Korea public serve broadcaster

Korean Broadcasting System ( KBS ) ( korean : 한국방송공사 ; Hanja : 韓國放送公社 ; RR : Han-guk Bangsong Gongsa ; MR : Han’guk Pangsong Kongsa ) is the national broadcaster of South Korea. Founded in 1927, it is one of the leading south korean television and radio broadcasters. KBS operates seven radio receiver networks, ten television receiver channels, and twelve on-line services. Its flagship terrestrial television receiver stations KBS1 broadcasts as groove 9, while KBS1 sister channel KBS2, an entertainment oriented network, broadcasts as impart 7. KBS besides operates the KBS World international air service, which provides comprehensive television, radio, and on-line services among twelve unlike languages.

history [edit ]

early radio broadcasts [edit ]

KBS headquarters in Seoul The KBS began as Keijo Broadcasting Station ( 경성방송국, 京城放送局 ) with birdcall sign JODK, established by the Governor-General of Korea on 16 February 1927. It became the Chōsen Broadcasting Corporation ( japanese : 朝鮮放送協会, Hepburn : Chōsen Hōsō Kyōkai, RR: Joseon Bangsong Hyeobhoe ) in 1932. This second radio place started using the shout sign HLKA in 1947 after the Republic of Korea was granted the ITU prefix HL. After doing a home broadcast, the radio was renamed Seoul Central Broadcasting Station in 1948 .

1950s–1960s – Move into television [edit ]

television receiver broadcasts in South Korea began on 12 May 1956 with the beginning television post HLKZ-TV. After fiscal difficulties, it was acquired by KBS in 1961 .

1970s – expansion [edit ]

KBS station status changed from government to broadcasting station on 3 March 1973. construction of KBS headquarters in Yeouido started in 1976. In 1979 KBS radio began broadcasting on the FM band with the establish of KBS Stereo ( now KBS 1FM ) .

1980s – Advertising started after controversial fusion [edit ]

KBS began accepting advertise in 1980, differing from the norm of advert-free circulate by public broadcasters, after the wedge amalgamation of several private broadcasters into KBS by the military government of Chun Doo-hwan ( see Controversies ). [ 1 ]

1990s – Spinoff of EBS [edit ]

In 1981, KBS launched KBS 3TV and Educational FM and on 27 December 1990, the channels split from KBS to form the Educational Broadcasting System ( EBS ). After a rewrite of the television licensing fee arrangement in 1994, 1TV and Radio1 stopped broadcasting commercials .

2010s [edit ]

After first broadcast HD programmes in 2001, KBS wholly transferred to digital circulate in 2012. On 3 March 2013, computer shutdowns hit south korean television stations including the KBS. [ 2 ] The south korean government asserted a north korean link in the March cyberattacks, which has been denied by Pyongyang. [ 3 ] In 2013, KBS World Radio commemorated its sixtieth anniversary, and KBS World television celebrated 10 years of its foundation. In 2014, KBS World 24 was launched, chiefly for Koreans afield. In 2015, KBS was honored to have its archives of the KBS Special Live Broadcast, Finding Dispersed Families, inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. This makes KBS only the world ‘s second broadcaster to have a circulate program on the esteemed tilt. The KBS network dedicated to deliver the exclusive Special Live Broadcast, Finding Dispersed Families, via its elementary transmit, KBS1. KBS News served as the program ‘s producer. The program made its premier telecast on 10:15 phase modulation KST on 30 June 1983. After more than 6 months, the special live plan ended at 4 am on 14 November 1983. This marks a total duration of 453 hours and 45 minutes of live broadcast over the menstruation of 138 days, aired countrywide on KBS1. The whole know broadcast was recorded. The KBS ‘ archives of particular Live Broadcast, Finding Dispersed Families include ; 463 video tapes of the original recordings, and many kinds of consort materials, generated in the course of the extraordinary broadcast, such as the posters carrying the participating dispersed kin members ‘ capsule stories, discriminative stimulus sheets, programming schedules, radio recording materials, and relate photograph. A total of 20,522 such assorted materials have been preserved in the archives. [ 4 ] The program was the biggest public affairs program ever produced by KBS in the decade, and was the foremost to tackle the issue of families separated because of the long korean War ( 1950-1953 ), which garnered even international coverage. In 2017, KBS launched the universe ‘s first tellurian UHD broadcasting serve. In June 2018, KBS led the operation of the IBC ( International Broadcasting Centre ) inside the KINTEX ( Korea International Exhibition Center ), located in Goyang City, as Host Broadcaster for the April 2018 inter-Korean acme. [ 5 ] During the summit, KBS successfully delivered all the moments associated with the historic summit for more than 3,000 local anesthetic and oversea media representatives, gathered at the IBC. Throughout the day of the summit, KBS delivered bouncy coverage and the latest developments of the event through its continuous special news bulletins. besides, its prime-time news programmes, KBS News 9 and KBS Newsline provided audiences with highlights and implications of the historic acme through comprehensive and analytic reports. besides, KBS World television delivered Live Coverage of April 2018 Inter-Korean peak with English subtitles for its audiences across 117 countries worldwide. In 2019, as the public service broadcaster in South Korea, KBS undertook a major reform in its Disaster Broadcast System in ordering to provide single emergency services for people in the state in times of hand brake. To be headed by President and CEO of KBS, the renewed system will allow the manipulation of maximum resources of the organization under emergency circumstances. Under the reform, KBS will focus on ; fleet and efficient emergency air and coverage ; to deliver essential data in advanced ways with the ultimate target to minimise losses and damages ; to strengthen its digital platforms to better serve a varied consultation groups. In especial, KBS signed contracts with nine sign terminology interpreters in an attempt to enhance air services for audiences with disabilities. In addition, KBS is committed to improve its English subtitle services for people from oversea .

