Largest city in Illinois, United States

City in Illinois, United States
Chicago ( shih-KAH-goh, locally besides shih-KAW-goh [ 5 ] ), officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois, and the third-most populous city in the United States, following New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, [ 6 ] it is besides the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the one-fifth most populous city in North America. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the U.S., while a small part of the city ‘s O’Hare International Airport besides extends into DuPage County. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, defined as either the U.S. Census Bureau ‘s metropolitan statistical area ( 9.6 million people ) or the blend statistical area ( about 10 million residents ), frequently called Chicagoland. It is one of the 40 largest urban areas in the populace.

Located on the shores of fresh water Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed. It grew quickly in the mid-19th hundred ; [ 7 ] by 1860, Chicago was the youngest U.S. city to exceed a population of 100,000. [ 8 ] even after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroy several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, [ 9 ] Chicago ‘s population grew to 503,000 by 1880 — and then doubled to more than a million within the decade. [ 8 ] The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the follow decades, and by 1900, less than 30 years after the great fire, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the global. [ 10 ] Chicago made notice contributions to urban plan and zoning standards, including new structure styles ( including the Chicago School of computer architecture ), the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Chicago is an international hub for finance, polish, commerce, industry, education, engineering, telecommunications, and department of transportation. It is the site of the universe of the beginning exchangeable futures contracts, issued by the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is contribution of the largest and most divers derivatives market in the world, generating 20 % of all volume in commodities and fiscal futures alone. [ 13 ] O’Hare International Airport is routinely ranked among the worldly concern ‘s exceed six busiest airports according to tracked data by the Airports Council International. [ 14 ] The region besides has the largest count of federal highways and is the nation ‘s railroad hub. [ 15 ] The Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products ( GDP ) in the populace, generating $ 689 billion in 2018. [ 16 ] The economy of Chicago is diverse, with no single industry employing more than 14 % of the work force. [ 17 ] It is home to respective Fortune 500 companies, including Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie, Allstate, Archer Daniels Midland, Boeing, Caterpillar, Conagra Brands, Exelon, JLL, Kraft Heinz, McDonald ‘s, Mondelez International, Motorola Solutions, Sears, United Airlines Holdings, US Foods, and Walgreens. [ 18 ] Chicago ‘s 58 million tourist visitors in 2018 set a new record. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis ( Sears ) Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago is besides home to the Barack Obama Presidential Center being built in Hyde Park on the city ‘s South Side. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Chicago ‘s culture includes the ocular arts, literature, film, theater, comedy ( particularly improvisational drollery ), food, dance, including advanced dance and sleep together troupes and the celebrated Joffrey Ballet, and music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel, [ 23 ] and electronic dancing music including house music. Chicago is besides the localization of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Lyric Opera of Chicago. Of the area ‘s colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as “ highest research ” doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major master leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams .

etymology and nicknames

The name Chicago is derived from a french rendering of the autochthonal Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion ; it is known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more normally as “ ramps. ” The beginning known reference to the locate of the stream city of Chicago as “ Checagou “ was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. [ 24 ] Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous barbarian “ garlic ” grew abundantly in the area. [ 25 ] According to his diary of late September 1687 :

… when we arrived at the said stead called “ Chicagou ” which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the measure of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. [ 25 ]

The city has had several nicknames throughout its history, such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, and City of the Big Shoulders. [ 26 ]

history

Beginnings

In the mid-18th century, the sphere was inhabited by the Potawatomi, a native american tribe who had succeeded the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples in this area. [ 27 ] The first base known non-indigenous permanent wave settler in Chicago was trader Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of african descent, possibly born in the french colony of Saint-Domingue ( Haiti ), and established the liquidation in the 1780s. He is normally known as the “ Founder of Chicago ”. [ 30 ] In 1795, following the victory of the new United States in the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over to the US for a military position by native tribes in accord with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn. This was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn by the british and their native allies. It was late rebuilt. After the War of 1812, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes ceded extra land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833 and sent west of the Mississippi River during indian Removal. [ 34 ]

nineteenth hundred

On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. [ 34 ] Within seven years it grew to more than 6,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the foremost public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as Receiver of Public Monies. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, [ 35 ] and for several decades was the worldly concern ‘s fastest-growing city. [ 36 ] As the web site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an crucial transportation system hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago ‘s beginning railroad track, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from afield. fabricate and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the american economy. [ 42 ] The Chicago Board of Trade ( established 1848 ) listed the first-ever standardize “ exchange-traded ” advancing contracts, which were called futures contracts. [ 43 ] In the 1850s, Chicago gained national political bulge as the base of Senator Stephen Douglas, the supporter of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the “ popular reign ” set about to the issue of the go around of slavery. [ 44 ] These issues besides helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage. Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for US president of the united states at the 1860 Republican National Convention, which was held in Chicago in a impermanent construct called the Wigwam. He defeated Douglas in the general election, and this set the stage for the American Civil War. To accommodate rapid population increase and requirement for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure. In February 1856, Chicago ‘s Common Council approved Chesbrough ‘s plan to build the United States ‘ first gear comprehensive examination sewage system. [ 45 ] The project raised much of central Chicago to a raw grade with the function of hydraulic jackscrews for raising buildings. [ 46 ] While elevating Chicago, and at first improving the city ‘s health, the untreated sewage and industrial lay waste to now flowed into the Chicago River, and subsequently into Lake Michigan, polluting the city ‘s primary fresh water source. The city responded by tunneling two miles ( 3.2 kilometer ) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water crib. In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city completed a major engineering feat. It reversed the flow of the Chicago River so that the body of water flowed away from Lake Michigan rather than into it. This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed an area about 4 miles ( 6.4 km ) long and 1-mile ( 1.6 kilometer ) wide, a bombastic department of the city at the time. much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived intact, and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of sword and stone. These set a precedent for cosmopolitan construction. [ 54 ] During its rebuild period, Chicago constructed the worldly concern ‘s inaugural skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction. [ 56 ] The city grew significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 1851 and 1920, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which now comprises most of the South Side of Chicago and the far southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which nowadays makes up most of Chicago ‘s Northwest Side. [ 58 ] The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents .
Chicago ‘s flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe and migrants from the Eastern United States. Of the full population in 1900, more than 77 % were either foreign-born or born in the United States of alien parentage. Germans, Irish, Poles, Swedes and Czechs made up about two-thirds of the foreign-born population ( by 1900, whites were 98.1 % of the city ‘s population ). [ 59 ] [ 60 ] labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the department of labor pool, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886, and in 1894 the Pullman Strike. Anarchist and socialistic groups played big roles in creating very large and highly organized labor actions. Concern for social problems among Chicago ‘s immigrant hapless led Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to found Hull House in 1889. [ 61 ] Programs that were developed there became a model for the modern plain of social employment. [ 62 ] During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the drawing card in the apparent motion to improve public health. City, and late, country laws that upgraded standards for the checkup profession and fight urban epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and scandalmongering fever were both passed and enforced. These laws became templates for populace health reform in other cities and states. [ 63 ] The city established many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which besides included populace sanitation facilities. The head advocate for improving public health in Chicago was Dr. John H. Rauch, M.D. Rauch established a plan for Chicago ‘s park system in 1866. He created Lincoln Park by closing a cemetery filled with shallow graves, and in 1867, in reply to an outbreak of cholera he helped establish a newly Chicago Board of Health. Ten years late, he became the repository and then the president of the first Illinois State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago. [ 64 ] In the 1800s, Chicago became the nation ‘s railroad hub, and by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger serve out of six different downtown terminals. [ 66 ] In 1883, Chicago ‘s railroad track managers needed a general time convention, so they developed the standardize system of north american clock zones. [ 67 ] This organization for telling prison term spread throughout the continent. In 1893, Chicago hosted the World ‘s columbian exposition on former marsh at the salute location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential worldly concern ‘s fairly in history. [ 68 ] The University of Chicago, once at another placement, moved to the same South Side location in 1892. The term “ center ” for a fair or circus referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of ballpark land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects the Washington and Jackson Parks. [ 70 ] [ 71 ]

