german composer ( 1685–1750 )

Johann Sebastian Bach [ n 2 ] ( 31 March [ O.S. 21 March ] 1685 – 28 July 1750 ) was a german composer and musician of the late Baroque period. He is known for his orchestral music such as the Brandenburg Concertos ; implemental compositions such as the Cello Suites ; keyboard works such as the Goldberg Variations and The Well-Tempered Clavier ; organ works such as the Schubler Chorales and the Toccata and Fugue in D minor ; and outspoken music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach revival he has been broadly regarded as one of the greatest composers in the history of western music. [ 3 ] The Bach family already counted respective composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After being orphaned at the age of 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph, after which he continued his musical education in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was rear in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar, where he expanded his organ repertoire, and Köthen, where he was largely engaged with bedroom music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor ( choirmaster at St Thomas ‘s ) in Leipzig. There he composed music for the star Lutheran churches of the city, and for its university ‘s scholar ensemble Collegium Musicum. From 1726 he published some of his keyboard and electric organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened during some of his earlier positions, he had unmanageable relations with his employer, a situation that was little remedied when he was granted the title of motor hotel composer by his sovereign, Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, in 1736. In the final decades of his life he reworked and extended many of his earlier compositions. He died of complications after center surgery in 1750 at the historic period of 65.

Bach enriched established german styles through his mastery of counterpoint, harmonic, and motivic organization, [ 4 ] and his adaptation of cycle, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach ‘s compositions include hundreds of cantatas, both sacred and layman. He composed Latin church music, Passions, oratorios, and motets. He frequently adopted Lutheran hymn, not only in his larger vocal works, but for case besides in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs. He wrote extensively for harmonium and for other keyboard instruments. He composed concerto, for exemplify for violin and for harpsichord, and suites, as chamber music deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as for orchestra. many of his works employ the genres of canyon and fugue. Throughout the eighteenth century, Bach was chiefly valued as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities. The nineteenth hundred saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, and by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals ( and late besides websites ) entirely devoted to him, and other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis ( BWV, a number catalog of his works ) and new critical editions of his compositions. His music was further popularised through a battalion of arrangements, including the Air on the G String and “ Jesu, Joy of Man ‘s Desiring “, and of recordings, such as three different box sets with complete performances of the composer ‘s oeuvre marking the 250th anniversary of his death .


Childhood ( 1685–1703 )

Johann Sebastian Bach [ north 2 ] was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in contemporary Germany, on 21 March 1685 O.S. ( 31 March 1685 N.S. ). He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, and Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt. He was the one-eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who likely taught him violin and basic music theory. His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians, and composers. One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach ( 1645–1693 ), introduced him to the organ, and an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach ( 1677–1731 ), was a long-familiar composer and violinist. [ normality 3 ] Bach ‘s mother died in 1694, and his founder died eight months former. The 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach ( 1671–1721 ), the organist at St. Michael ‘s Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. There he studied, performed, and copied music, including his own brother ‘s, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private, and lacuna ledger paper of that character was costly. He received valuable teaching from his buddy, who instructed him on the clavichord. J. C. Bach exposed him to the works of great composers of the day, including south german composers such as Johann Caspar Kerll, Johann Jakob Froberger and Johann Pachelbel ( under whom Johann Christoph had studied ) ; north german composers ; Frenchmen, such as Jean-Baptiste Lully, Louis Marchand, and Marin Marais ; and the italian clavierist Girolamo Frescobaldi. besides during this prison term, he was taught chiefly theology, Latin and Greek at the local secondary school. By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach ‘s elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael ‘s School in Lüneburg, some two weeks ‘ change of location north of Ohrdruf. [ 21 ] Their travel was credibly undertake by and large on metrical foot. [ 21 ] His two years there were critical in exposing Bach to a wide range of european polish. In addition to singing in the choir, he played the educate ‘s three-manual organ and harpsichords. [ 22 ] He besides came into contact with sons of aristocrats from northerly Germany who had been sent to the nearby Ritter-Academie to prepare for careers in other disciplines .

Weimar, Arnstadt, and Mühlhausen ( 1703–1708 )

The Wender organ Bach played in Arnstadt In January 1703, concisely after graduating from St. Michael ‘s and being turned down for the post of organist at Sangerhausen, Bach was appointed court musician in the chapel of Duke Johann Ernst III in Weimar. His function there is unclear, but it credibly included menial, non-musical duties. During his seven-month tenure at Weimar, his reputation as a keyboardist go around so a lot that he was invited to inspect the fresh organ and give the inaugural recital at the New Church ( now Bach Church ) in Arnstadt, located about 30 kilometres ( 19 mi ) southwest of Weimar. On 14 August 1703, he became the organist at the New Church, with light duties, a relatively generous wage, and a newfangled organ tuned in a disposition that allowed music written in a wide stove of keys to be played. Despite impregnable family connections and a musically enthusiastic employer, tension built up between Bach and the authorities after several years in the post. Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir. He called one of them a “ Zippel Fagottist ” ( frank bassoon musician ). late one even this student, named Geyersbach, went after Bach with a cling. Bach filed a charge against Geyersbach with the authorities. They acquitted Geyersbach with a minor reprimand and ordered Bach to be more control regarding the melodious qualities he expected from his students. Some months late Bach upset his employer by a prolong absence from Arnstadt : after obtaining leave for four weeks, he was absent for around four months in 1705–1706 to visit the organist and composer Dieterich Buxtehude in the northern city of Lübeck. The visit to Buxtehude involved a 450-kilometre ( 280 michigan ) journey each way, reportedly on foot. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] In 1706, Bach applied for a post as organist at the Blasius Church in Mühlhausen. [ 30 ] As depart of his application, he had a cantata performed on Easter, 24 April 1707, probably an early interpretation of his Christ lag in Todes Banden. [ 32 ] A month late Bach ‘s application was accepted and he took up the post in July. [ 30 ] The position included significantly higher wage, improved conditions, and a better choir. Four months after arriving at Mühlhausen, Bach married Maria Barbara Bach, his moment cousin. Bach was able to convince the church and township politics at Mühlhausen to fund an expensive renovation of the harmonium at the Blasius Church. In 1708 Bach wrote Gott ist mein König, a gay cantata for the inauguration of the modern council, which was published at the council ‘s expense. [ 22 ]

hark back to Weimar ( 1708–1717 )