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structure [edit ]

KBS regional broadcast medium post in Changwon KBS is a public pot ( 공사, 公社 ) funded by the south korean government and license fees, but is managed independently. As part of the Constitution, the president of the united states of KBS is chosen by the President of South Korea, after being recommended by its board of directors. political parties in South Korea besides have the good to name members of the KBS board of directors. Because of this system, which gives politicians effective control over choosing the president of the united states of KBS, equally well as its board of directors, people who are critical of the arrangement reference political interposition in KBS ‘s government as reason for revising the current system of recruit. In ordering to uphold and defend independence, KBS, since 2018, created a ‘Public Advisory Group ‘, as separate of the survival serve of new KBS President and CEO. New President and CEO of KBS is recommended by the KBS Board of Governors, once the excerpt process by the Group is completed. The Group examines Presidential candidates in the shape of a presentation, a panel discussion, and an interview. New President and CEO of KBS will last be appointed by the President of Republic of Korea, after going through the compulsory parliamentary audit by the National Assembly. Around 49 % of KBS ‘ gross comes from a mandate television license fee of 2,500 won, with another 18.7 % coming from commercial ad sales. [ 6 ] In addition to 18 regional stations and 12 oversea branches, there are eight subsidiary company companies such as KBSN, KBS Business and KBS Media, which manage KBS content .

chief executive officer [edit ]

Channels [edit ]

terrestrial television [edit ]

  • KBS 1TV – KBS’ flagship channel, it broadcasts news and current affairs, education, drama, sports, children’s programming and culture. It launched in 1961 as HLKA-TV and is solely funded by the license fee, airing commercial-free. It is available nationally on channel 9, broadcasting via digital terrestrial television. KBS1 also airs public information films and minor entertainment programming, the majority of which is on KBS2.[7]
  • KBS 2TV – KBS’ entertainment and drama channel, it was launched in 1980 as a replacement for the Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation, which was controversially merged with KBS. It is available on digital channel 7 via digital terrestrial television. KBS2 also airs live sports coverage, children’s programming, public information films and less news and current affairs programming, the majority of which is on KBS1.[7]
  • KBS UHD – the Ultra High Definition channel, using the ATSC 3.0 format. The channel airs music videos, plus re-runs of TV series and various programming.[8]
  • KBS NEWS D – 24-hour news channel, based on the broadcaster’s own streaming news channel, KBS 24. Also serves as the country’s emergency alert channel on ATSC 3.0.