20th and 21st centuries

Men outside a soup kitchen during the Great Depression ( 1931 )

1900 to 1939

aeriform gesticulate film photography of Chicago in 1914 as filmed by A. Roy Knabenshue During World War I and the 1920s there was a major expansion in industry. The handiness of jobs attracted african Americans from the Southern United States. between 1910 and 1930, the african american english population of Chicago increased dramatically, from 44,103 to 233,903. [ 72 ] This Great Migration had an huge cultural impact, called the Chicago Black Renaissance, separate of the New Negro Movement, in art, literature, and music. [ 73 ] Continuing racial tensions and ferocity, such as the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, besides occurred. [ 74 ] The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale ( including export ) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States. This usher in the beginning of what is known as the Gangster Era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when Prohibition was repealed. The 1920s see gangsters, including Al Capone, Dion O’Banion, Bugs Moran and Tony Accardo struggle law enforcement and each other on the streets of Chicago during the Prohibition earned run average. [ 75 ] Chicago was the localization of the ill-famed St. Valentine ‘s Day Massacre in 1929, when Al Capone sent men to gun down members of a equal gang, North Side, led by Bugs Moran. [ 76 ] Chicago was the first american english city to have a homosexual-rights organization. The constitution, formed in 1924, was called the Society for Human Rights. It produced the first gear american publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Police and political pressure caused the organization to disband. [ 77 ] The Great Depression brought unprecedented suffer to Chicago, in no small separate due to the city ‘s heavy reliance on heavy industry. notably, industrial areas on the south side and neighborhoods lining both branches of the Chicago River were devastated ; by 1933 over 50 % of industrial jobs in the city had been lost, and unemployment rates amongst blacks and Mexicans in the city were complete 40 %. The republican political machine in Chicago was absolutely destroyed by the economic crisis, and every mayor since 1931 has been a Democrat. From 1928 to 1933, the city witnessed a tax rebellion, and the city was unable to meet payroll or provide relief efforts. The fiscal crisis was resolved by 1933, and at the lapp time, federal relief fund began to flow into Chicago. [ 78 ] Chicago was besides a hotbed of labor movement activism, with Unemployed Councils contributing heavily in the early low to create solidarity for the poor and need relief, these organizations were created by socialist and communist groups. By 1935 the Workers Alliance of America begun organizing the poor, workers, the unemployed people. In the spring of 1937 Republic Steel Works witnessed the Memorial Day slaughter of 1937 in the neighborhood of East Side. In 1933, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was fatally wounded in Miami, Florida, during a fail assassination undertake on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933 and 1934, the city celebrated its centennial by hosting the Century of Progress International Exposition World ‘s Fair. [ 79 ] The theme of the fairly was technological invention over the century since Chicago ‘s initiation. [ 80 ]

1940 to 1979

Boy from Chicago, 1941 During World War II, the city of Chicago alone produced more steel than the United Kingdom every year from 1939 – 1945, and more than Nazi Germany from 1943 – 1945. [ citation needed ] The Great Migration, which had been on pause due to the Depression, resumed at an even faster pace in the second curl, as hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South arrived in the city to work in the sword mills, railroads, and transport yards. [ 81 ] On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the worldly concern ‘s first gear controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. This led to the creation of the nuclear bombard by the United States, which it used in World War II in 1945. [ 82 ] Mayor Richard J. Daley, a Democrat, was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. In 1956, the city conducted its last major expansion when it annexed the state under O’Hare airport, including a modest share of DuPage County. [ citation needed ] By the 1960s, white residents in several neighborhoods left the city for the suburban areas – in many american english cities, a process known as white flight – as Blacks continued to move beyond the Black Belt. [ citation needed ] While home lend discriminatory redlining against blacks continued, the very estate industry practiced what became known as blockbusting, wholly changing the racial composition of unharmed neighborhoods. [ 83 ] Structural changes in industry, such as globalization and problem outsource, caused heavy job losses for lower-skilled workers. At its extremum during the 1960s, some 250,000 workers were employed in the steel industry in Chicago, but the steel crisis of the 1970s and 1980s reduced this number to merely 28,000 in 2015. In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr. and Albert Raby led the Chicago Freedom Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders. [ 84 ] Two years subsequently, the city hosted the disruptive 1968 democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, with anti-war protesters, journalists and bystanders being beaten by police. [ 85 ] Major structure projects, including the Sears Tower ( immediately known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world ‘s tallest building ), University of Illinois at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O’Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley ‘s tenure. [ 86 ] In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city ‘s first female mayor, was elected. She was celebrated for temporarily moving into the crime-ridden Cabrini-Green house project and for leading Chicago ‘s school system out of a fiscal crisis. [ 87 ]