Bach left Mühlhausen in 1708, returning to Weimar this time as organist and from 1714 Konzertmeister ( director of music ) at the ducal court, where he had an opportunity to work with a big, well-funded contingent of professional musicians. [ 22 ] Bach and his wife moved into a firm stopping point to the ducal palace. [ 33 ] later the lapp class, their first child, Catharina Dorothea, was born, and Maria Barbara ‘s elder, unmarried sister joined them. She remained to help run the family until her death in 1729. Three sons were besides born in Weimar : Wilhelm Friedemann, Carl Philipp Emanuel, and Johann Gottfried Bernhard. Johann Sebastian and Maria Barbara had three more children, who however did not live to their first birthday, including twins born in 1713. Bach ‘s time in Weimar was the start of a suffer period of composing keyboard and orchestral works. He attained the proficiency and assurance to extend the prevail structures and include influences from abroad. He learned to write dramatic openings and employ the active rhythm method of birth control and harmonic schemes found in the music of Italians such as Vivaldi, Corelli, and Torelli. Bach absorbed these stylistic aspects in depart by transcribing Vivaldi ‘s string and wind concerto for harpsichord and electric organ ; many of these transcribed works are still regularly performed. Bach was peculiarly attracted to the italian style, in which one or more alone instruments interchange section-by-section with the entire orchestra throughout a movement. [ 35 ] In Weimar, Bach continued to play and compose for the harmonium and perform concert music with the duke ‘s corps de ballet. [ 22 ] He besides began to write the preludes and fugues which were late assembled into his monumental work The Well-Tempered Clavier ( “ clavier ” meaning clavichord or harpsichord ), consisting of two books, each containing 24 preludes and fugues in every major and minor key. Bach besides started work on the Little Organ Book in Weimar, containing traditional Lutheran chorale tunes set in complex textures. In 1713, Bach was offered a post in Halle when he advised the authorities during a renovation by Christoph Cuntzius of the chief organ in the west gallery of the Market Church of Our Dear Lady. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] In the jump of 1714, Bach was promoted to Konzertmeister, an honor that entailed performing a church cantata monthly in the castle church. The first three cantatas in the new series Bach composed in Weimar were Himmelskönig, sei willkommen, BWV 182, for Palm Sunday, which coincided with the announcement that year ; Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12, for Jubilate Sunday ; and Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWV 172 for Pentecost. [ 41 ] Bach ‘s first Christmas cantata, Christen, ätzet diesen Tag, BWV 63, was premiered in 1714 or 1715. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] In 1717, Bach finally fell out of favor in Weimar and, according to a transformation of the court secretary ‘s report, was jailed for about a calendar month before being unfavorably dismissed : “ On November 6, [ 1717 ], the erstwhile [ erstwhile ] concertmaster and organist Bach was confined to the County Judge ‘s position of detention for besides stubbornly forcing the issue of his dismissal and ultimately on December 2 was freed from check with notice of his unfavorable discharge. ”

Köthen ( 1717–1723 )

Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, hired Bach to serve as his Kapellmeister ( director of music ) in 1717. Prince Leopold, himself a musician, appreciated Bach ‘s talents, paid him well and gave him considerable latitude in composing and performing. The prince was a Calvinist and did not use complicate music in his idolize ; accordingly, most of Bach ‘s work from this period was secular, including the orchestral suites, cello suites, sonatas and partitas for solo violin, and Brandenburg Concertos. Bach besides composed profane cantatas for the court, such as Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahre macht, BWV 134a. Despite being born in the lapp year and only about 130 kilometres ( 80 nautical mile ) apart, Bach and Handel never met. In 1719, Bach made the 35-kilometre ( 22 michigan ) journey from Köthen to Halle with the intention of meeting Handel ; however, Handel had left the town. In 1730, Bach ‘s oldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann, travelled to Halle to invite Handel to visit the Bach syndicate in Leipzig, but the visit did not take place. On 7 July 1720, while Bach was away in Carlsbad with Prince Leopold, Bach ‘s wife suddenly died. The trace year, he met Anna Magdalena Wilcke, a young, highly endow soprano 16 years his junior, who performed at the court in Köthen ; they married on 3 December 1721. in concert they had 13 children, six of whom survived into adulthood : Gottfried Heinrich ; Elisabeth Juliane Friederica ( 1726–1781 ) ; Johann Christoph Friedrich and Johann Christian, who both, specially Johann Christian, became significant musicians ; Johanna Carolina ( 1737–1781 ) ; and Regina Susanna ( 1742–1809 ) .

Leipzig ( 1723–1750 )

In 1723, Bach was appointed Thomaskantor, Cantor of the St. Thomas School at the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig, which provided music for four churches in the city : the St. Thomas Church and St. Nicholas Church and to a lesser extent the New Church and St. Peter ‘s Church. This was “ the leading cantorate in Protestant Germany ”, [ 54 ] located in the mercantile city in the Electorate of Saxony, which he held for 27 years until his death. During that time he gained further prestige through honorary appointments at the courts of Köthen and Weissenfels, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as that of the Elector Frederick Augustus ( who was besides King of Poland ) in Dresden. [ 54 ] Bach frequently disagreed with his employer, Leipzig ‘s city council, which he regarded as “ penny-pinch ” .

appointment in Leipzig

Johann Kuhnau had been Thomaskantor in Leipzig from 1701 until his death on 5 June 1722. Bach had visited Leipzig during Kuhnau ‘s tenure : in 1714 he attended the serve at the St. Thomas Church on the first base Sunday of Advent, and in 1717 he had tested the organ of the St. Paul ‘s Church. In 1716 Bach and Kuhnau had met on the occasion of the screen and inauguration of an organ in Halle. [ 39 ] After being offered the position, Bach was invited to Leipzig only after Georg Philipp Telemann indicated that he would not be matter to in relocating to Leipzig. [ 58 ] Telemann went to Hamburg, where he “ had his own struggles with the city ‘s united states senate ”. Bach was required to instruct the students of the Thomasschule in sing and provide church music for the chief churches in Leipzig. He was besides assigned to teach Latin but was allowed to employ four “ prefects ” ( deputies ) to do this rather. The prefects besides aided with musical education. A cantata was required for the church services on Sundays and extra church holidays during the liturgical year .

Cantata cycle years ( 1723–1729 )

Bach normally led performances of his cantatas, most of which were composed within three years of his move to Leipzig. The first was Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75, performed in the St. Nicholas Church on 30 May 1723, the first Sunday after Trinity. Bach collected his cantata in annual cycles. Five are mentioned in obituaries, three are extant. [ 41 ] Of the more than 300 cantatas which Bach composed in Leipzig, over 100 have been lost to posterity. [ 61 ] Most of these works expound on the Gospel readings prescribed for every Sunday and feast day in the Lutheran class. Bach started a second annual bicycle the beginning Sunday after Trinity of 1724 and composed merely chorale cantatas, each based on a single church hymn. These include O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 20, Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140, Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 62, and Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, BWV 1. Bach drew the soprano and countertenor choristers from the school and the tenors and basses from the educate and elsewhere in Leipzig. Performing at weddings and funerals provided extra income for these groups ; it was credibly for this determination, and for in-school trail, that he wrote at least six motets. [ 62 ] As contribution of his even church work, he performed early composers ‘ motets, which served as formal models for his own. [ 63 ] Bach ‘s harbinger as choirmaster, Johann Kuhnau, had besides been music conductor for the St. Paul ‘s Church, the church service of Leipzig University. But when Bach was installed as choirmaster in 1723, he was put in charge alone of music for gay ( church vacation ) services at the St. Paul ‘s church ; his prayer to besides provide music for regular Sunday services there ( for a equate wage increase ) went all the room to the Elector but was denied. After this, in 1725, Bach “ lost interest ” in working flush for gay services at the St. Paul ‘s Church and appeared there merely on “ special occasions ”. The St. Paul ‘s Church had a much better and newer ( 1716 ) organ than did the St. Thomas Church or the St. Nicholas Church. Bach was not required to play any organ in his official duties, but it is believed he liked to play on the St. Paul ‘s Church organ “ for his own pleasure ” .
Bach broadened his compose and performing beyond the liturgy by taking over, in March 1729, the directorship of the Collegium Musicum, a profane performance ensemble started by Telemann. This was one of the dozens of secret societies in the major german-speaking cities that were established by musically active university students ; these societies had become increasingly significant in public melodious life and were typically led by the most outstanding professionals in a city. In the words of Christoph Wolff, assuming the directorship was a astute move that “ consolidate Bach ‘s firm bag on Leipzig ‘s principal melodious institutions ”. Every workweek the Collegium Musicum would give two-hour performances in winter at the Café Zimmermann, a cafe on Catherine Street off the chief commercialize straight ; and during the summer months in the owner ‘s outdoor coffee garden good outside the town walls, near the East Gate. The concerts, all unblock of charge, ended with Gottfried Zimmermann ‘s death in 1741. apart from showcasing his earlier orchestral repertoire such as the Brandenburg Concertos and Orchestral Suites, many of Bach ‘s newly composed or reworked pieces were performed for these venues, including parts of his Clavier-Übung ( Keyboard Practice ), his violin and keyboard concerto and of run the eponymous Coffee Cantata. [ 22 ] [ 68 ]