While KBS1 and KBS2 phased out analogue services on 31 December 2012 as depart of the switchover to digital television in South Korea, it would appear that KBS1 and KBS2 is hush unofficially broadcast in analogue via UHF, presumably nearby the DMZ, albeit using the SECAM D/K standard. [ 9 ]

cable and satellite television receiver [edit ]

  • KBS N Life – A culture and drama channel, launched in 1995 as KBS Satellite 2. It was renamed as KBS Korea in 2002, renamed as KBS Prime in 2006 before becoming N Life.
  • KBS Drama – formerly KBS Sky Drama, launched in 2002
  • KBS N Sports – formerly KBS Sports/KBS Sky Sports, launched in 2002
  • KBS Joy – a comedy and quiz show channel that was launched in 2006
  • KBS Kids – the children’s channel, launched in 2012[10]
  • KBS W – a channel aimed at a female audience, launched in 2013[11]

These six channels are carried by cable and satellite operators in South Korea. There are 100+ cable operators in South Korea, and Skylife is the lone satellite television receiver service provider. These channels are managed and operated by KBS N, a subordinate ship’s company of KBS .

KBS World [edit ]

KBS World is the external television and radio receiver service of KBS. It was formally launched on 1 July 2003. It is broadcast on a 24-hour agenda with programs including newsworthiness, sports, television receiver drama, entertainment, and children ‘s. KBS World television is broadcast locally and around the global. As of July 2007, around 65 % of its programs are broadcast with English subtitles, it is available in 32 countries, and reportedly more than 40 million households around the universe can access KBS World. [ citation needed ] It has two oversea subsidiaries : KBS America and KBS Japan. KBS Japan is independently operated by a KBS subsidiary company in Japan, and most programs are provided with japanese subtitles. KBS World television is a television channel that chiefly broadcasts programs commissioned for KBS ‘ 2 terrestrial networks : KBS1 and KBS2. KBS World television receiver is distributed over respective international communication and broadcasting satellites such as IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Apstar 6 & 7, Eutelsat Hotbird 13A, Galaxy 11, 18 & 23, Badr 6, Vinasat 1, Palapa D, SES 7, Telkom 1, Thaicom 5, EchoStar 15, Anik F3. Local cable and/or satellite operators receive the signal from one of these satellite and carry the signal to end subscribers of their own networks. KBS does n’t allow individual viewer to receive the signal from IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Asiasat 5, and Galaxy 18. The signal from Badr 6 and Eutelsat Hotbird 13A is Free-to-Air. KBS World television commenced its serve via YouTube in 2007. The YouTube subscribers reached 10 million in May 2019, and recorded 13.5 million in July 2020. KBS World television is besides available on assorted social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LINE. Its sociable media surpassed 20 million subscribers in April 2020. KBS Korea ( previously KBS World 24 ), a by-product channel of KBS World, is targeting at Koreans living oversea .

radio receiver [edit ]

Branding logo [edit ]

Programmes [edit ]

extraneous partners [edit ]

america [edit ]

Europe [edit ]

asia [edit ]

oceania [edit ]

functional status [edit ]

Headquarters [edit ]

KBS carried out a large-scale organizational reform on 1 March 2019. The focus of the reform is to ; farther strengthen the KBS ‘ capabilities of content creation ; enhance the organization ‘s digital work stream ; and improve audience services. As separate of the new strategy, KBS created Content Production 2 Division, a new integral body, responsible for a highly effective process of production, marketing, a well as content businesses. The new division ultimately aims to bring outstanding play and entertainment program by boosting creative nature of the production function, and minimizing its decision-making march. [ 13 ] The new reform strategy introduced Public Service Media Strategy team under Strategy and Planning Division. Public Service Media Strategy is chiefly responsible for developing KBS ‘ digital strategies for different audiences to enjoy KBS content via consort digital media platforms. The reform brought changes in Programming Division as Digital Media department has further expanded its roles under the division. Digital News department attached to News and Sports Division has besides strengthened its functions in tune with the late reform inaugural. Another significant change in the reform is that newly ‘Audience Relations Center ‘ has become an executive department, to be operated directly by KBS President and CEO. The Audience Relations Center will dedicate its resources to further enhance hearing services, and create more opportunities for audiences to take character in versatile initiatives developed by KBS. And local Stations Management has been reorganized to be supervised under KBS Executive Vice President, as KBS has a design to build a regional broadcast system in reply to a growing need for greater regional autonomy.