1980 to present

In 1983, Harold Washington became the first black mayor of Chicago. Washington ‘s first condition in office directed attention to poor people and previously neglected minority neighborhoods. He was re‑elected in 1987 but died of a heart attack soon after. [ 88 ] Washington was succeeded by 6th ward Alderman Eugene Sawyer, who was elected by the Chicago City Council and served until a special election. Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. His accomplishments included improvements to parks and creating incentives for sustainable growth, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as conclusion Meigs Field in the middle of the nox and destroying the runways. After successfully running for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago ‘s longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley declined to run for a seventh condition. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] In 1992, a construction accident near the Kinzie Street Bridge produced a rupture connecting the Chicago River to a tunnel below, which was contribution of an abandoned cargo tunnel system extending throughout the downtown Loop zone. The tunnels filled with 250 million US gallons ( 1,000,000 m3 ) of water, affecting buildings throughout the district and forcing a closure of electrical world power. [ 91 ] The area was shut down for three days and some buildings did not reopen for weeks ; losses were estimated at $ 1.95 billion. [ 91 ] On February 23, 2011, former Illinois Congressman and White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel won the mayoral election. [ 92 ] Emanuel was sworn in a mayor on May 16, 2011, and won re-election in 2015. [ 93 ] Lori Lightfoot, the city ‘s first african American woman mayor and its first openly LGBTQ Mayor, was elected to succeed Emanuel as mayor in 2019. [ 94 ] All three city-wide elective offices were held by women for the first base time in Chicago history : in addition to Lightfoot, the City Clerk was Anna Valencia and City Treasurer, Melissa Conyears-Ervin. [ 95 ]

geography

Chicago skyline at sunset, from North Avenue Beach looking south

topography

Downtown and the North Side with beaches lining the waterfront Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois on the southwest shores of fresh water Lake Michigan. It is the chief city in the Chicago metropolitan area, situated in both the Midwestern United States and the Great Lakes area. The city rests on a continental divide at the web site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. In addition to it lying beside Lake Michigan, two rivers—the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side—flow either wholly or partially through the city. Chicago ‘s history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region ‘s waterborne cargo, nowadays ‘s huge lake freighters use the city ‘s Lake Calumet Harbor on the South Side. The lake besides provides another positive effect : tone down Chicago ‘s climate, making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer. [ 98 ] A satellite persona of Chicago When Chicago was founded in 1837, most of the early build was around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a function of the city ‘s original 58 blocks. [ 99 ] The overall mark of the city ‘s central, built-up areas is relatively coherent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, broadly exhibiting only flimsy specialization otherwise. The average land elevation is 579 foot ( 176.5 molarity ) above sea level. While measurements vary reasonably, [ 100 ] the lowest points are along the lake shore at 578 foot ( 176.2 molarity ), while the highest compass point, at 672 foot ( 205 thousand ), is the morainal ridge of Blue Island in the city ‘s far south side. [ 101 ] While the Chicago Loop is the central business zone, Chicago is besides a city of neighborhoods. Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large assign of Chicago ‘s waterfront. Some of the parks along the waterfront include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park, and Jackson Park. There are 24 public beaches across 26 miles ( 42 kilometer ) of the waterfront. [ 102 ] Landfill extends into portions of the lake providing outer space for Navy Pier, Northerly Island, the Museum Campus, and big portions of the McCormick Place Convention Center. Most of the city ‘s high-rise commercial and residential buildings are close to the waterfront. An informal name for the stallion Chicago metropolitan area is “ Chicagoland ”, which generally means the city and all its suburb. The Chicago Tribune, which coined the term, includes the city of Chicago, the pillow of Cook County, and eight nearby Illinois counties : Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana : Lake, Porter and LaPorte. [ 103 ] The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane, and Will counties. [ 104 ] The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. [ 105 ]

Communities

major sections of the city include the central clientele district, called The Loop, and the North, South, and West Sides. [ 106 ] The three sides of the city are represented on the Flag of Chicago by three horizontal blank stripes. [ 107 ] The North Side is the most-densely-populated residential section of the city, and many high-rises are located on this side of the city along the lakefront. [ 108 ] The South Side is the largest section of the city, encompassing approximately 60 % of the city ‘s land area. The South Side contains most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago. [ 109 ] In the late-1920s, sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas, which can foster be subdivided into over 200 colloquially defined neighborhoods. [ 110 ] [ 111 ]

Streetscape

Chicago ‘s streets were laid out in a street grid that grew from the city ‘s original townsite plot, which was bounded by Lake Michigan on the east, North Avenue on the north, Wood Street on the west, and 22nd Street on the south. [ 112 ] Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines subsequently became arterial streets in outlying sections. As modern additions to the city were platted, city regulation required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one commission and sixteen in the early management ( about one street per 200 meters in one guidance and one street per 100 meters in the other direction ). The grid ‘s regularity provided an effective means of developing new very estate property. A break up of solidus streets, many of them in the first place native American trails, besides cross the city ( Elston, Milwaukee, Ogden, Lincoln, and so forth ). many extra diagonal streets were recommended in the plan of Chicago, but only the extension of Ogden Avenue was always constructed. In 2016, Chicago was ranked the sixth-most walkable big city in the United States. [ 114 ] Many of the city ‘s residential streets have a wide piece of pot or trees between the street and the sidewalk itself. This helps to keep pedestrians on the sidewalk further away from the street traffic. Chicago ‘s westerly Avenue is the longest continuous urban street in the world. [ 115 ] other noteworthy streets include Michigan Avenue, State Street, Oak, Rush, Clark Street, and Belmont Avenue. The City Beautiful campaign inspired Chicago ‘s boulevards and parkways. [ 116 ]