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Middle years of the Leipzig period ( 1730–1739 )

J S B in mirror image topped with a crown. The flanking letters illustrate the arrangement on the seal. Bach ‘s seal ( center ), used throughout his Leipzig years. It contains the layered lettersin mirror image topped with a crown. The flanking letters illustrate the arrangement on the seal. In 1733, Bach composed a Kyrie–Gloria Mass in B minor which he former incorporated in his mass in B minor. He presented the manuscript to the Elector in an finally successful bid to persuade the prince to give him the style of Court Composer. [ 69 ] He late extended this work into a full mass by adding a Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, the music for which was partially based on his own cantatas and partially original. Bach ‘s appointment as Court Composer was an component of his long-run struggle to achieve greater bargaining power with the Leipzig council. between 1737 and 1739, Bach ‘s former schoolchild Carl Gotthelf Gerlach held the directorship of the Collegium Musicum. In 1735 Bach started to prepare his inaugural publication of organ music, which was printed as the third Clavier-Übung in 1739. [ 70 ] From around that year he started to compile and compose the set of preludes and fugues for harpsichord that would become his second gear ledger of The Well-Tempered Clavier. [ 71 ] He received the title of “ Royal Court Composer ” from Augustus III in 1736. [ 69 ]

final years and death ( 1740–1750 )

From 1740 to 1748 Bach copied, transcribed, expanded or program music in an older polyphonic vogue ( stile antico ) by, among others, Palestrina ( BNB I/P/2 ), [ 72 ] Kerll ( BWV 241 ), [ 73 ] Torri ( BWV Anh. 30 ), [ 74 ] Bassani ( BWV 1081 ), [ 75 ] Gasparini ( Missa Canonica ) [ 76 ] and Caldara ( BWV 1082 ). [ 77 ] Bach ‘s own style shifted in the last ten of his life, showing an increase integration of polyphonic structures and canons and other elements of the stile antico. [ 78 ] His fourthly and last Clavier-Übung book, the Goldberg Variations, for two-manual harpsichord, contained nine canons and was published in 1741. [ 79 ] Throughout this menstruation, Bach besides continued to adopt music of contemporaries such as Handel ( BNB I/K/2 ) [ 80 ] and Stölzel ( BWV 200 ), [ 81 ] and gave many of his own earlier compositions, such as the St Matthew and St John Passions and the Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes, [ 82 ] their final examination revisions. He besides programmed and adapted music by composers of a younger coevals, including Pergolesi ( BWV 1083 ) [ 83 ] and his own students such as Goldberg ( BNB I/G/2 ). [ 84 ] In 1746 Bach was preparing to enter Lorenz Christoph Mizler ‘s Society of Musical Sciences [ de ]. [ 85 ] In orderliness to be admitted Bach had to submit a composition, for which he chose his canonic Variations on “ Vom Himmel hoch district attorney komm ‘ ich her ”, and a portrait, which was painted by Elias Gottlob Haussmann and featured Bach ‘s Canon triplex á 6 Voc. [ 86 ] In May 1747, Bach visited the court of King Frederick II of Prussia in Potsdam. The king played a theme for Bach and challenged him to improvise a fugue based on his theme. Bach obliged, playing a three-part fugue on one of Frederick ‘s fortepianos by Gottfried Silbermann, which was a raw type of instrument at the time. Upon his reappearance to Leipzig he composed a rig of fugues and canons, and a trio sonata, based on the Thema Regium ( subject of the baron ). Within a few weeks this music was published as The Musical Offering and dedicated to Frederick. The Schübler Chorales, a set of six chorale preludes transcribed from cantata movements Bach had composed some two decades earlier, were published within a class. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] Around the same time, the set of five basic variations which Bach had submitted when entering Mizler ‘s society in 1747 were besides printed. [ 90 ] Two large-scale compositions occupied a cardinal position in Bach ‘s last years. From around 1742 he wrote and revised the versatile canons and fugues of The Art of Fugue, which he continued to prepare for issue until curtly before his death. [ 91 ] After extracting a cantata, BWV 191 from his 1733 Kyrie-Gloria Mass for the Dresden court in the mid-1740s, Bach expanded that setting into his Mass in B minor in the last years of his biography. Although the complete bulk was never performed during the composer ‘s life, it is considered to be among the greatest chorale works in history. [ 93 ] In January 1749, Bach ‘s daughter Elisabeth Juliane Friederica married his pupil Johann Christoph Altnickol. Bach ‘s health was, however, declining. On 2 June, Heinrich von Brühl wrote to one of the Leipzig burgomasters to request that his music film director, Johann Gottlob Harrer, fill the Thomaskantor and Director musices posts “ upon the eventual … die of Mr. Bach ”. [ 94 ] Becoming blind, Bach undergo eye operating room, in March 1750 and again in April, by the british eye surgeon John Taylor, a world wide understand today as a mountebank and believed to have blinded hundreds of people. [ 95 ] Bach died on 28 July 1750 from complications due to the abortive treatment. [ 96 ] An inventory drawn up a few months after Bach ‘s death shows that his estate included five harpsichords, two lute-harpsichords, three violins, three violas, two cello, a viola district attorney viola da gamba, a lute and a spinet, along with 52 “ sacred books ”, including works by Martin Luther and Josephus. The composer ‘s son Carl Philipp Emanuel saw to it that The Art of Fugue, although however bare, was published in 1751. [ 100 ] together with one of the composer ‘s former students, Johann Friedrich Agricola, the son besides wrote the obituary ( “ Nekrolog “ ), which was published in Mizler ‘s Musikalische Bibliothek [ de ], the organ of the Society of Musical Sciences, in 1754. [ 90 ]

musical expressive style

From an early senesce, Bach studied the works of his musical contemporaries of the Baroque period and those of anterior generations, and those influences were reflected in his music. Like his contemporaries Handel, Telemann and Vivaldi, Bach composed concertos, suites, recitatives, district attorney capo aria, and four-part choral music and employed bass figured bass. Bach ‘s music was harmonically more advanced than his peer composers, employing amazingly unresolved chords and progressions, frequently with extensive exploration of harmonic possibilities within one piece. [ 102 ] The hundreds of hallowed works Bach created are normally seen as manifesting not good his craft but besides a in truth dear kinship with God. [ 104 ] He had taught Luther ‘s minor Catechism as the Thomaskantor in Leipzig, and some of his pieces represent it. The Lutheran chorale was the basis of much of his study. In elaborating these hymn into his chorale preludes, he wrote more cogent and tightly integrated works than most, even when they were massive and drawn-out. [ citation needed ] The large-scale social organization of every major Bach sacred vocal influence is tell of insidious, detailed planning to create a religiously and musically potent expression. For exemplar, the St Matthew Passion, like other works of its kind, illustrated the Passion with Bible text reflected in recitatives, arias, choruses, and chorales, but in crafting this knead, Bach created an overall have that has been found over the intervening centuries to be both musically thrill and spiritually profound. [ 106 ] Bach published or cautiously compiled in manuscript many collections of pieces that explored the range of artistic and technical possibilities built-in in about every genre of his meter except opera. For model, The Well-Tempered Clavier comprises two books, each of which presents a preliminary and fugue in every major and minor key, displaying a dizzy variety of structural, polyphonic and fugal techniques. [ 107 ]