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  • President
  • Board of Directors
    • Board of Directors Secretariat
  • Executive Vice president
    • Human Resources office
    • Program Review office
    • Gender Equality Centre
    • Audience Relations Centre
    • Inter-Korean Broadcasting Corporation
    • Local Stations Management
  • Auditor General
    • Audit office
  • Strategy & Planning offices
    • Strategy & Planning office
    • Budget & Investment office
    • External Affairs office
    • Public Media Institute
    • Media Technology Research Institute
  • Programming offices
    • Programming Strategy office
    • Programming office
    • Digital Media office
    • KBS World office
    • Announcers office
    • Camera office
  • News & Sports offices
    • Integrated news room
      • Politics & International News office
      • Economy News office
      • Social Affairs News office
      • Broadcasting News office
      • Digital News office
      • News Footage & Archive office
    • News Commentators office
    • Current Affairs office
    • Sports News office
  • Content Production 1 offices
    • Current Affairs & Cultural Programs 1
    • Current Affairs & Cultural Programs 2
    • Program Commissioning
  • Radio Center
    • Radio Programming & Planning
    • Radio 1
  • Content Production 2 offices
    • Entertainment Content Center
    • Content Business office
    • Advertisement office
    • Integrated Events Management office
  • Drama Center
    • Drama CP Group
  • Technology offices
    • Technology Management office
    • Media Infrastructure office
    • Broadcasting Network office
      • Media Platform office
  • Production Technology offices
    • TV Production Technology office
    • News Production Technology office
    • Outside Broadcasting Technology office
    • Radio Production Technology office
  • Management offices
    • Management & Administration office
    • License Fee office
    • Management IT office
    • Asset Management office
    • Facility Management office

Controversies [edit ]

KBS, as one of Korea ‘s oldest broadcasters, had more controversies than SBS and MBC. It besides earned nicknames such as Soonkyu Bangsong and The Department of Last Resort .

1980 – Forced fusion of KBS with private broadcasters [edit ]

During the Chun Doo-hwan government of the eighties, the president passed a law to force several public broadcasters to merge with the public-run KBS. After these broadcasters had shown news stories against Chun, he used this police to stifle their criticism of him. It included :
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation ( MBC ) was besides affected. MBC was, at first, a federation of 20 loosely affiliate extremity stations located in respective parts of Korea. Although they shared much of their program, each penis station was privately owned. After the consolidation, however, affiliates were forced to give up a majority of shares to the MBC based in Seoul. MBC Seoul, in turn, was forced to give up their majority of its shares to KBS. [ 14 ]

Consequences [edit ]

  • TBC television became KBS2, and TBC Radio was split into two and became KBS 2FM and KBS Radio 3.
  • DBS became the now-defunct KBS Radio Seoul. The frequency is now used by SBS Love FM.
  • SBC became KBS Gunsan,[15] now known as KBS Radio 3 Jeonju.
  • VOC became KBS Radio 3 Gwangju
  • Hanguk-FM became KBS-Daegu-FM.

In 2009, president Lee Myung-bak said that the police was unconstitutional, and in 2011 TBC and DBS were revived as JTBC and Channel A respectively .

2002 – KBS 2FM ad scandal [edit ]

KBS 2FM From 1980 until 2002 was prohibited to air commercial advertisements but in 2002 commercial advertisements resumed airing on KBS 2FM. The consequence KBS Local FM ( a radio station owned by KBS used to air choose programs of KBS 1FM and KBS 2FM through a cross-broadcast schedule nationally ) rather carried KBS 1FM programs even though alone one KBS 2FM program good Morning Pops where aired due to that the said plan is prohibited to breeze advertisements excluding those of KOBACO ( Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation ). however, after 15 years since the abolition of national broadcasts Park Myeong-su ‘s Radio Show is aired on local KBS Happy FM stations in Busan, Changwon, Cheongju, Daejeon and Jeju starting April 2016 ( and in June 2019 the course of study is besides aired in the Gangwon-do region ) this was due to its popularity and being systematically viral in internet research engines and on SNS ( social media sites ) this exploitation marked the resumption of Cool FM ‘s national broadcasts this time using the Local Happy FM network in the provinces, afterwards Jung Eun-ji ‘s Gayo Plaza is aired in all Local Happy FM stations starting September 2016 for the like reasons, beneficial Morning Pops which was aired on the Local FM stations moved to Local Happy FM stations in February 2017 with this development the show is no long aired on Local FM stations, on August 31, 2020, Kim Do-yeon ‘s Fresh Morning besides started home air on all Local Happy FM stations and ultimately Lee Geum-hee ‘s A good day to love besides aired in selected Local Happy FM stations due to its eminent ratings starting on August 2, 2021 .