architecture

Chicago Building (1904–05) is a prime example of the The ( 1904–05 ) is a prime example of the Chicago School, displaying both variations of the Chicago window. The destruction caused by the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest build boom in the history of the nation. In 1885, the first base steel-framed high-rise build up, the Home Insurance Building, rose in the city as Chicago ushered in the skyscraper era, which would then be followed by many early cities around the world. [ 117 ] Today, Chicago ‘s skyline is among the world ‘s improbable and dense. [ 118 ] Some of the United States ‘ tallest towers are located in Chicago ; Willis Tower ( once Sears Tower ) is the second grandiloquent building in the Western Hemisphere after One World Trade Center, and Trump International Hotel and Tower is the third tall in the country. [ 119 ] The Loop ‘s historic buildings include the Chicago Board of Trade Building, the Fine Arts Building, 35 East Wacker, and the Chicago Building, 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments by Mies van five hundred Rohe. Many other architects have left their impression on the Chicago skyline such as Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan, Charles B. Atwood, John Root, and Helmut Jahn. The Merchandise Mart, once beginning on the list of largest buildings in the earth, presently listed as 44th-largest ( as of 9 September 2013 ), had its own zip code code until 2008, and stands near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago River. [ 122 ] Presently, the four tallest buildings in the city are Willis Tower ( once the Sears Tower, besides a construct with its own slide fastener code ), Trump International Hotel and Tower, the Aon Center ( previously the Standard Oil Building ), and the John Hancock Center. Industrial districts, such as some areas on the South Side, the areas along the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, and the Northwest Indiana area are clustered. Chicago gave its name to the Chicago School and was home to the Prairie School, two movements in architecture. [ 124 ] Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings can be found throughout Chicago. Large swaths of the city ‘s residential areas away from the lake are characterized by brick bungalows built from the early twentieth hundred through the end of World War II. Chicago is besides a big kernel of the polish Cathedral expressive style of church architecture. The Chicago suburb of Oak Park was home to celebrated architect Frank Lloyd Wright, who had designed The Robie House located near the University of Chicago. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] A popular tourist action is to take an computer architecture boat go along the Chicago River. [ 127 ]

Monuments and populace artwork

Chicago is celebrated for its outdoor public artwork with donors establishing fund for such art as far binding as Benjamin Ferguson ‘s 1905 trust. [ 128 ] A count of Chicago ‘s public art works are by modern figurative artists. Among these are Chagall ‘s Four Seasons ; the Chicago Picasso ; Miro ‘s Chicago ; Calder ‘s Flamingo ; Oldenburg ‘s Batcolumn ; Moore ‘s Large Interior Form, 1953-54, Man Enters the Cosmos and Nuclear Energy ; Dubuffet ‘s memorial with Standing Beast, Abakanowicz ‘s Agora ; and, Anish Kapoor ‘s Cloud Gate which has become an picture of the city. Some events which shaped the city ‘s history have besides been memorialized by artwork works, including the Great Northern Migration ( Saar ) and the centennial of statehood for Illinois. finally, two fountains near the Loop besides function as massive works of art : Plensa ‘s Crown Fountain angstrom well as Burnham and Bennett ‘s Buckingham Fountain. [ citation needed ] More representational and portrait statuary includes a phone number of works by Lorado Taft ( Fountain of Time, The Crusader, Eternal Silence, and the Heald Square Monument completed by Crunelle ), French ‘s Statue of the Republic, Edward Kemys ‘s Lions, Saint-Gaudens ‘s Abraham Lincoln : The Man ( a.k.a. Standing Lincoln ) and Abraham Lincoln : The Head of State ( a.k.a. Seated Lincoln ), Brioschi ‘s Christopher Columbus, Meštrović ‘s The Bowman and The Spearman, Dallin ‘s Signal of Peace, Fairbanks ‘s The Chicago Lincoln, Boyle ‘s The Alarm, Polasek ‘s memorial to Masaryk, memorials along Solidarity Promenade to Kościuszko, Havliček and Copernicus by Chodzinski, Strachovský, and Thorvaldsen, a memorial to General Logan by Saint-Gaudens, and Kearney ‘s Moose ( W-02-03 ). A number of statues besides honor holocene local heroes such as Michael Jordan ( by Amrany and Rotblatt-Amrany ), Stan Mikita, and Bobby Hull outside of the United Center ; Harry Caray ( by Amrany and Cella ) outside Wrigley field, Jack Brickhouse ( by McKenna ) next to the WGN studios, [ citation needed ] and Irv Kupcinet at the Wabash Avenue Bridge. [ 129 ] There are preliminary plans to erect a 1:1‑scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski ‘s Art Nouveau statue of Frédéric Chopin found in Warsaw ‘s Royal Baths along Chicago ‘s lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the two-hundredth anniversary of Frédéric Chopin ‘s parturition. [ 130 ]

climate

Chicago, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
j farad m A megabyte joule joule A s oxygen north d

