with Finland, connected to it via the M10 highway ( E18 ), along which there is besides a connection to the historic city of Vyborg .
climate [edit ]
Under the Köppen climate classification, Saint Petersburg is classified as Dfb, a humid continental climate. The clear-cut moderating influence of Baltic Sea cyclones results in warm, humid, and short summers and long, reasonably cold wet winters. The climate of Saint Petersburg is close to that of Helsinki, although cold in winter and warm in summer because of its more eastern localization. The average utmost temperature in July is 23 °C ( 73 °F ), and the average minimum temperature in February is −8.5 °C ( 16.7 °F ) ; an extreme temperature of 37.1 °C ( 98.8 °F ) occurred during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer hotness wave. A winter minimal of −35.9 °C ( −32.6 °F ) was recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is 5.8 °C ( 42.4 °F ). The Neva River within the city limits normally freezes up in November–December and break-up occurs in April. From December to March there are 118 days on average with snow brood, which reaches an average snow astuteness of 19 curium ( 7.5 in ) by February. [ 50 ] The frost-free menstruation in the city lasts on modal for about 135 days. Despite St. Petersburg ‘s northern localization, its winters are warmer than Moscow ‘s ascribable to the Gulf of Finland and some Gulf Stream influence from scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly above freeze. The city besides has a slightly warmer climate than its suburb. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round off. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] average annual precipitation varies across the city, averaging 660 millimeter ( 26 in ) per year and reaching maximal in former summer. Due to the cool climate, soil moisture is about constantly high because of lower evapotranspiration. Air humidity is 78 % on average, and there are, on median, 165 cloudiness days per year .
|Climate data for Saint Petersburg (1991–2020; extremes 1743–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.7
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||46
|Average extreme snow depth cm (inches)||15
|Average rainy days||9||7||10||13||16||18||17||17||20||20||16||10||173|
|Average snowy days||25||23||16||8||1||0.1||0||0||0.1||5||16||23||117|
|Average relative humidity (%)||86||84||79||69||65||69||71||76||80||83||86||87||78|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||22||54||125||180||260||276||267||213||129||70||27||13||1,636|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)|
toponymy [edit ]
The first and fairly rich people chapter of the history of the local toponymy is the narrative of the city ‘s name. The mention day of Peter I falls on 29 June, when the Russian Orthodox Church observes the memory of saint apostles Peter and Paul. The consecration of the modest wooden church service in their names ( its construction began at the like time as the bastion ) made them the celestial patrons of the Peter and Paul Fortress, while Saint Peter at the same fourth dimension became the eponym of the wholly city. When in June 1703 Peter the Great gave the web site a newfangled name after Saint Peter, he did not issue a name act that established an official spell ; even in his own letters he used divers spellings, such as Санктьпетерсьбурк ( Sanktpetersburk ), emulating german Sankt Petersburg, and Сантпитербурх ( Santpiterburkh ), emulating dutch Sint-Pietersburgh, as Peter was multilingual and a Neerlandophile. The name was later normalized and russified to Санкт-Петербург. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ] While not primitively named for Tsar Peter the Great, during World War I the city was changed from the Germanic “ Peterburg ” to “ Petrograd ” in his honor. A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved besides cumbersome, and many bowdlerize versions were used. The foremost General Governor of the city Menshikov is possibly besides the author of the first gear dub of Petersburg which he called Петри ( Petri ). It took some years until the know russian spell of this name ultimately settled. In 1740s Mikhail Lomonosov uses a derivative of greek : Πετρόπολις ( Петрополис, Petropolis ) in a Russified shape Petropol’ ( Петрополь ). A jazz band Piterpol ( Питерпол ) besides appears at this time. [ 57 ] In any case, finally the custom of prefix “ Sankt- “ end except for the formal official documents, where a three-letter abbreviation “ СПб ” ( SPB ) was very wide used adenine well. In the 1830s Alexander Pushkin translated the “ extraneous ” city name of “ Saint Petersburg ” to the more russian Petrograd in one of his poem. however, it was only on 31 August [ O.S. 18 August ] 1914, after the war with Germany had begun, that Tsar Nicholas II renamed the capital to Petrograd. Since the prefix “ Saint ” was omitted, [ 58 ] this work besides changed the eponym and the “ patron ” of the city from Saint Peter to Peter the Great, its fall through. [ 56 ] From 1924 to 1991 the city was known as ‘Leningrad ‘. This is a photograph of the Saint Petersburg port entrance with an erstwhile ‘Ленинград ‘ ( Leningrad ) sign. After the October Revolution the identify Red Petrograd ( Красный Петроград, Krasny Petrograd ) was often used in newspapers and other prints until the city was renamed Leningrad in January 1924. A referendum on reversing the rename of Leningrad was held on 12 June 1991, with 54.86 % of voters ( with a output of 65 % ) supporting “ Saint Petersburg “. Renaming the city Petrograd was not an choice. This change officially took consequence on 6 September 1991. [ 41 ] meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is besides in Saint Petersburg is distillery named Leningrad. Having passed the function of capital to Petersburg, Moscow never relinquished the deed of “ capital ”, being called pervoprestolnaya ( “ first-throned ” ) for 200 years. An equivalent name for Petersburg, the “ Northern Capital ”, has re-enter usage nowadays since several federal institutions were recently moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. Solemn descriptive names like “ the city of three revolutions ” and “ the cradle of the October revolution “ used in the soviet earned run average are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here. For their separate, poetic names of the city, like the “ Venice of the North “ and the “ Northern Palmyra “ emphasize town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels to the northerly placement of this megalopolis. [ 59 ] Petropolis is a translation of a city appoint to Greek, and is besides a kind of descriptive name : Πέτρ- is a greek solution for “ stone ”, so the “ city from stone ” emphasizes the material that had been forcibly made obligatory for construction from the inaugural years of the city. [ 57 ] ( The proper Greek translation is Αγία Πετρούπολη, Agia Petroupoli. )
Demographics [edit ]
People walking on the main street of Saint Petersburg, Nevsky Prospekt Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the 2017 Rosstat, the federal subjugate ‘s population is 5,281,579 or 3.6 % of the sum population of Russia ; [ citation needed ] up from 4,879,566 ( 3.4 % ) recorded in the 2010 Census, [ 60 ] and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the 1989 Census. [ 61 ]
|Source: Census data|
- Vital statistics for 2016
- Births: 72 879 (13.9 per 1000)
- Deaths: 61 459 (11.7 per 1000)
Total fertility rate: [ 63 ] 2010 – 1.38 | 2011 – 1.38 | 2012 – 1.48 | 2013 – 1.48 | 2014 – 1.52 | 2015 – 1.59 | 2016 – 1.63 | 2017 – 1.50 | 2018 – 1.47 | 2019 – 1.40 | 2020 – 1.37 Ethnic composition (2010): [ 64 ]
During the twentieth century, the city experienced dramatic population changes. From 2.4 million residents in 1916, its population dropped to less than 740,000 by 1920 during the russian Revolution of 1917 and Russian Civil War. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were about completely transferred from Leningrad during the 1930s. [ 65 ] From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3 million to less than 600,000, as people died in battles, starved to death or were evacuated during the Siege of Leningrad. Some evacuees returned after the siege, but most inflow was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. The city absorbed about 3 million people in the 1950s and grew to over 5 million in the 1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city ‘s population decreased to 4.6 million, while the suburban population increased ascribable to denationalization of land and massive move to suburbs. Based on the 2010 census results the population is over 4.8 million. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] For the first one-half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000 [ 68 ] and remained lower than the death rate ( until 2012 [ 69 ] ) ; people over 65 constitute more than twenty percentage of the population ; and the median age is about 40 years. [ 70 ] Since 2012 the birth pace became higher than the death pace. [ 69 ] But in 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic caused a drop in parturition rate, and the city population decreased to 5,395,000 people. [ 71 ]
religion [edit ]
According to respective public opinion polls, more than half of the residents of Saint Petersburg “ believe in God “ ( up to 67 % according to VTsIOM data for 2002 ). Among the believers, the overwhelm majority of the residents of the city are Orthodox ( 57.5 % ), followed by small minority communities of Muslims ( 0.7 % ), Protestants ( 0.6 % ), and Catholics ( 0.5 % ), and Buddhists ( 0.1 % ). [ 72 ] In entire, roughly 59 % of the population of the city is christian, of which over 90 % are Orthodox. [ 72 ] Non-Abrahamic religions and other faiths are represented by entirely 1.2 % of the sum population. [ 72 ] There are 268 communities of confessions and religious associations in the city : the russian Orthodox Church ( 130 associations ), Pentecostalism ( 23 associations ), the Lutheranism ( 19 associations ), Baptism ( 13 associations ), ampere well as Old Believers, Roman Catholic Church, Armenian Apostolic Church, Georgian Orthodox Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Judaism, Buddhist, Muslim, Bahá’í and others. [ 72 ] 229 religious buildings in the city are owned or run by religious associations. Among them are architectural monuments of federal meaning. The oldest cathedral in the city is the Peter and Paul Cathedral, built between 1712–1733, and the largest is the Kazan Cathedral, completed in 1811 .
government [edit ]
Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia ( a federal city ). [ 75 ] The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. [ 76 ] The lake superior administrator body is the Saint Petersburg City Administration, led by the city governor ( mayor before 1996 ). Saint Petersburg has a single-chamber legislature, the Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly, which is the city ‘s regional parliament .