2011 – Wiretapping scandal at television receiver license tip meet [edit ]

In 2011, Sohn Hak-kyu, the chair of the opposition Democratic Party, accused KBS of wiretapping the party ‘s closed-door meeting on television subscription charges. [ 16 ] Sohn said, “ We believe the fast bugged the meet to secure information about our party ‘s manage of the television receiver subscription policy. KBS should admit that it resorted to the deplorable method of gathering information. “ [ citation needed ] The govern Grand National Party initially sought to put a beak concerning the television subscription charge to a vote. however, it failed to do so amid strong resistance from the Democrats. The National Assembly ‘s subcommittee on culture, tourism, broadcasting and communication, was scheduled to deliberate on 28 June 2011, but the meeting was cancelled due to the Democrats ‘ protest. The scandal erupted on 23 June when Han Sun-kyo, chair of the parliamentary subcommittee, criticized the Democrats ‘ opposition to increasing the television subscription charge during a subcommittee meeting. The GNP lawmakers finally approved a bill raising the charge by 1,000 won to 3,500 won at a subcommittee meeting in the absence of Democrat lawmakers. That led to a Democrat boycott of a June extraordinary parliamentary school term for half a day on 21 June 2011 .

2011 – Praising Chinilpa [edit ]

Bak Han-yong ( 박한용 ), drumhead of the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities, criticized KBS for censoring negative remarks from a documentary about Chinilpa individuals, and Rhee Syngman, who had pardoned them. [ 17 ] This includes the Chinilpa Paik Sun-yup. [ 18 ]

2012 – KBS2 Carriage dispute [edit ]

On 16 January 2012, a dispute broke out between KBS and the Korea Cable television receiver Association ( KCTA ) over baby buggy fees. KCTA sought to reduce fees from major national networks for carrying their feeds through subscription providers. KBS had demanded to charge 280 won per subscriber, while the television receiver providers limited their put up to 100 won per subscription. Negotiations reached a deadlock, and so the providers decided to stop carrying KBS2 nationally starting from 3:00 post meridiem ( KST ) on that like day. [ 19 ] due to loss in viewership, KBS2 experienced major decay in their ratings, majorly affecting shows like Brain at the meter. [ 20 ] Following the blackout, the Korea Communications Commission ( KCC ) has ordered the television receiver providers to resume distributing the duct or face a hefty finely. They initially refused, but on 17 January, they agreed to resume the impart ‘s carriage after 28 hours. [ 21 ]

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2012 – KBS journalists strikes and Reset KBS News 9 [edit ]

The journalists working for KBS ( along with MBC, SBS and YTN ) have protested against the bias journalism practices that favor the Lee Myung-bak government. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] The new union for KBS headed by Kim Hyeon-seok released a video clip “ Reset KBS News 9 ” ( 리셋 KBS 뉴스9 ) on the internet that discusses the Prime Minister ‘s Office Civilian Surveillance Incident and the controversial money-spending on renovating President Lee Myung-bak ‘s alleged parentage house on 13 March 2012. [ 25 ]

2013 – You Are The Best! name controversy [edit ]

Global Youth League DN filed an injunction at Seoul Central District Court against KBS for using the name “ Lee Soon-shin ” in the style of the drama. The injunction requested KBS to ( 1 ) immediately stop the broadcast, ( 2 ) remove “ Lee Soon-shin ” from the style, and ( 3 ) change the name of one of its characters. The group claimed that historical figure Lee Soon-shin ( or Yi Sun-sin ), an admiral celebrated for his victories against the japanese Navy in the Imjin War during the Joseon Dynasty, is an official national symbol whose condition will “ deteriorate ” when associated with the “ weak and bungling ” supporter that contribute actress IU plays. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ] KBS and production company AStory responded that they had no plans of changing the entitle or fictional character name. rather, they altered the original drama poster where respective cast members are sitting on a pile of 100 won coins that have an image of Admiral Yi, by digitally replacing the coins with a plain amber platform. [ 30 ] [ 31 ]