Four-part harmony

Four-part harmonies predate Bach, but he lived during a time when modal music in westerly custom was largely supplanted in favor of the tonic system. In this arrangement a part of music progresses from one chord to the adjacent according to sealed rules, each chord being characterised by four notes. The principles of four-part harmony are found not only in Bach ‘s four-part chorale music : he besides prescribes it for example for the visualize bass accompaniment. The new arrangement was at the kernel of Bach ‘s style, and his compositions are to a large extent considered as laying down the rules for the evolving scheme that would dominate musical construction in the future centuries. Some examples of this characteristic of Bach ‘s expressive style and its charm :

  • When in the 1740s Bach staged his arrangement of Pergolesi’s Stabat Mater, he upgraded the viola part (which in the original composition plays in unison with the bass part) to fill out the harmony, thus adapting the composition to his four-part harmony style.[109]
  • When, starting in the 19th century in Russia, there was a discussion about the authenticity of four-part court chant settings compared to earlier Russian traditions, Bach’s four-part chorale settings, such as those ending his Chorale cantatas, were considered as foreign-influenced models. Such influence was deemed unavoidable, however.[110]

Bach ‘s imperativeness on the tonal system and contribution to shaping it did not imply he was less at ease with the older modal system and the genres associated with it : more than his contemporaries ( who had “ moved on ” to the tonal system without much exception ), Bach often returned to the then-antiquated modi and genres. His Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue, emulating the chromatic fantasia writing style as used by earlier composers such as Dowland and Sweelinck in D dorian mode ( comparable to D minor in the tonic system ), is an model of this .


modulation, or changing identify in the course of a slice, is another style feature where Bach goes beyond what was common in his prison term. Baroque instruments vastly limited modulation possibilities : keyboard instruments, anterior to a feasible system of disposition, limited the keys that could be modulated to, and wind instruments, specially boldness instruments such as trumpets and horns, about a century before they were fitted with valves, were tied to the key of their tuning. Bach pushed the limits : he added “ foreign tones ” in his organ play, confusing the whistle, according to an indictment he had to face in Arnstadt, and Louis Marchand, another early experimenter with modulation, seems to have avoided confrontation with Bach because the latter went further than anyone had done earlier. In the “ Suscepit Israel ” of his 1723 Magnificat, he had the trumpets in E-flat play a melody in the enharmonic scale of C minor. [ 113 ] The major development taking place in Bach ‘s time, and to which he contributed in no small way, was a disposition for keyboard instruments that allowed their use in all available keys ( 12 major and 12 minor ) and besides modulation without retuning. His Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother, a very early work, showed a gusto for modulation unlike any contemporaneous function this musical composition has been compared to, but the full expansion came with the Well-Tempered Clavier, using all keys, which Bach obviously had been developing since around 1720, the Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach being one of its earliest examples. [ 115 ]


Goldberg Variations, showing Bach’s use of ornaments “ Aria ” of the, showing Bach ‘s use of ornaments The second page of the Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach is an decorate notation and performance guide that Bach wrote for his eldest son, who was nine years old at the time. Bach was by and large quite specific on ornamentation in his compositions ( where in his time a lot of the ornamentation was not written out by composers but rather considered a familiarity of the performer ), and his ornamentation was frequently quite detailed. For case, the “ Aria ” of the Goldberg Variations has full-bodied ornamentation in about every measure. Bach ‘s dealing with ornamentation can besides be seen in a keyboard agreement he made of Marcello ‘s Oboe Concerto : he added denotative ornamentation, which some centuries later is played by oboists when performing the concerto. Although Bach did not write any operas, he was not antipathetic to the music genre or its decorate vocal stylus. In church music, italian composers had imitated the operatic song style in genres such as the Neapolitan mass. In Protestant surroundings, there was more reluctance to adopt such a dash for liturgical music. For case, Kuhnau, Bach ‘s harbinger in Leipzig, had notoriously shunned opera and italian consummate vocal music music. [ 117 ] Bach was less moved. One of the comments after a performance of his St Matthew Passion was that it all sounded much like opera .

Continuo instruments solo

In concert playing in Bach ‘s prison term the bass figured bass, consisting of instruments such as organ, viola district attorney viola da gamba or harpsichord, normally had the function of escort, providing the harmonic and rhythmical foundation of a objet d’art. From the late 1720s, Bach had the organ fun concertante ( i.e. as a soloist ) with the orchestra in implemental cantata movements, [ 119 ] a decade before Handel published his first organ concerto. [ 120 ] apart from the 5th Brandenburg Concerto and the Triple Concerto, which already had harpsichord soloists in the 1720s, Bach wrote and arranged his harpsichord concerto in the 1730s, [ 121 ] and in his sonata for viola district attorney viola da gamba and harpsichord neither instrument plays a figured bass part : they are treated as equal soloists, far beyond the calculate bass. In this sense, Bach played a key role in the development of genres such as the keyboard concerto .


Bach wrote consummate music for specific instruments equally well as music freelancer of instrumentation. For exemplify, the sonatas and partitas for solo violin are considered the pinnacle of what has been written for this instrument, only within achieve of accomplished players. The music fits the instrumental role, pushing it to the full scale of its possibilities and requiring virtuosity of the player but without bravura. [ 123 ] Notwithstanding that the music and the legal document seem inseparable, Bach made transcriptions for other instruments of some pieces of this solicitation. similarly, for the cello suites, the ace music seems tailored for the instrument, the best of what is offered for it, so far Bach made an placement for lute of one of these suites. The same applies to much of his most ace keyboard music. Bach exploited the capabilities of an instrumental role to the fullest while keeping the core of such music autonomous of the instrument on which it is performed. In this sense, it is no surprise that Bach ‘s music is well and frequently performed on instruments it was not inevitably written for, that it is transcribed thus often, and that his melodies turn up in unexpected places such as jazz music. apart from this, Bach left a number of compositions without specified instrumentation : the canons BWV 1072–1078 fall in that category, a well as the bulk of the Musical Offering and the Art of Fugue. [ 124 ]

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Sonata No. 3 in G minor for viola district attorney viola da gamba and harpsichord BWV 1029 performed by John Michel
1st movement (




)2nd movement (




)3rd movement (




) Continuo instruments moving to the front ( here performed on cello and piano )