2.1

32

18

1.9

36

22

2.7

47

31

3.6

59

42

4.1

70

52

4.1

80

62

4

85

68

4

83

66

3.3

75

58

3.2

63

46

3.4

49

35

2.6

35

23

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

The city lies within the distinctive hot-summer humid continental climate ( Köppen : Dfa ), and experiences four clear-cut seasons. [ 131 ] [ 132 ] [ 133 ] Summers are hot and humid, with frequent heat waves. The July day by day average temperature is 75.9 °F ( 24.4 °C ), with good afternoon temperatures peaking at 85.0 °F ( 29.4 °C ). In a normal summer, temperatures reach at least 90 °F ( 32 °C ) on american samoa many as 23 days, with lakefront locations staying cool when winds blow off the lake. Winters are relatively coldness and snow-white, although the city typically sees less bamboozle and rain in winter than that experienced in the easterly Great Lakes area. hush, blizzards do occur, such as the one in 2011. [ 134 ] There are many sunny but cold days in winter. The convention winter high from December through March is about 36 °F ( 2 °C ), with January and February being the coldest months ; a polar whirl in January 2019 about broke the city ‘s cold record of −27 °F ( −33 °C ), which was set on January 20, 1985. [ 135 ] [ 136 ] [ 137 ] Spring and fall are mild, short seasons, typically with first gear humidity. Dew decimal point temperatures in the summer range from an average of 55.7 °F ( 13.2 °C ) in June to 61.7 °F ( 16.5 °C ) in July, [ 138 ] but can reach closely 80 °F ( 27 °C ), such as during the July 2019 heat wave. The city lies within USDA plant boldness zone 6a, transitioning to 5b in the suburb. [ 139 ] According to the National Weather Service, Chicago ‘s highest official temperature read of 105 °F ( 41 °C ) was recorded on July 24, 1934, [ 140 ] although Midway Airport reached 109 °F ( 43 °C ) one sidereal day anterior and recorded a heat index of 125 °F ( 52 °C ) during the 1995 heatwave. [ 141 ] The lowest official temperature of −27 °F ( −33 °C ) was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O’Hare Airport. [ 138 ] [ 141 ] Most of the city ‘s rain is brought by thunderstorms, averaging 38 a year. The region is besides prone to severe thunderstorms during the spring and summer which can produce bombastic hail, damaging winds, and occasionally tornadoes. [ 142 ] Like other major cities, Chicago experiences an urban heat island, making the city and its suburbs mild than surrounding rural areas, specially at night and in winter. The proximity to Lake Michigan tends to keep the Chicago lakefront slightly cool in summer and less viciously cold in winter than inland parts of the city and suburbs away from the lake. [ 143 ] Northeast winds from winter cyclones departing south of the region sometimes bring the city lake-effect snow. [ 144 ]

Climate data for Chicago (Midway Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1928–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
75
(24)
86
(30)
92
(33)
102
(39)
107
(42)
109
(43)
104
(40)
102
(39)
94
(34)
81
(27)
72
(22)
109
(43)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 53
(12)
58
(14)
72
(22)
82
(28)
89
(32)
94
(34)
96
(36)
94
(34)
91
(33)
83
(28)
68
(20)
58
(14)
97
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 32.8
(0.4)
36.8
(2.7)
47.9
(8.8)
60.0
(15.6)
71.5
(21.9)
81.2
(27.3)
85.2
(29.6)
83.1
(28.4)
76.5
(24.7)
63.7
(17.6)
49.6
(9.8)
37.7
(3.2)
60.5
(15.8)
Daily mean °F (°C) 26.2
(−3.2)
29.9
(−1.2)
39.9
(4.4)
50.9
(10.5)
61.9
(16.6)
71.9
(22.2)
76.7
(24.8)
75.0
(23.9)
67.8
(19.9)
55.3
(12.9)
42.4
(5.8)
31.5
(−0.3)
52.4
(11.3)
Average low °F (°C) 19.5
(−6.9)
22.9
(−5.1)
32.0
(0.0)
41.7
(5.4)
52.4
(11.3)
62.7
(17.1)
68.1
(20.1)
66.9
(19.4)
59.2
(15.1)
46.8
(8.2)
35.2
(1.8)
25.3
(−3.7)
44.4
(6.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −3
(−19)
3
(−16)
14
(−10)
28
(−2)
39
(4)
49
(9)
59
(15)
58
(14)
45
(7)
32
(0)
20
(−7)
5
(−15)
−7
(−22)
Record low °F (°C) −25
(−32)
−20
(−29)
−7
(−22)
10
(−12)
28
(−2)
35
(2)
46
(8)
43
(6)
29
(−2)
20
(−7)
−3
(−19)
−20
(−29)
−25
(−32)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.30
(58)
2.12
(54)
2.66
(68)
4.15
(105)
4.75
(121)
4.53
(115)
4.02
(102)
4.10
(104)
3.33
(85)
3.86
(98)
2.73
(69)
2.33
(59)
40.88
(1,038)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.5
(32)
10.1
(26)
5.7
(14)
1.0
(2.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
1.5
(3.8)
7.9
(20)
38.8
(99)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 11.5 9.4 11.1 12.0 12.4 11.1 10.0 9.3 8.4 10.8 10.2 10.8 127.0
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.1 in ) 8.9 6.4 3.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.6 6.3 28.2
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 4 6 7 9 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source 1: NOAA[145][138][141], WRCC[146]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[147]
Climate data for Chicago (O’Hare Int’l Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1871–present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
75
(24)
88
(31)
91
(33)
98
(37)
104
(40)
105
(41)
102
(39)
101
(38)
94
(34)
81
(27)
71
(22)
105
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 52
(11)
57
(14)
71
(22)
81
(27)
88
(31)
93
(34)
95
(35)
93
(34)
90
(32)
82
(28)
67
(19)
56
(13)
96
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 31.6
(−0.2)
35.7
(2.1)
47.0
(8.3)
59.0
(15.0)
70.5
(21.4)
80.4
(26.9)
84.5
(29.2)
82.5
(28.1)
75.5
(24.2)
62.7
(17.1)
48.4
(9.1)
36.6
(2.6)
59.5
(15.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 25.2
(−3.8)
28.8
(−1.8)
39.0
(3.9)
49.7
(9.8)
60.6
(15.9)
70.6
(21.4)
75.4
(24.1)
73.8
(23.2)
66.3
(19.1)
54.0
(12.2)
41.3
(5.2)
30.5
(−0.8)
51.3
(10.7)
Average low °F (°C) 18.8
(−7.3)
21.8
(−5.7)
31.0
(−0.6)
40.3
(4.6)
50.6
(10.3)
60.8
(16.0)
66.4
(19.1)
65.1
(18.4)
57.1
(13.9)
45.4
(7.4)
34.1
(1.2)
24.4
(−4.2)
43.0
(6.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −4
(−20)
1
(−17)
12
(−11)
26
(−3)
37
(3)
46
(8)
54
(12)
54
(12)
42
(6)
30
(−1)
17
(−8)
3
(−16)
−8
(−22)
Record low °F (°C) −27
(−33)
−21
(−29)
−12
(−24)
7
(−14)
27
(−3)
35
(2)
45
(7)
42
(6)
29
(−2)
14
(−10)
−2
(−19)
−25
(−32)
−27
(−33)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.99
(51)
1.97
(50)
2.45
(62)
3.75
(95)
4.49
(114)
4.10
(104)
3.71
(94)
4.25
(108)
3.19
(81)
3.43
(87)
2.42
(61)
2.11
(54)
37.86
(962)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 11.3
(29)
10.7
(27)
5.5
(14)
1.3
(3.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
1.8
(4.6)
7.6
(19)
38.4
(98)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 11.0 9.4 10.8 12.3 12.5 11.1 9.7 9.4 8.5 10.5 10.0 10.6 125.8
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.1 in ) 8.5 6.4 4.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.6 6.1 27.8
Average relative humidity (%) 72.2 71.6 69.7 64.9 64.1 65.6 68.5 70.7 71.1 68.6 72.5 75.5 69.6
Average dew point °F (°C) 13.6
(−10.2)
17.6
(−8.0)
27.1
(−2.7)
35.8
(2.1)
45.7
(7.6)
55.8
(13.2)
61.7
(16.5)
61.0
(16.1)
53.8
(12.1)
41.7
(5.4)
31.6
(−0.2)
20.1
(−6.6)
38.8
(3.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 135.8 136.2 187.0 215.3 281.9 311.4 318.4 283.0 226.6 193.2 113.3 106.3 2,508.4
Percent possible sunshine 46 46 51 54 62 68 69 66 60 56 38 37 56
Source: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)[138][150][151]
Sunshine data for Chicago
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2
Source: Weather Atlas[152]