According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint Petersburg, were nominated by the President of Russia and approved by local anesthetic legislatures. Should the legislature disapprove the campaigner, the President could dissolve it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according to the newly system in December 2006. She was the merely woman governor in the whole of Russia until her resignation on 22 August 2011. Matviyenko stood for elections as penis of the Regional Council of Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging and vote stuff by the opposition. russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the placement of Speaker to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job. After her resignation, Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the lapp day. In 2012, following passage of a new federal jurisprudence, [ 77 ] restoring direct elections of heads of union subjects, the city rent was again amended to provide for send elections of governor. [ 78 ] On 3 October 2018, Poltavchenko resigned, and Alexander Beglov was appointed acting governor. [ 4 ] Saint Petersburg is besides the unofficial but de facto administrative center of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District. [ 79 ] The Constitutional Court of Russia moved to Saint Petersburg from Moscow in May 2008. Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a count of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB, postal military service, drug enforcement government, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services .
administrative divisions [edit ]
economy [edit ]
Saint Petersburg is a major deal gateway, serving as the fiscal and industrial center of Russia, with specializations in petroleum and gas deal ; shipbuilding yards ; aerospace industry ; engineering, including radio, electronics, software, and computers ; machine construction, clayey machinery and tape drive, including tanks and other military equipment ; mining ; instrument manufacture ; ferric and nonferrous metallurgy ( output of aluminum alloys ) ; chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment ; publish and impression ; food and provide ; sweeping and retail ; fabric and dress industries ; and many other businesses. It was besides home to Lessner, one of Russia ‘s two pioneering automobile manufacturers ( along with Russo-Baltic ) ; it was founded by machine instrument and boilermaker G.A. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until 1910. [ 81 ]
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In 2006, Saint Petersburg ‘s city budget was 180 billion rubles ( about 7 billion US $ at 2006 rally rates ) ,. [ 85 ] The union topic ‘s Gross Regional Product as of 2016 was 3.7 trillion russian rubles ( or around US $ 70 billion ), ranked 2nd in Russia, after Moscow [ 86 ] and per caput of US $ 13,000, ranked 12th among Russia ‘s federal subjects, [ 87 ] contributed by and large by sweeping and retail craft and repair services ( 24.7 % ) a well as work diligence ( 20.9 % ) and exile and telecommunications ( 15.1 % ). [ 88 ] Budget revenues of the city in 2009 amounted to 294.3 billion rubles ( about 10.044 billion US $ at 2009 commute rates ), expenses – 336.3 billion rubles ( about 11.477 billion US $ at 2009 exchange rates ). The budget deficit amounted to about 42 billion rubles. [ 89 ] ( about 1.433 billion US $ at 2009 rally rates ) In 2015, St. Petersburg was ranked in 4th invest economically amongst all federal subjects of the russian Federation, surpassed only by Moscow, the Tyumen and Moscow Region. [ 90 ]
cityscape [edit ]
Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers : Leader Tower ( 140 megabyte ), Alexander Nevsky ( 124 thousand ) and Atlantic City ( 105 megabyte ) all far from the historical center. Regulations forbid the construction of improbable buildings in the city center. The 310-meter ( 1,020 foot ) tall Saint Petersburg television Tower is the tallest accomplished structure in the city. however, there was a controversial project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta Center, to build a 396 meters ( 1,299 foot ) supertall skyscraper. In 2008, the World Monuments Fund included the Saint Petersburg historic horizon on the watch list of the 100 most endangered sites due to the expected structure, which threatens to alter it drastically. [ 91 ] The Okhta Center stick out was cancelled at the end of 2010 and the Lakhta Center undertaking began in the city ‘s outskirts. The complex includes 463-metre-tall ( 1,519-foot ) function skyscraper and respective gloomy rise mixed-use buildings. The Lakhta Center project has caused much less controversy. Unlike the previous unbuilt project, it is not seen by UNESCO as a potential threat to the city ‘s cultural inheritance because it is far from the diachronic center. The skyscraper was completed in 2019, and at 462.5 metres, it is presently the tallest in Russia and Europe .
Unlike in Moscow, the historic architecture of Saint Petersburg ‘s city centre, largely Baroque and Neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved ; although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks ‘ seizure of exponent, during the Siege of Leningrad and in late years. [ citation needed ] The oldest of the remaining construct is a wooden house built for Peter I in 1703 on the prop up of the Neva near Trinity Square. Since 1991 the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast have been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The ensemble of Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral takes a prevailing situation on Zayachy Island along the veracious bank of the Neva River. Each noon a cannon fires a space shoot from the fortress. The Saint Petersburg Mosque, the largest mosque in Europe when opened in 1913, is on the right bank nearby. The Spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva, is connected to the northerly bank ( Petrogradsky Island ) via the Exchange Bridge and occupied by the Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns. The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city ‘s oldest buildings, dating from the eighteenth hundred, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts. It hosts one of two campuses of Saint Petersburg State University. On the southerly, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge, lie the Admiralty build, the huge Hermitage Museum complex stretch along the Palace Embankment, which includes the Baroque Winter Palace, former official residence of russian emperors, vitamin a well as the neoclassic Marble Palace. The Winter Palace faces Palace Square, the city ‘s main squarely with the Alexander Column. Nevsky Prospekt, besides on the left bank of the Neva, is the city ‘s main avenue. It starts at the Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moika ( Green Bridge ), Griboyedov Canal ( Kazansky Bridge ), Garden Street, the Fontanka ( Anichkov Bridge ), meets Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station, where it meets Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The passage, Catholic Church of St. Catherine, Book House ( former Singer Manufacturing Company Building in the Art Nouveau expressive style ), Grand Hotel Europe, Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Great Gostiny Dvor, Russian National Library, Alexandrine Theatre behind Mikeshin ‘s statue of Catherine the Great, Kazan Cathedral, Stroganov Palace, Anichkov Palace and Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace are all along that avenue .