Another characteristic of Bach ‘s stylus is his extensive use of contrast, as opposed to the homophony used in his four-part Chorale settings, for model. Bach ‘s canons, and particularly his fugues, are most characteristic of this style, which Bach did not invent but contributed to so basically that he defined it to a large extent. Fugues are as characteristic to Bach ‘s expressive style as, for case, the Sonata form is feature to the composers of the classical time period. These strictly polyphonic compositions, and most of Bach ‘s music in general, are characterised by distinct melodic lines for each of the voices, where the chords formed by the notes sounding at a given orient follow the rules of four-part harmony. Johann Nikolaus Forkel, Bach ‘s first biographer, gives this description of this feature of Bach ‘s music, which sets it aside from most other music :

If the lyric of music is merely the utterance of a melodic line, a simple succession of musical notes, it can justly be accused of poverty. The summation of a Bass puts it upon a harmonic foundation and clarifies it, but defines rather than gives it added affluence. A tune so accompanied—even though all the notes are not those of the true Bass—or treated with simple embellishments in the upper parts, or with simple chords, used to be called “ homophony ”. But it is a very different thing when two melodies are indeed interlacing that they converse in concert like two persons upon a foothold of pleasant equality. In the first case the accompaniment is dependent, and serves merely to support the first or principal separate. In the moment case the two parts are not similarly related. New melodic combinations spring from their weave, out of which new forms of melodious saying issue. If more parts are interwoven in the like free and autonomous manner, the apparatus of speech is correspondingly enlarged, and becomes practically inexhaustible if, in addition, varieties of form and rhythm are introduced. Hence harmony becomes no longer a bare escort of melody, but rather a potent representation for augmenting the richness and expressiveness of musical conversation. To serve that goal a simpleton escort will not suffice. True harmony is the weave of several melodies, which emerge immediately in the upper, now in the middle, and now in the lower parts. From about the year 1720, when he was thirty-five, until his end in 1750, Bach ‘s harmony consists in this melodic weave of mugwump melodies, so arrant in their union that each separate seems to constitute the genuine tune. Herein Bach excels all the composers in the world. At least, I have found no one to equal him in music known to me. even in his four-part writing we can, not infrequently, leave out the upper berth and lower parts and silent find the middle parts tuneful and agreeable .

structure and lyrics

Bach devoted more care than his contemporaries to the structure of compositions. This can be seen in minor adjustments he made when adapting person else ‘s constitution, such as his earliest version of the “ Keiser ” St Mark Passion, where he enhances scene transitions, [ 127 ] and in the architecture of his own compositions such as his Magnificat [ 113 ] and Leipzig Passions. In the last years of his life, Bach revised respective of his anterior compositions. Often the rewording of such previously composed music in an enhance social organization was the most visible change, as in the Mass in B minor. Bach ‘s known preoccupancy with structure led ( peaking around the 1970s ) to respective numerological analyses of his compositions, although many such over-interpretations were late rejected, particularly when wandering off into symbolism-ridden hermeneutics. [ 128 ] [ 129 ] The libretto, or lyrics, of his vocal compositions played an crucial role for Bach. He sought collaboration with respective text authors for his cantata and major vocal compositions, possibly writing or adapting such texts himself to make them fit the structure of the composition he was designing when he could not rely on the talents of other text authors. His collaboration with Picander for the St Matthew Passion libretto is best known, but there was a similar action in achieving a multi-layered structure for his St John Passion libretto a few years earlier. [ 130 ]


In 1950, Wolfgang Schmieder published a thematic catalog of Bach ‘s compositions called the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis ( Bach Works Catalogue ). [ 131 ] Schmieder largely followed the Bach-Gesellschaft-Ausgabe, a comprehensive edition of the composer ‘s works that was produced between 1850 and 1900. The first edition of the catalog listed 1,080 surviving compositions indisputably composed by Bach. [ 132 ] BWV 1081–1126 were added to the catalog in the irregular half of the twentieth century, and BWV 1127 and higher are 21st-century additions. [ 133 ] [ 134 ] [ 135 ]

Passions and oratorios

Bach composed Passions for good Friday services and oratorios such as the Christmas Oratorio, which is a fit of six cantatas for use in the liturgical temper of Christmas. [ 138 ] Shorter oratorios are the Easter Oratorio and the Ascension Oratorio .

St Matthew Passion

St Matthew Passion (Matthew 27:45–47a) Bach ‘s autograph of the recitative with the gospel textbook of Christ ‘s death from With its double over choir and orchestra, the St Matthew Passion is one of Bach ‘s most extend works .

St John Passion

The St John Passion was the first base Passion Bach composed during his tenure as Thomaskantor in Leipzig .


According to his obituary, Bach would have composed five year-cycles of sacred cantatas, and extra church cantata for weddings and funerals, for model. [ 90 ] approximately 200 of these sacred works are extant, an estimated two thirds of the total number of church cantata he composed. [ 61 ] [ 139 ] The Bach Digital web site lists 50 known laic cantatas by the composer, [ 140 ] about half of which are extant or largely reconstructable. [ 141 ]

church service cantatas

Bach ‘s cantatas vary greatly in shape and instrumentation. many consist of a large opening refrain followed by one or more recitative-aria pairs for soloists ( or duets ) and a concluding chorale. The tune of the concluding chorale much appears as a cantus firmus in the possibility movement. [ citation needed ] Bach ‘s earliest cantata date from his years in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen. The earliest survive work in the writing style is Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich, BWV 150. As a whole, the extant early works all express noteworthy mastery and skill. many feature an implemental opening which display effective manipulation of the limited instrumental forces available to Bach, whether it be in the hushed combination of two recorders and two viola de viola da gamba for BWV 106, or the independent bassoon in BWV 196. Bach ‘s compositional skills are besides manifested through his boldness harmonies and advanced, unprecedented harmonize progressions. According to Christoph Wolff, Bach ‘s early cantatas are impressive attest of how the meek means at his disposal did not restrain the composer in the slender, and they compare favorably with compositions by the most talented composers from the begin of the eighteenth hundred, such as Krieger, Kuhnau or Zachow. After taking up his function as Thomaskantor in late May 1723, Bach performed a cantata each Sunday and banquet day, corresponding to the lectionary readings of the week. [ 22 ] His first cantata cycle ran from the first Sunday after Trinity of 1723 to Trinity Sunday the following year. For example, the Visitation cantata Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147, containing the chorale that is known in English as “ Jesu, Joy of Man ‘s Desiring ”, belongs to this first base cycle. The cantata cycle of his second year in Leipzig is called the chorale cantata bicycle as it consists chiefly of works in the chorale cantata format. His third base cantata bicycle was developed over a period of several years, followed by the Picander motorbike of 1728–29. belated church cantatas include the chorale cantata Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, BWV 80 ( final adaptation ) [ 143 ] and Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140. [ 144 ] only the beginning three Leipzig cycles are more or less completely extant. aside from his own cultivate, Bach besides performed cantatas by Telemann and by his aloof relative Johann Ludwig Bach. [ 22 ]

laic cantatas

Bach besides wrote secular cantatas, for exemplify for members of the royal polish and prince-electoral Saxonian families ( e.g. Trauer-Ode ), [ 145 ] or early populace or private occasions ( e.g. Hunting Cantata ). [ 146 ] The text of these cantatas was occasionally in dialect ( e.g. Peasant Cantata ) [ 147 ] or italian ( e.g. Amore traditore ). [ 148 ] Many of the laic cantatas were lost, but for some of them the text and occasion are known, for exemplify when Picander former published their libretto ( e.g. BWV Anh. 11 – 12 ). [ 149 ] Some of the surviving layman cantatas have a plot involving fabulous figures of greek ancientness ( e.g. Der Streit zwischen Phoebus und Pan ), [ 150 ] and others were about miniature buffo operas ( e.g. Coffee Cantata ). [ 151 ] Although Bach never expressed any matter to in opera, [ 152 ] his worldly cantatas, or drammi per musica, would have allowed Leipzig audiences, deprived of opera since 1720, to experience musical performances comparable to the royal opera in Dresden. These were not at all “ poor or improvised substitutes for real opera ” but spectacles displaying “ full mastery of the dramatic music genre and the proper pace of the dialogues. ”

A cappella music

Bach ‘s a cappella music includes motets and chorale harmonisations .