  • On June 5, 2014 netizens on the forum site Daum Agora started a petition to have Kim Jung-tae and his son Yakkung removed from the show due to him and his son attending an election campaign on June 1, 2014, for Na Dong-yeon who is a candidate for Gyung-Nam, Yangsan mayor. Na Dong-yeon later released a statement apologizing to Kim Jung-tae and his son Yakkung for the controversy and assured people that the actor and his son were not there to campaign for him.[32] On June 10 a rep for Kim Jung-tae confirmed that he and his son Yakkung have decided to leave the show following the political controversy.[33]
  • In June 2014, an article was published voicing netizens complaints of the show overly promoting YG Entertainment artistes since there were too many guest stars from YG’s management for Jang Hyun-sung and Tablo’s segments, who are also under YG’s management.[34][35]
  • On episode 42 which aired on August 31, 2014, producers took a jab at rival show “Dad! Where Are We Going?” with captions shown during Tablo’s segment.[36]
  • Viewers voiced their complaints of the mothers showing up on the show too frequently. The complaints were targeted at Tablo’s family due to his wife Hyejung appearing entirely during their segment from episodes 52 to 53.[37]
  • Viewers voiced their complaints about the editing of a scene in episode 53 where Song triplets Daehan and Manse are fighting over a toy. The viewers complained that the caption and editing didn’t show the true facts of what happened.[38]
  • On April 22, 2015, the owner of a venue that the show production team had scouted, posted on the show’s official forum claiming staff from the show had reserved his venue last minute and then abruptly cancelled the shoot, disregarding his loss of profit in order to accommodate the show. After a formal apology was issued by the shows producers’ the misunderstanding was settled.[39]
  • In July 2015, the announcement of Lee Dong-gook and his family joining the show was met with negativity and complaints from fans of Song Il-kook and his triplet sons. Fans of Song and his sons saw it as a sign that Song and his family would be leaving the show, and complained on KBS’s forum about adding the new family and KBS offering Song an upcoming drama role as a reason for Song to leave the variety show. KBS assured Song’s fans that the decision for him and his family to leave the show was made entirely of their own accord.[40][41]

2014 – 1st KBS rap against pro-government diagonal of its president of the united states [edit ]

In early May 2014, Gil Hwan-young removed the KBS news program chief after alleged improper remarks over the sinking of the ferry Sewol. The headman then accused Gil of interference with news editing, with an alleged pro-government bias. After the board postponed a decision on whether or not to dismiss Gil, two of the broadcaster ‘s largest unions went on strike. As a consequence of the boycott, most of the broadcaster ‘s newsworthiness output was affected. The hour-long KBS News 9 run for just 20 minutes, and during local elections on 4 June 2014, KBS was ineffective to send reporters to consultation candidates. The strike ended after the board of directors voted to dismiss Gil. The board passed a apparent motion on 5 June 2014 demanding the discharge of President Gil. The majority vote decision was sent to be approved by the country ‘s president Park Geun-hye, who has the power to appoint the broadcaster ‘s lead. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ]

2017 – 2nd KBS strike against pro-government bias of its president of the united states [edit ]

In August 2017, KBS union decided to hold a hit, which began on 4 September, ascribable to allegedly influencing news coverage to be in prefer of early president Park Geun-hye ‘s government. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] As a resultant role of the boycott, there has been a austere reduction in the publicize of KBS news programs, culture programs, radio receiver shows, and kind shows due to most staff members taking separate in the hit. [ 47 ] During its strike, the 2017 KBS Entertainment Awards was cancelled. [ 48 ] After 141 days, the hit was over when the air company ‘s board of directors approved the dismissal of KBS president of the united states Ko Dae-young. [ 49 ] [ 50 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

  • KBS.co.kr – official KBS Website ( in Korean and English )
  • World.KBS.co.kr Archived 17 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine – official KBS World website ( in Korean, Arabic, German, English, Spanish, French, Indonesian, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Russian )
  • KBS America

Coordinates :

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