The Alexander Nevsky Lavra, intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, is an crucial center of christian education in Russia. It besides contains the Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many celebrated Petersburgers. On the territory between the Neva and Nevsky Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace house the Russian Museum, Field of Mars, St. Michael ‘s Castle, Summer Garden, Tauride Palace, Smolny Institute and Smolny Convent are located. many noteworthy landmarks are to the west and south of the Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace, Hotel Astoria, celebrated Mariinsky Theatre, New Holland Island, Saint Isaac ‘s Cathedral, the largest in the city, and Senate Square, with the Bronze Horseman, 18th-century equestrian repository to Peter the Great, which is considered among the city ‘s most recognizable symbols. early symbols of Saint Petersburg include the weather vane in the form of a little ship on top of the Admiralty ‘s golden steeple and the gold saint on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Palace Bridge draw at night is however another symbol of the city. From April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea according to a schedule. [ 92 ] It was not until 2004 that the beginning high bridge across the Neva, which does not need to be drawn, Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. The most noteworthy bridges of our days are Korabelny and Petrovsky cable-stayed bridges, which form the most spectacular part of the city toll road, western High-Speed Diameter. There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint Petersburg spanning numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most authoritative of which are the Moika, Fontanka, Griboyedov Canal, Obvodny Canal, Karpovka and Smolenka. Due to the intricate vane of canals, Saint Petersburg is often called Venice of the North. The rivers and canals in the city center are lined with granite embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or frame cast-iron parapets .
Southern suburb of the city have erstwhile imperial residences, including Petergof, with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassic Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk, which has a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of Europe ‘s largest English-style parks. Some other residences nearby and making part of the populace inheritance web site, including a castle and park in Gatchina, actually belong to Leningrad Oblast quite than Saint Petersburg. Another luminary suburb is Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland. Since around the end of the twentieth hundred a big bargain of active build up and restitution works have been carried out in a phone number of the city ‘s older districts. The authorities have recently been compelled to transfer the possession of state-owned secret residences in the city centre to private lessors. many older buildings have been reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses. Some of these structures, such as the Saint Petersburg Commodity and Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors. [ 93 ]
Parks [edit ]
Saint Petersburg is home to many parks and gardens. Some of the most well-known are in the southerly suburbs, including Pavlovsk, one of Europe ‘s largest english gardens. Sosnovka is the largest park within the city limits, occupying 240 hour angle. The Summer Garden is the oldest, dating back to the early eighteenth century and designed in the regular style. It is on the Neva ‘s southern bank at the read/write head of the Fontanka and is celebrated for its cast cast-iron rail and marble sculptures. Among other noteworthy parks are the Maritime Victory Park on Krestovsky Island and the Moscow Victory Park in the south, both commemorating the victory over Nazi Germany in the second World War, a well as the Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying Yelagin Island and the Tauride Garden around the Tauride Palace. The most common trees grown in the parks are the English oak, Norway maple, green ash, ash grey birch, siberian Larch, blue dapper, fracture willow, limes, and poplars. Important dendrological collections dating back to the nineteenth hundred are hosted by the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of the Forestry Academy. In order to commemorate 300 years anniversary of Saint Petersburg a raw parking lot was laid out. The ballpark is in the northwestern separate of the city. The construction was started in 1995. It is planned to connect the ballpark with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta Center ‘s refreshment areas. In the park 300 trees of valuable sorts, 300 cosmetic apple trees, 70 limes. 300 other trees and bushes were planted. These trees were presented to Saint Petersburg by non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its sister-cities, the city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia, German Savings Bank and early people and organizations. [ 94 ]
tourism [edit ]
Saint Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural inheritance. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] [ 100 ] [ 101 ] The city ‘s 18th and 19th-century architectural ensemble and its environs is preserved in about unchanged kind. For diverse reasons ( including large-scale end during World War II and structure of modern buildings during the postwar period in the largest historic centres of Europe ), Saint Petersburg has become a unique reserve of european architectural styles of the past three centuries. Saint Petersburg ‘s loss of das kapital city status helped it retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as mod architectural ‘prestige projects ‘ tended to be built in Moscow ; this largely prevented the surface of mid-to-late-20th hundred architecture and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city centre .
Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list as an area with 36 diachronic architectural complexes and around 4000 outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture. New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for those wishing to see Saint Petersburg ‘s cultural heritage. The city has 221 museums, 2,000 libraries, more than 80 theatres, 100 concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinema, and 80 other cultural establishments. Every year the city hosts around 100 festivals and diverse competitions of artwork and polish, including more than 50 international ones. [ citation needed ] Despite the economic instability of the 1990s, not a individual major dramaturgy or museum was closed in Saint Petersburg ; on the adverse many newly ones opened, for exercise a private museum of puppets ( opened in 1999 ) is the one-third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of more than 2000 dolls are presented including ‘The multinational Saint Petersburg ‘ and Pushkin ‘s Petersburg. The museum earth of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum and the Russian Museum with its fat collection of russian art, but besides the palaces of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs, alleged small-town museums and others like the museum of celebrated russian writer Dostoyevsky ; Museum of Musical Instruments, the museum of cosmetic arts and the museum of professional orientation .
The musical life of Saint Petersburg is rich and divers, with the city nowadays playing host to a number of annual carnivals. Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of the best in the populace. Traditions of the russian classical school have been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding educators. The art of celebrated and outstanding Saint Petersburg dancers like Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and is, admired throughout the world. contemporary Petersburg ballet is made up not entirely of traditional russian classical school but besides ballets by those wish Boris Eifman, who expanded the oscilloscope of rigid classical music russian ballet to about impossible limits. Remaining faithful to the classical music basis ( he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet ), he combined classical music ballet with the avant-garde style, and then, in flex, with acrobatics, rhythmical gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, film, color, light, and ultimately with speak son .
Media and communications [edit ]
All major russian newspapers are active in Saint Petersburg. The city has a developed telecommunication organization. In 2014, Rostelecom, the national operator, announced the begin of a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city. [ 102 ]
culture [edit ]
Museums [edit ]
Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them in historic buildings. The largest is the Hermitage Museum that features the interiors of the former imperial residence and a huge collection of art. The russian Museum is a large museum devoted to russian fine art. The apartments of some celebrated Petersburgers, including Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Feodor Chaliapin, Alexander Blok, Vladimir Nabokov, Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Joseph Brodsky, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as some palace and ballpark ensembles of the southern suburbs and celebrated architectural monuments such as St. Isaac ‘s Cathedral, have besides been turned into public museums. The Kunstkamera, with its collection established in 1714 by Peter the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes considered the first gear museum in Russia, which has evolved into the contemporary Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The russian Ethnography Museum, which has been split from the Russian Museum, is devoted to the cultures of the people of Russia, the former Soviet Union and Russian Empire. A count of museums provide insight into the soviet history of Saint Petersburg, including the museum of the Blockade, which describes the Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains many authoritarian features of the USSR. early luminary museums include the Central Naval Museum, and Zoological Museum, Central Soil Museum, the russian Railway Museum, Suvorov Museum, Museum of the Siege of Leningrad, Erarta Museum of Contemporary Art, the largest non-governmental museum of contemporary art in Russia, Saint Petersburg Museum of History in the Peter and Paul Fortress and Artillery Museum, which includes not only weapon items, but besides a huge collection of other military equipment, uniforms, and decorations. Amongst others, Saint Petersburg besides hosts State Museum of the History of Religion, one of the eldest museums in Russia about religion depicting cultural representations from respective parts of the ball. [ 103 ]
music [edit ]
The main auditorium of the Mariinsky Theatre Among the city ‘s more than fifty theatres is the Mariinsky Theatre ( once known as the Kirov Theatre ), home to the Mariinsky Ballet company and opera. Leading ballet dancers, such as Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, Rudolph Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Galina Ulanova and Natalia Makarova, were principal stars of the Mariinsky ballet. The first music school, the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, was founded in 1862 by the russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein. The school alumni have included such luminary composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Artur Kapp, Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri Shostakovich, who taught at the conservatory during the 1960s, bringing it extra fame. The celebrated Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov besides taught at the conservatory from 1871 to 1905. Among his students were Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Glazounov, Anatoly Liadov and others. The former St. Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer ‘s only museum .
Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the “ Leningrad Symphony ”. He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March 1942 ; a few months later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg. It was heard over the radio receiver and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. [ 104 ] In 1992, the 7th Symphony was performed by the 14 surviving orchestral players of the Leningrad premier in the same hall as half a century before. [ 105 ] The Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra remained one of the best know symphony orchestra orchestras in the universe under the leadership of conductors Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri Temirkanov. Mravinsky ‘s term as aesthetic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic—a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times—led the orchestra from a little-known provincial ensemble to one of the worldly concern ‘s most highly see orchestras, particularly for the performance of russian music. The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modelled after the royal courts of other european capitals .
Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country. The early soviet sleep together bands founded here included Leopold Teplitsky ‘s First Concert Jazz Band ( 1927, ) Leonid Utyosov ‘s TheaJazz ( 1928, under the clientele of composer Isaak Dunayevsky ) and Georgy Landsberg ‘s Jazz Cappella ( 1929 ). The first sleep together admiration society in the Soviet Union was founded here in 1958 as J58, and by and by named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the democratic ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and Edita Piekha to become the foremost popular band in the USSR during the 1950s. In the 1960s scholar rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals. In 1972 Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium, which late grew to huge popularity. Since then “ Peter ‘s rock ” music manner was formed. In the 1970s many bands came out from the “ underground ” scene and finally founded the Leningrad Rock Club, which provided a stage to bands such as DDT, Kino, Alisa, Zemlyane, Zoopark, Piknik, and Secret. The first gear Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika, mixing over 300 people and animals on stagecoach, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the 1980s. The Sergey Kuryokhin International Festival ( SKIF ) is named after him. In 2004 the Kuryokhin Center was founded, where the SKIF and the Electro-Mechanica and Ethnomechanica festivals take identify. SKIF focuses on experimental crop up music and avant garde music, Electro-Mechanica on electronic music, and Ethnomechanica on world music. today ‘s Saint Petersburg boasts many noteworthy musicians of versatile genres, from popular Leningrad ‘s Sergei Shnurov, Tequilajazzz, Splean, and Korol i Shut, to rock veterans Yuri Shevchuk, Vyacheslav Butusov, and Mikhail Boyarsky. In the early 2000s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore, rapcore, and emocore, and there are bands such as Amatory, Kirpichi, Psychea, Stigmata, Grenouer and Animal Jazz. The White Nights Festival in Saint Petersburg is celebrated for dramatic fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the school year. The rave band Little Big besides hails from Saint Petersburg. Their music video for “ Skibidi “ was filmed in the city, starting at Akademicheskiy Pereulok. [ 106 ]
literature [edit ]
Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world-famous tradition in literature. Dostoyevsky called it “ The most abstract and intentional city in the world ”, emphasizing its artificiality, but it was besides a symbol of modern disorderliness in a change Russia. It often appeared to russian writers as a endanger and cold mechanism. The grotesque and much bloodcurdling effigy of the city is featured in Pushkin ‘s end poem, the Petersburg stories of Gogol, the novels of Dostoyevsky, the verse of Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam, and in the symbolist fresh Petersburg by Andrey Bely. According to Lotman in his chapter, ‘The Symbolism of Saint Petersburg ‘ in Universe and the Mind, these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself. The effect of life in Saint Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and condition besides became an crucial subject for authors such as Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoyevsky. Another authoritative sport of early Saint Petersburg literature is its fabulous chemical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories, as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint Petersburg to haunt early characters american samoa well as early antic elements, creating a phantasmagoric and abstract effigy of Saint Petersburg. 20th-century writers from Saint Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov, Ayn Rand, Andrey Bely and Yevgeny Zamyatin, along with his apprentices, The Serapion Brothers created wholly new styles in literature and contributed new insights to the sympathize of company through their experience in this city. Anna Akhmatova became an authoritative leader for russian poetry. Her poem Requiem adumbrates the perils encountered during the Stalinist earned run average. Another noteworthy 20th-century writer from Saint Petersburg is Joseph Brodsky, recipient role of the Nobel Prize in Literature ( 1987 ). While populate in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint Petersburg from the singular position of being both an insider and an foreigner to the city in essays such as, “ A Guide to a Renamed City ” and the nostalgic “ In a Room and a Half ”. [ 107 ]
film [edit ]
Over 250 external and russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg. [ 108 ] well over a thousand feature films about tsars, rotation, people and stories set in Saint Petersburg have been produced worldwide but not filmed in the city. The beginning film studios were founded in Saint Petersburg in the twentieth century and since the 1920s Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint Petersburg. The first alien feature movie filmed wholly in Saint Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy ‘s Anna Karenina, starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean and made by an external team of British, American, french and russian filmmakers. The cult comedy Irony of Fate [ 109 ] ( besides Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром ! ) is set in Saint Petersburg and pokes fun at soviet city plan. The 1985 film White Nights received considerable western care for having captured genuine Leningrad street scenes at a clock when film in the Soviet Union by western production companies was by and large unheard of. early movies include GoldenEye ( 1995 ), Midnight in Saint Petersburg ( 1996 ), Brother ( 1997 ) and Tamil romantic thriller film – Dhaam Dhoom ( 2008 ). Onegin ( 1999 ) is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In summation, the russian quixotic drollery, Piter FM, elaborately showcases the cityscape, about as if it were a main character in the film. several international film festivals are held per annum, such as the Festival of Festivals, Saint Petersburg, adenine well as the message to Man International Documentary Film Festival, since its inauguration in 1988 during the White Nights. [ 110 ]
Dramatic theater [edit ]
St Petersburg has a number of dramatic theatres and drama schools. These include the Student Theatre on Mokhovaya Street. Учебный театр « На Моховой », Leteiny Theatre and Youth Theatre on the Fontanka .
education [edit ]
As of 2006 –2007, there were 1,024 kindergartens, 716 populace schools and 80 vocational schools in Saint Petersburg. [ 111 ] The largest of the populace higher education institutions is Saint Petersburg State University, enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students ; and the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law. other celebrated universities are Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Herzen University, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance and Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical university. however, the public universities are all union property and do not belong to the city .