Bach ‘s motets ( BWV 225–231 ) are pieces on sacred themes for choir and figured bass, with instruments playing colla parte. Several of them were composed for funerals. [ 154 ] The six motets decidedly composed by Bach are Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf, Jesu, meine Freude, Fürchte dich nicht, Komm, Jesu, komm, and Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden. The motet Sei Lob und Preis mit Ehren ( BWV 231 ) is character of the composite motet Jauchzet dem Herrn, alle Welt ( BWV Anh. 160 ), other parts of which may be based on knead by Telemann. [ 155 ]

chorale harmonisations

Bach wrote hundreds of four-part harmonisations of Lutheran chorales .

church service music in Latin

Bach ‘s church music in Latin includes the Magnificat, four Kyrie–Gloria Masses, and the Mass in B minor .


The first base version of Bach ‘s Magnificat dates from 1723, but the shape is best known in its D major version of 1733 .

Mass in B minor

from Mass in B minor Agnus Dei (




) performed by Solomija Drozd ( voice ), Petro Titiajev ( violin ) and Ivan Ostapovych ( organ )

In 1733 Bach composed a Kyrie–Gloria Mass for the Dresden court. Near the end of his biography, around 1748–1749, he expanded this composition into the large-scale Mass in B minor. The work was never performed in full moon during Bach ‘s life. [ 156 ]

Keyboard music

Bach wrote for organ and for stringed keyboard instruments such as harpsichord, clavichord and lute-harpsichord .

Organ works

Bach was best known during his life as an organist, organ adviser, and composer of electric organ works in both the traditional german absolve genres ( such as preludes, fantasia, and toccatas ) and stricter forms ( such as chorale preludes and fugues ). [ 22 ] At a new age, he established a repute for creativity and ability to integrate alien styles into his organ works. A decidedly north german charm was exerted by Georg Böhm, with whom Bach came into liaison in Lüneburg, and Dieterich Buxtehude, whom the young organist visited in Lübeck in 1704 on an extend leave of absence from his job in Arnstadt. Around this time, Bach copied the works of numerous french and italian composers to gain insights into their compositional languages, and later arranged violin concertos by Vivaldi and others for organ and harpsichord. During his most productive time period ( 1708–1714 ) he composed about a twelve pair of preludes and fugues, five toccatas and fugues, and the Orgelbüchlein or “ little Organ Book ”, an unfinished collection of 46 short chorale preludes that demonstrate compositional techniques in the mise en scene of chorale tunes. After leaving Weimar, Bach wrote less for organ, although some of his best-known works ( the six Organ Sonatas, the german Organ Mass in Clavier-Übung III from 1739, and the Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes, revised deep in his life ) were composed after leaving Weimar. Bach was extensively engaged later in his life in consulting on harmonium projects, testing newfangled organs and dedicating organs in good afternoon recitals. [ 158 ] [ 159 ] The Canonic Variations on “ Vom Himmel hoch district attorney komm ‘ ich her ” and the Schübler Chorales are organ works Bach published in the last years of his life .

Harpsichord and other stringed keyboard instruments

The Art of Fugue (title page) – Performed by Mehmet Okonsar on organ and harpsichord Nos. 1–12 Nos. 13–20 ( claim page ) – Performed by Mehmet Okonsar on organ and harpsichord

Prelude No. 1 in C major BWV 846 performed on harpsichord by Robert Schröter
Prelude No. 1 in C major BWV 846 (





Bach wrote many works for harpsichord, some of which may besides have been played on the clavichord or lute-harpsichord. Some of his larger works, such as Clavier-Übung II and IV, are intended for a harpsichord with two manuals : performing them on a keyboard instrument with a single manual of arms ( like a piano ) may present technical difficulties for the crossing of hands .
Among Bach ‘s lesser known keyboard works are seven toccatas ( BWV 910–916 ), four duets ( BWV 802–805 ), sonatas for keyboard ( BWV 963–967 ), the Six Little Preludes ( BWV 933–938 ), and the Aria variata alla maniera italiana ( BWV 989 ) .

Orchestral and chamber music

Bach wrote for one instruments, duets, and little ensembles. many of his solo works, such as the six sonatas and partitas for violin ( BWV 1001–1006 ) and the six cello suites ( BWV 1007–1012 ), are wide considered to be among the most heavy in the repertoire. [ 167 ] [ 123 ] He wrote sonatas for a solo instrument such as the viola de gamba accompanied by harpsichord or figured bass, angstrom well as trio sonatas ( two instruments and figured bass ). The Musical Offering and The Art of Fugue are late polyphonic works containing pieces for unspecified instruments or combinations of instruments. [ 169 ]

Violin concertos

Surviving works in the concerto form include two violin concertos ( BWV 1041 in A minor and BWV 1042 in E major ) and a concerto for two violins in D child, BWV 1043, frequently referred to as Bach ‘s “ double concerto ” .

Brandenburg Concertos

Bach ‘s best-known orchestral works are the Brandenburg Concertos, sol named because he submitted them in the hope of gaining employment from Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg-Schwedt in 1721 ; his application was unsuccessful. [ 22 ] These works are examples of the concerto grosso music genre .

Keyboard concerto

Bach composed and transcribed concertos for one to four harpsichords. Many of the harpsichord concerto were not original works but arrangements of his concerto for other instruments, now lost. [ 170 ] A numeral of violin, oboe, and flute concertos have been reconstructed from these .

orchestral suites

In addition to concertos, Bach wrote four orchestral suites, each cortege being a series of conventionalized dances for orchestra, preceded by a french overture. [ 171 ]

Copies, arrangements and changeable attributions

In his early youth, Bach copied pieces by other composers to learn from them. by and by, he copied and arranged music for performance or as study material for his pupils. Some of these pieces, like “ Bist du bei mir “ ( copied not by Bach but by Anna Magdalena ), became celebrated before being dissociated with Bach. Bach copied and arranged italian masters such as Vivaldi ( e.g. BWV 1065 ), Pergolesi ( BWV 1083 ) and Palestrina ( Missa Sine nomine ), french masters such as François Couperin ( BWV Anh. 183 ), and, closer to home, versatile german masters including Telemann ( e.g. BWV 824 = TWV 32:14 ) and Handel ( arias from Brockes Passion ), and music from members of his own kin. He besides often copied and arranged his own music ( e.g. movements from cantata for his short masses BWV 233–236 ), as his music was alike copied and arranged by others. Some of these arrangements, like the late 19th-century “ Air on the G String “, helped to popularise Bach ‘s music. sometimes “ who copied whom ” is not net. For example, Forkel mentions a Mass for double chorus among the works composed by Bach. The work was published and performed in the early nineteenth hundred, and although a score partially in Bach ‘s handwriting exists, the solve was by and by considered bastardly. In 1950, the design of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis was to keep such works out of the main catalog : if there was a potent association with Bach they could be listed in its appendix ( german : Anhang, abbreviated as Anh. ). frankincense, for example, the aforesaid Mass for bivalent chorus became BWV Anh. 167. But this was far from the end of the attribution issues. For exemplify, Schlage doch, gewünschte Stunde, BWV 53, was late attributed to Melchior Hoffmann. For early works, Bach ‘s writing was put in doubt without a generally accepted solution to the wonder of whether or not he composed it : the best know organ musical composition in the BWV catalogue, the Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, was indicated as one of these uncertain works in the former twentieth century. [ 174 ]