Time zone

As in the rest of the state of Illinois, Chicago forms part of the Central Time Zone. The edge with the easterly Time Zone is located a short circuit distance to the east, used in Michigan and sealed parts of Indiana .

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 4,470
1850 29,963 570.3%
1860 112,172 274.4%
1870 298,977 166.5%
1880 503,185 68.3%
1890 1,099,850 118.6%
1900 1,698,575 54.4%
1910 2,185,283 28.7%
1920 2,701,705 23.6%
1930 3,376,438 25.0%
1940 3,396,808 0.6%
1950 3,620,962 6.6%
1960 3,550,404 −1.9%
1970 3,366,957 −5.2%
1980 3,005,072 −10.7%
1990 2,783,726 −7.4%
2000 2,896,016 4.0%
2010 2,695,598 −6.9%
2020 2,746,388 1.9%
United States Census Bureau[153]2010–2020[6]

During its first hundred years, Chicago was one of the fastest-growing cities in the populace. When founded in 1833, fewer than 200 people had settled on what was then the American frontier. By the time of its first census, seven years later, the population had reached over 4,000. In the forty years from 1850 to 1890, the city ‘s population grew from slenderly under 30,000 to over 1 million. At the end of the nineteenth century, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the earth, [ 154 ] and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the century. Within sixty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population went from about 300,000 to over 3 million, [ 155 ] and reached its highest always recorded population of 3.6 million for the 1950 census. From the stopping point two decades of the nineteenth hundred, Chicago was the destination of waves of immigrants from Ireland, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, including Italians, Jews, Russians, Poles, Greeks, Lithuanians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Croatians, Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins and Czechs. [ 156 ] [ 157 ] To these cultural groups, the basis of the city ‘s industrial working classify, were added an extra inflow of african Americans from the American South —with Chicago ‘s black population doubling between 1910 and 1920 and doubling again between 1920 and 1930. [ 156 ] In the 1920s and 1930s, the great majority of african Americans moving to Chicago settled in a so‑called “ Black Belt “ on the city ‘s South Side. [ 156 ] A large number of blacks besides settled on the West Side. By 1930, two-thirds of Chicago ‘s black population lived in sections of the city which were 90 % black in racial composition. [ 156 ] Chicago ‘s South Side emerged as United States second-largest urban black concentration, following New York ‘s Harlem. today, Chicago ‘s South Side and the adjoining south suburbs constitute the largest black majority region in the entire United States. [ 156 ] Chicago ‘s population declined in the latter half of the twentieth hundred, from over 3.6 million in 1950 down to under 2.7 million by 2010. By the fourth dimension of the official census count in 1990, it was overtaken by Los Angeles as the United States ‘ second largest city. [ 158 ] The city has seen a rise in population for the 2000 census and after a decrease in 2010, it rose again for the 2020 census. [ 159 ] Per U.S. Census estimates as of July 2019, Chicago ‘s largest racial or ethnic group is non-Hispanic White at 32.8 % of the population, Blacks at 30.1 % and the spanish american population at 29.0 % of the population. [ 160 ] [ 161 ] [ 162 ] [ 163 ] White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Map of racial distribution in Chicago, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people : or ( yellow ) Chicago has the third-largest LGBT population in the United States. In 2018, the Chicago Department of Health, estimated 7.5 % of the adult population, approximately 146,000 Chicagoans, were LGBTQ. [ 167 ] In 2015, roughly 4 % of the population identified as LGBT. [ 168 ] [ 169 ] Since the 2013 legalization of same-sex marriage in Illinois, over 10,000 same-sex couples have wed in Cook County, a majority of them in Chicago. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] Chicago became a “ delaware jure ” chancel city in 2012 when Mayor Rahm Emanuel and the City Council passed the Welcoming City Ordinance. [ 172 ] According to the U.S. Census Bureau ‘s American Community Survey datum estimates for 2008–2012, the medial income for a family in the city was $ 47,408, and the medial income for a family was $ 54,188. male full-time workers had a median income of $ 47,074 versus $ 42,063 for females. About 18.3 % of families and 22.1 % of the population lived below the poverty line. [ 173 ] In 2018, Chicago ranked 7th globally for the highest number of ultra-high-net-worth residents with roughly 3,300 residents worth more than $ 30 million. [ 174 ] According to the 2008–2012 American Community Survey, the ancestral groups having 10,000 or more persons in Chicago were : [ 175 ]