Sports [edit ]
Leningrad hosted part of the association football tournament during the 1980 Summer Olympics. The 1994 Goodwill Games were besides held here. In boating, the beginning competition here was the 1703 row consequence initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the swedish fleet. The russian Navy held Yachting events since the foundation of the city. Yacht clubs : [ 112 ] St. Petersburg River Yacht Club, Neva Yacht Club, the latter is the oldest yacht golf club in the global. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are freeze and yachts and dinghies can not be used, local people sail ice boats. Equestrianism has been a long custom, popular among the Tsars and gentry, equally well as separate of military train. respective historic sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the eighteenth hundred to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh. Chess tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament, partially funded by the Tsar, in which the claim “ Grandmaster ” was first formally conferred by russian Tsar Nicholas II to five players : Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall. Kirov Stadium with a capacitance of 70 thousand seats ( now a mod Gazprom Arena since 2017 ) which hosted matches for the 2018 FIFA World Cup is one of the largest stadiums in the world and home to FC Zenit Saint Petersburg from 1950 to 1993 and again in 1995. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game attendance criminal record for soviet football. Zenit have been champions of the Soviet and Russian league eight times, most notably claiming the RPL title in three straight seasons from 2018-19 to 2020-21. The baseball club has besides won the Soviet/Russian Cup on five occasions. One of Zenit ‘s most successful players was Andrei Arshavin, who led the team to claim the UEFA Cup 2007–08 temper and the 2008 UEFA Super Cup. Hockey teams in the city include SKA Saint Petersburg in the KHL, HC VMF St. Petersburg in the VHL, and junior clubs SKA-1946 and Silver Lions in the russian Major League. SKA Saint Petersburg is one of the most popular in the KHL, systematically being at or near the top of the league in attendance. Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice. [ 113 ] well-known players on the team include Pavel Datsyuk, Ilya Kovalchuk, Nikita Gusev, Sergei Shirokov and Viktor Tikhonov. During the NHL lockout, stars Ilya Kovalchuk, Sergei Bobrovsky and Vladimir Tarasenko besides played for the team. They play their home games at Ice Palace Saint Petersburg. The city ‘s long-time basketball team is BC Spartak Saint Petersburg, which launched the career of Andrei Kirilenko. BC Spartak Saint Petersburg won two championships in the USSR Premier League ( 1975 and 1992 ), two USSR Cups ( 1978 and 1987 ), and a russian Cup title ( 2011 ). They besides won the Saporta Cup twice ( 1973 and 1975 ). Legends of the club include Alexander Belov and Vladimir Kondrashin. The city besides has a modern basketball team, BC Zenit Saint Petersburg. Citing the 2022 russian invasion of Ukraine, UEFA removed St Petersburg as server for the 2022 UEFA Champions League Final in February 2022. [ 114 ]
transport [edit ]
Saint Petersburg is a major ecstasy hub. The first russian railroad track was built here in 1837, and since then the city ‘s transport infrastructure has kept pace with the city ‘s growth. Petersburg has an across-the-board system of local roads and railway services, maintains a large populace tape drive system that includes the Saint Petersburg tram and the Saint Petersburg Metro, and is home to several riverine services that convey passengers around the city efficiently and in relative comfort. The city is connected to the rest of Russia and the wide-eyed world by respective federal highways and national and international vilify routes. Pulkovo Airport serves most of the breeze passengers departing from or arriving to the city .
Roads and public conveyance [edit ]
Tram passing by Kronverksy Avenue Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public conveyance ( buses, trams, trolleybuses ) and respective hundred routes served by marshrutkas. Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the chief means of ecstasy ; in the 1980s this was the largest tramcar network globally, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s .
Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over 250 urban and a number of suburban bus routes. Saint Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955 ; it now has 5 lines with 72 stations, connecting all five railroad track terminals, and carrying 2.3 million passengers day by day. [ 115 ] Metro stations are frequently elaborately decorated with materials such as marble and bronze. As of 2018, the Saint Petersburg Metro will include newly stations : Prospekt Slavy, Dunayskaya, Shushary, Begovaya, and Novokrestovskaya, the latter built specifically to offer convenient access to the stadium during the 2018 FIFA World Cup games and games played by FC Zenit. [ 116 ]
|Saint Petersburg Metro map|
traffic jams are common in the city due to day by day commuter dealings volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow. The construction of freeways such as the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, completed in 2011, and the western High-Speed Diameter, completed in 2017, helped reduce the traffic in the city. The M11 Neva, besides known as the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Motorway, is a federal highway, and connects Saint Petersburg to Moscow by a expressway. Saint Petersburg is an crucial transportation corridor linking Scandinavia to Russia and Eastern Europe. The city is a lymph node of the external european routes E18 towards Helsinki, E20 towards Tallinn, E95 towards Pskov, Kyiv and Odessa and E105 towards Petrozavodsk, Murmansk and Kirkenes ( north ) and towards Moscow and Kharkiv ( south ) .