The church service in Arnstadt where Bach had been the organist from 1703 to 1707. In 1935 the church was renamed “ Bachkirche ”. Throughout the eighteenth hundred, the appreciation of Bach ‘s music was largely limited to distinguished connoisseurs. The nineteenth century started with publication of the beginning biography of the composer and ended with the completion of the publication of all of Bach ‘s known works by the Bach Gesellschaft. A Bach Revival had started from Mendelssohn ‘s performance of the St Matthew Passion in 1829. soon after that performance, Bach started to become involve as one of the greatest composers of all time, if not the greatest, a reputation he has retained ever since. A new extensive Bach biography was published in the moment half of the nineteenth hundred. In the twentieth century Bach ‘s music was widely performed and recorded, while the Neue Bachgesellschaft, among others, published research on the composer. modern adaptations of Bach ‘s music contributed greatly to his popularization in the moment half of the twentieth hundred. Among these were the Swingle Singers ‘ versions of Bach pieces ( for exemplify, the Air from Orchestral Suite No. 3, and the Wachet auf… chorale prelude ) and Wendy Carlos ‘ 1968 Switched-On Bach, which used the Moog electronic synthesist. By the end of the twentieth century, more classical performers were gradually moving away from the performance manner and instrumentality that were established in the romantic era : they started to perform Bach ‘s music on period instruments of the baroque era, studied and practised dally techniques and tempo as established in his time, and reduced the size of implemental ensembles and choirs to what he would have employed. The BACH motif, used by the composer in his own compositions, was used in dozens of tributes to the composer from the nineteenth hundred to the 21st. In the twenty-first hundred the complete extant output of the composer became available on-line, with several websites entirely dedicated to him. [ citation needed ] The liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church remembers Bach annually with a feast day on 28 July, together with George Frideric Handel and Henry Purcell ; [ 175 ] on the lapp day, the Calendar of Saints of some Lutheran churches, such as the ELCA, remembers Bach and Handel with Heinrich Schütz. [ 176 ]

eighteenth hundred

Painting of Johann Sebastian Bach by ‘Gebel ‘, before 1798. In his own clock, Bach was highly involve amongst his colleagues, although his repute outside of this small r-2 of connoisseur was due not to his compositions ( which had an highly minute circulation ), but ascribable to his virtuosic abilities. however, during his life, Bach received public recognition, such as the claim of court composer by Augustus III of Poland and the appreciation he was shown by Frederick the Great and Hermann Karl von Keyserling. such highly placed appreciation contrasted with the humiliations he had to cope with, for exemplify in Leipzig. [ 178 ] besides in the contemporary weigh, Bach had his detractors, such as Johann Adolf Scheibe, suggesting he write less complex music, and his supporters, such as Johann Mattheson and Lorenz Christoph Mizler. [ 179 ] [ 180 ] [ 181 ] After his death, Bach ‘s reputation as a composer at beginning declined : his cultivate was regarded as antique compared to the emerging galant manner. [ 182 ] initially, he was remembered more as a ace player of the harmonium and as a teacher. The bulk of the music that had been printed during the composer ‘s life, at least the separate that was remembered, was for the organ and the harpsichord. therefore, his repute as a composer was initially by and large limited to his keyboard music, and that even fairly limited to its value in music education. Bach ‘s surviving family members, who inherited a boastfully depart of his manuscripts, were not all evenly concerned with preserving them, leading to considerable losses. Carl Philipp Emanuel, his moment eldest son, was most active in safeguarding his father ‘s bequest : he co-authored his don ‘s obituary, contributed to the issue of his four-part chorales, staged some of his works, and the bulk of previously unpublished works of his founder were preserved with his help oneself. [ 185 ] Wilhelm Friedemann, the eldest son, performed several of his father ‘s cantatas in Halle but after becoming unemployed people sold part of the big collection of his don ‘s works he owned. [ 186 ] respective students of the old master, such as his son-in-law Johann Christoph Altnickol, Johann Friedrich Agricola, Johann Kirnberger, and Johann Ludwig Krebs, contributed to the dissemination of his bequest. The early devotees were not all musicians ; for example, in Berlin, Daniel Itzig, a high official of Frederick the Great ‘s motor hotel, venerated Bach. [ 189 ] His eldest daughters took lessons from Kirnberger and their baby Sara from Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, who was in Berlin from 1774 to 1784. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] Sara Itzig Levy became an avid collector of works by Johann Sebastian Bach and his sons and was a “ patron ” of CPE Bach. [ 190 ] While in Leipzig, performances of Bach ‘s church music were limited to some of his motets, and under choirmaster Doles some of his Passions. A new generation of Bach aficionados emerged : they studiously collected and copied his music, including some of his large-scale works such as the Mass in B minor and performed it privately. One such connoisseur was Gottfried avant-garde Swieten, a high-level austrian official who was instrumental in passing Bach ‘s bequest on to the composers of the viennese educate. Haydn owned manuscript copies of the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Mass in B minor and was influenced by Bach ‘s music. Mozart owned a copy of one of Bach ‘s motets, [ 192 ] transcribed some of his implemental works ( K. 404a, 405 ), [ 193 ] [ 194 ] and wrote contrapuntal music influenced by his manner. [ 195 ] [ 196 ] Beethoven played the entire Well-Tempered Clavier by the prison term he was 11 and described Bach as Urvater der Harmonie ( progenitor of harmony ). [ 197 ] [ 198 ] [ 199 ] [ 201 ]