  • Ireland (137,799)
  • Poland (134,032)
  • Germany (120,328)
  • Italy (77,967)
  • China (66,978)
  • American (37,118)
  • UK (36,145)
  • recent African (32,727)
  • India (25,000)
  • Russia (19,771)
  • Arab (17,598)
  • European (15,753)
  • Sweden (15,151)
  • Japan (15,142)
  • Greece (15,129)
  • France (except Basque) (11,410)
  • Ukraine (11,104)
  • West Indian (except Hispanic groups) (10,349)

Persons identifying themselves in “ early groups ” were classified at 1.72 million, and unclassified or not reported were approximately 153,000. [ 175 ]

religion

Most people in Chicago are Christian, with the city being the 4th-most religious city in the United States after Dallas, Atlanta and Houston. [ 177 ] Roman Catholicism and Protestantism are the largest branches ( 34 % and 35 % respectively ), followed by Eastern Orthodoxy and Jehovah ‘s Witnesses with 1 % each. [ 176 ] Chicago besides has a goodly non-Christian population. Non-Christian groups include Irreligious ( 22 % ), Judaism ( 3 % ), Islam ( 2 % ), Buddhism ( 1 % ) and Hinduism ( 1 % ). [ 176 ] Chicago is the headquarters of respective religious denominations, including the Evangelical Covenant Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. It is the seat of several dioceses. The Fourth Presbyterian Church is one of the largest presbyterian congregations in the United States based on memberships. [ 178 ] Since the twentieth century Chicago has besides been the headquarters of the assyrian church of the East. [ 179 ] In 2014 the Catholic Church was the largest individual christian denomination ( 34 % ), with the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago being the largest catholic legal power. evangelical Protestantism class the largest theological Protestant branch ( 16 % ), followed by Mainline Protestants ( 11 % ), and historically Black churches ( 8 % ). Among denominational Protestant branches, Baptists formed the largest group in Chicago ( 10 % ) ; followed by Nondenominational ( 5 % ) ; Lutherans ( 4 % ) ; and Pentecostals ( 3 % ). [ 176 ] Non-Christian faiths accounted for 7 % of the religious population in 2014. judaism has at least 261,000 adherents which is 3 % of the population, making it the second largest religion. [ 180 ] [ 176 ] A 2020 study estimated the sum jewish population of the Chicago metropolitan sphere, both religious and irreligious, at 319,600. [ 181 ] The inaugural two fantan of the World ‘s Religions in 1893 and 1993 were held in Chicago. [ 182 ] Many international religious leaders have visited Chicago, including Mother Teresa, the Dalai Lama [ 183 ] and Pope John Paul II in 1979. [ 184 ]

economy

Chicago has the third-largest arrant metropolitan product in the United States—about $ 670.5 billion according to September 2017 estimates. [ 185 ] The city has besides been rated as having the most balance economy in the United States, due to its high flush of diversification. [ 186 ] In 2007, Chicago was named the fourth-most authoritative commercial enterprise center in the universe in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index. [ 187 ] Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States for calendar class 2014. [ 188 ] The Chicago metropolitan area has the third-largest science and technology work pull of any metropolitan area in the nation. [ 189 ] In 2009 Chicago placed one-ninth on the UBS tilt of the world ‘s richest cities. [ 190 ] Chicago was the base of commercial operations for industrialists John Crerar, John Whitfield Bunn, Richard Teller Crane, Marshall Field, John Farwell, Julius Rosenwald and many early commercial visionaries who laid the foundation for Midwestern and global industry .
Chicago is a major global fiscal center, with the second-largest cardinal business zone in the United States. [ 191 ] The city is the seat of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, the Bank ‘s Seventh District. The city has major fiscal and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange ( CBOE ), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange ( the “ Merc ” ), which is owned, along with the Chicago Board of Trade ( CBOT ) by Chicago ‘s CME Group. In 2017, Chicago exchanges traded 4.7 billion derivatives with a confront measure of over one quadrillion dollars. Chase Bank has its commercial and retail bank headquarters in Chicago ‘s Chase Tower. [ 192 ] Academically, Chicago has been influential through the Chicago school of economics, which fielded some 12 Nobel Prize winners. The city and its surrounding metropolitan area contain the third-largest labor pool in the United States with about 4.63 million workers. [ 193 ] Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies, including those in Chicago. [ 194 ] The city of Chicago besides hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. The city claims three Dow 30 companies : aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattle to the Chicago Loop in 2001, [ 195 ] McDonald ‘s and Walgreens Boots Alliance. [ 196 ] For six back-to-back years since 2013, Chicago was ranked the state ‘s top metropolitan area for corporate relocations. [ 197 ] manufacture, printing, print and food work besides play major roles in the city ‘s economy. several aesculapian products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Boeing, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare division of General Electric. In summation to Boeing, which located its headquarters in Chicago in 2001, and United Airlines in 2011, GE Transportation moved its offices to the city in 2013 and GE Healthcare moved its HQ to the city in 2016, as did ThyssenKrupp North America, and farming giant Archer Daniels Midland. [ 15 ] furthermore, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes confederacy on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the nineteenth century made the city a major department of transportation center in the United States. In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago ‘s pork and gripe diligence expanded. As the major kernel companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created ball-shaped enterprises. Although the meatpacking diligence presently plays a lesser function in the city ‘s economy, Chicago continues to be a major transportation system and distribution concentrate. [ citation needed ] Lured by a combination of big business customers, federal inquiry dollars, and a large hiring pool fed by the area ‘s universities, Chicago is besides the site of a growing count of network startup companies like CareerBuilder, Orbitz, Basecamp, Groupon, Feedburner, Grubhub and NowSecure. [ 198 ] big food companies based in Chicago include the populace headquarters of Conagra, Ferrara Candy Company, Kraft Heinz, McDonald ‘s, Mondelez International, Quaker Oats, and US Foods. [ citation needed ] Chicago has been a hub of the retail sector since its early development, with Montgomery Ward, Sears, and Marshall Field ‘s. Today the Chicago metropolitan area is the headquarters of respective retailers, including Walgreens, Sears, Ace Hardware, Claire ‘s, ULTA Beauty and Crate & Barrel. [ citation needed ] late in the nineteenth hundred, Chicago was depart of the bicycle craze, with the western Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the output work and importantly reduced costs, [ 199 ] while early in the twentieth hundred, the city was part of the car revolution, hosting the Brass Era cable car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907. [ 200 ] Chicago was besides the web site of the Schwinn Bicycle Company. Chicago is a major world convention address. The city ‘s main convention plaza is mccormick Place. With its four coordinated buildings, it is the largest convention center in the state and third-largest in the universe. [ 201 ] Chicago besides ranks third base in the U.S. ( behind Las Vegas and Orlando ) in number of conventions hosted annually. [ 202 ] Chicago ‘s minimal wage for non-tipped employees is one of the highest in the state and reached $ 15 in 2021. [ 203 ] [ 204 ]