Saint Petersburg populace exile statistics [edit ]
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transportation system in Saint Petersburg, for exemplar to and from cultivate, on a weekday is 69 minutes. 19.6 % of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average measure of time people wait at a end or station for public transit is 11 minutes, while 16.1 % of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people normally ride in a single trip with populace transportation system is 7 kilometer ( 4.3 mile ), while 15 % travel for over 12 km ( 7.5 nautical mile ) in a single direction. [ 117 ]
Waterways [edit ]
The city is besides served by passenger and cargo seaports [ clarification needed ] in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up the Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. It is a terminal of both the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic waterways. [ citation needed ] The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, the 2,824-meter-long ( 9,265 foot ) Big Obukhovsky Bridge opened in 2004. Meteor hydrofoils link the city center to the coastal towns of Kronstadt and Shlisselburg from May through October. [ 118 ] In the warm months many smaller boats and water-taxis navigate the city ‘s canals. The ship company St. Peter Line operates two ferries that sail from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg and from Stockholm to Saint Petersburg. [ 119 ]
rail [edit ]
The Sapsan high-speed prepare runs between Saint Petersburg and Moscow. The city is the final finish for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five unlike railroad track terminals ( Baltiysky, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky and Vitebsky ), [ c ] [ 120 ] equally well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject. Saint Petersburg has international railroad track connections to Helsinki, Finland, Berlin, Germany, and many former republics of the USSR. The Helsinki railway, built in 1870 and 443 kilometers ( 275 michigan ) long, has trains running five times a day, in a travel lasting about three and a half hours with the Allegro train. The Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway opened in 1851, and is 651 kilometers ( 405 mi ) long ; the change to Moscow now requires from three and a one-half to nine hours. [ 121 ] In 2009 russian Railways launched a high gear speed avail for the Moscow–Saint Petersburg route. The new train, known as Sapsan, is a derivative of the democratic Siemens Velaro caravan ; respective versions of this already engage in some european countries. It set records for the fastest train in Russia on 2 May 2009, travelling at 281 kilometers per hour ( 174.6 miles per hour ) [ 122 ] and on 7 May 2009, traveling at 290 kilometers per hour ( 180 miles per hour ). Since 12 December 2010 Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR ( Finnish Railways ), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg ‘s Finlyandsky and Helsinki ‘s Central railway stations. These services are branded as “ Allegro ” trains. “ Allegro ” is known for suffering some big technical problems from time to time, which sometimes result in significant delays and even cancellation of tourists ‘ trips. [ 123 ]
Air [edit ]
Saint Petersburg is served by Pulkovo International Airport. [ 124 ] Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small airport in 1931. As of 2013, the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers per annum, is the 3rd busiest in Russia after Moscow ‘s Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo. As a consequence, the steadily increasing passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the integral airport infrastructure. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on 4 December 2013 and integrated international flights of the early terminal Pulkovo-2. The renovate concluding Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an extension of Terminal 1 in 2015. [ 125 ] One of the oldest air carriers of the russian Federation Rossiya is registered in Saint Petersburg and is the largest and the base aircraft carrier of Pulkovo Airport. [ 126 ] There is a even rapid-bus connection ( buses 39, 39E, K39 ) between Pulkovo airport and the Moskovskaya metro station angstrom well as 24/7 cab military service .
noteworthy people [edit ]
International relations [edit ]
list of sister cities to Saint Petersburg as it appears on the official portal of the City Government, listing both baby cities and partnership ties : [ 127 ] Non CIS/Baltic states sister cities of Saint Petersburg (from official government list)
Sister cities in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Baltic states
Sister cities of Saint Petersburg (not included on official government list)
Former twin towns [edit ]
Milan and Venice were once twin cities of Saint Petersburg, but suspended this radio link due to St Petersburg ‘s bachelor of arts in nursing on “ gay propaganda ”. [ 175 ] Milan suspended the relationship with Saint Petersburg on 23 November 2012 [ 176 ] and Venice did so on 28 January 2013. [ 177 ] On 3 March 2022, Gdańsk and Warsaw terminated the cooperation with Saint Petersburg as a answer to the russian invasion of Ukraine. [ 178 ] [ 179 ] [ 180 ] On 10 March 2022, Danish city Aarhus suspended its affiliation with Skt. Petersburg indefinitely due to the russian invasion of Ukraine. [ 181 ] On 11 March 2022, Melbourne, Australia suspended its sister city relationship with St. Petersburg due to the russian invasion of Ukraine. [ 182 ]
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
References [edit ]
Citations [edit ]
Sources [edit ]
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