nineteenth century

de] persona of the Bach memorial erected by Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig in 1843 In 1802, Johann Nikolaus Forkel published Ueber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke, the first biography of the composer, which contributed to his becoming known to a wider public. In 1805, Abraham Mendelssohn, who had married one of Itzig ‘s granddaughters, bought a solid collection of Bach manuscripts that had come down from C. P. E. Bach, and donated it to the Berlin Sing-Akademie. [ 189 ] The Sing-Akademie occasionally performed Bach ‘s works in public concerts, for exemplify his first keyboard concerto, with Sara Itzig Levy at the piano. [ 189 ] The first decades of the nineteenth century saw an increasing number of first base publications of Bach ‘s music : Breitkopf started publishing chorale preludes, Hoffmeister harpsichord music, and the Well-Tempered Clavier was printed concurrently by Simrock ( Germany ), Nägeli ( Switzerland ) and Hoffmeister ( Germany and Austria ) in 1801. vocal music was besides published : motets in 1802 and 1803, followed by the E♭ major interpretation of the Magnificat, the Kyrie-Gloria Mass in A major, and the cantata Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott ( BWV 80 ). In 1818, Hans Georg Nägeli called the Mass in B minor the greatest composition always. [ 197 ] Bach ‘s charm was felt in the following generation of early romanticist composers. [ 198 ] When Felix Mendelssohn, Abraham ‘s son, aged 13, produced his first Magnificat sic in 1822, it is clear that he had been inspired by the then unpublished D major version of Bach ‘s Magnificat. [ 207 ] Felix Mendelssohn importantly contributed to the renewed interest in Bach ‘s workplace with his 1829 Berlin performance of the St Matthew Passion, which was implemental in setting off what has been called the Bach Revival. The St John Passion saw its 19th-century premier in 1833, and the first performance of the Mass in B minor followed in 1844. Besides these and other public performances and an increased coverage on the composer and his compositions in print media, the 1830s and 1840s besides saw the first publication of more song works by Bach : six cantatas, the St Matthew Passion, and the Mass in B minor. A series of organ compositions saw their first issue in 1833. [ 208 ] Chopin started composing his 24 Preludes, Op. 28, inspired by the Well-Tempered Clavier, in 1835, and Schumann published his Sechs Fugen über den Namen B-A-C-H in 1845. Bach ‘s music was transcribed and arranged to suit contemporary tastes and performance practice by composers such as Carl Friedrich Zelter, Robert Franz, and Franz Liszt, or combined with new music such as the tune cable of Charles Gounod ‘s Ave Maria. [ 197 ] Brahms, Bruckner, and Wagner were among the composers who promoted Bach ‘s music or wrote glowingly about it. In 1850, the Bach-Gesellschaft ( Bach Society ) was founded to promote Bach ‘s music. In the second one-half of the nineteenth century, the Society published a comprehensive edition of the composer ‘s works. besides in the second one-half of the nineteenth hundred, Philipp Spitta published Johann Sebastian Bach, the standard work on Bach ‘s life sentence and music. [ 210 ] By that time, Bach was known as the first base of the three Bs in music. Throughout the nineteenth century, 200 books were published on Bach. By the end of the hundred, local Bach societies were established in several cities, and his music had been performed in all major musical centres. [ 197 ] In Germany all throughout the century, Bach was coupled to patriot feelings, and the composer was inscribed in a religious revival. In England, Bach was coupled to an existing revival of religious and baroque music. By the end of the hundred, Bach was firm established as one of the greatest composers, recognised for both his implemental and his vocal music. [ 197 ]

twentieth century

1908 Statue of Bach in front of the Thomaskirche in Leipzig 28 July 1950 : memorial service for Bach in Leipzig ‘s Thomaskirche, on the two-hundredth anniversary of the composer ‘s death During the twentieth hundred, the process of recognising the musical adenine good as the pedagogical value of some of the works continued, as in the promotion of the cello suites by Pablo Casals, the first gear major performer to record these suites. [ 211 ] Leading performers of classical music such as Willem Mengelberg, Edwin Fischer, Georges Enescu, Leopold Stokowski, Herbert von Karajan, Arthur Grumiaux, Helmut Walcha, Wanda Landowska, Karl Richter, I Musici, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, and Glenn Gould recorded his music. [ north 4 ] A significant development in the by and by separate of the twentieth century was the momentum gained by the historically informed performance practice, with forerunners such as Nikolaus Harnoncourt acquiring bulge by their performances of Bach ‘s music. His keyboard music was again performed more on the instruments Bach was familiar with, rather than on advanced pianos and 19th-century romantic organs. Ensembles playing and singing Bach ‘s music not merely kept to the instruments and the operation style of his day but were besides reduced to the size of the groups Bach used for his performances. [ 212 ] But that was far from the alone way Bach ‘s music came to the forefront in the twentieth hundred : his music was heard in versions ranging from Ferruccio Busoni ‘s deep romanticist piano transcriptions to jazzy interpretations such as those by The Swingle Singers, orchestrations like the one opening Walt Disney ‘s Fantasia movie, and synthesiser performances such as Wendy Carlos ‘ Switched-On Bach recordings. Bach ‘s music has influenced other genres. For exemplify, sleep together musicians have adopted Bach ‘s music, with Jacques Loussier, Ian Anderson, Uri Caine, and the Modern Jazz Quartet among those creating jazz versions of his works. [ 213 ] respective 20th-century composers referred to Bach or his music, for model Eugène Ysaÿe in Six Sonatas for solo violin, Dmitri Shostakovich in 24 Preludes and Fugues and Heitor Villa-Lobos in Bachianas Brasileiras. All kinds of publications involved Bach : not lone were there the Bach Jahrbuch publications of the Neue Bachgesellschaft, versatile other biographies and studies by among others Albert Schweitzer, Charles Sanford Terry, Alfred Dürr, Christoph Wolff. Peter Williams, John Butt, [ normality 5 ] and the 1950 first version of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis ; but besides books such as Gödel, Escher, Bach put the composer ‘s art in a broad perspective. Bach ‘s music was extensively listened to, performed, circulate, arranged, adapted, and commented upon in the 1990s. [ 214 ] Around 2000, the 250th anniversary of Bach ‘s end, three record companies issued box sets with dispatch recordings of Bach ‘s music. [ 215 ] [ 216 ] [ 217 ] Bach ‘s music features three times—more than that of any other composer—on the Voyager Golden Record, a gramophone read containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds, languages, and music of Earth, sent into outer distance with the two Voyager probes. [ 218 ] Tributes to Bach in the twentieth hundred include statues erected in his honor and a variety show of things such as streets and space objects being named after him. [ 219 ] [ 220 ] besides, a battalion of musical ensembles such as the Bach Aria Group, Deutsche Bachsolisten, Bachchor Stuttgart, and Bach Collegium Japan adopted the composer ‘s name. Bach festivals were held on several continents, and competitions and prizes such as the International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition and the Royal Academy of Music Bach Prize were named after the composer. While by the end of the nineteenth century Bach had been inscribed in patriotism and religious revival, the recently twentieth hundred saw Bach as the subject of a secularize art-as-religion ( Kunstreligion ). [ 197 ] [ 214 ]

twenty-first century

In the twenty-first hundred, Bach ‘s compositions have become available on-line, for case at the International Music Score Library Project. [ 221 ] High-resolution facsimiles of Bach ‘s autograph became available at the Bach Digital web site. [ 222 ] 21st-century biographers include Christoph Wolff, Peter Williams and John Eliot Gardiner. [ normality 6 ] In 2015, Bach ‘s handwritten personal copy of his Mass in B minor, held by the Berlin State Library, was added to UNESCO ‘s memory of the World Register, [ 223 ] a program intended to protect culturally significant manuscripts. In 2019, Bach was named the greatest composer of all clock time in a poll conducted among 174 living composers. [ 224 ]

Burial site

Bach was originally buried at Old St. John ‘s Cemetery in Leipzig. His grave went overlooked for closely 150 years, but in 1894 his remains were located and moved to a vault in St. John ‘s Church. This building was destroyed by Allied bombing during World War II, so in 1950 Bach ‘s remains were taken to their present grave accent in St. Thomas Church. [ 22 ] Later research has called into question whether the remains in the grave are actually those of Bach. [ 225 ]




Works cited



far read

See Crist & Stauff 2011 for an across-the-board bibliography


source :
Category : Yoga