culture and contemporary life

The city ‘s waterfront localization and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. Over a third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods from Rogers Park in the north to South Shore in the south. [ 205 ] The city has many upscale dining establishments deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as many cultural restaurant districts. These districts include the mexican American neighborhoods, such as Pilsen along 18th street, and La Villita along 26th Street ; the Puerto Rican enclave of Paseo Boricua in the Humboldt Park vicinity ; Greektown, along South Halsted Street, immediately west of downtown ; [ 206 ] Little Italy, along Taylor Street ; Chinatown in Armour Square ; polish Patches in West Town ; Little Seoul in Albany Park around Lawrence Avenue ; Little Vietnam near Broadway in Uptown ; and the Desi area, along Devon Avenue in West Ridge. [ 207 ] Downtown is the center of Chicago ‘s fiscal, cultural, governmental and commercial institutions and the site of Grant Park and many of the city ‘s skyscrapers. Many of the city ‘s fiscal institutions, such as the CBOT and the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, are located within a section of downtown called “ The Loop “, which is an eight-block by five-block sphere of city streets that is encircled by elevated railway rail tracks. The term “ The Loop ” is largely used by locals to refer to the integral business district sphere angstrom well. The central area includes the Near North Side, the Near South Side, and the Near West Side, angstrom well as the Loop. These areas contribute celebrated skyscrapers, abundant restaurants, shopping, museums, a stadium for the Chicago Bears, convention facilities, park, and beaches. [ citation needed ] A Chicago sleep together club Lincoln Park contains the Lincoln Park Zoo and the Lincoln Park Conservatory. The River North Gallery District features the nation ‘s largest assiduity of contemporaneous art galleries outside of New York City. [ citation needed ] Lakeview is home to Boystown, the city ‘s boastfully LGBT nightlife and polish center. The Chicago Pride Parade, held the end Sunday in June, is one of the worldly concern ‘s largest with over a million people in attendance. [ 208 ] North Halsted Street is the main thoroughfare of Boystown. [ 209 ] The South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park is the home of former US President Barack Obama. It besides contains the University of Chicago, ranked one of the world ‘s top ten-spot universities, [ 210 ] and the Museum of Science and Industry. The 6-mile ( 9.7 km ) long Burnham Park stretches along the waterfront of the South Side. Two of the city ‘s largest parks are besides located on this side of the city : Jackson Park, bordering the waterfront, hosted the World ‘s columbian exhibition in 1893, and is the web site of the aforesaid museum ; and slightly west sits Washington Park. The two parks themselves are connected by a wide strip of park called the Midway Plaisance, running adjacent to the University of Chicago. The South Side hosts one of the city ‘s largest parades, the annual african american Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic, which travels through Bronzeville to Washington Park. Ford Motor Company has an car assembly plant on the South Side in Hegewisch, and most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago are besides on the South Side. [ citation needed ] The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatory, one of the largest collections of tropical plants in any U.S. city. Prominent Latino cultural attractions found here include Humboldt Park ‘s Institute of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture and the annual Puerto Rican People ‘s Parade, a well as the National Museum of Mexican Art and St. Adalbert ‘s Church in Pilsen. The cheeseparing West Side holds the University of Illinois at Chicago and was once home to Oprah Winfrey ‘s Harpo Studios, the web site of which has been rebuilt as the global headquarters of McDonald ‘s. [ citation needed ] The city ‘s classifiable accent, made celebrated by its use in classical films like The Blues Brothers and television programs like the Saturday Night Live skit “ Bill Swerski ‘s Superfans “, is an promote phase of Inland Northern American English. This dialect can besides be found in other cities bordering the Great Lakes such as Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Rochester, New York, and most prominently features a rearrangement of certain vowel sounds, such as the short-change ‘a ‘ phone as in “ computerized tomography ”, which can sound more like “ kyet ” to outsiders. The stress remains well associated with the city. [ 211 ]

entertainment and the arts

Renowned Chicago theater companies include the Goodman Theatre in the Loop ; the Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Victory Gardens Theater in Lincoln Park ; and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater at Navy Pier. Broadway In Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at five theaters : the Nederlander Theatre, CIBC Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Broadway Playhouse at Water Tower Place. polish terminology productions for Chicago ‘s large polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in dramaturgy in the Chicago area. Chicago ‘s field community spawned modern improvisational field, and includes the outstanding groups The Second City and I.O. ( once ImprovOlympic ). [ citation needed ] The Chicago Symphony Orchestra ( CSO ) performs at Symphony Center, and is recognized as one of the best orchestras in the world. [ 212 ] besides performing regularly at Symphony Center is the Chicago Sinfonietta, a more divers and multicultural counterpart to the CSO. In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Park and Millennium Park. Ravinia Festival, located 25 miles ( 40 kilometer ) north of Chicago, is the summer home of the CSO, and is a favorite destination for many Chicagoans. The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. [ citation needed ] The lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago was founded by lithuanian Chicagoans in 1956, [ 213 ] and presents operas in Lithuanian. The Joffrey Ballet and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in assorted venues, including the Harris Theater in Millennium Park. Chicago has several early contemporary and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago and Chicago Dance Crash. [ citation needed ] other live-music music genre which are partially of the city ‘s cultural inheritance include Chicago blues, Chicago soul, jazz, and religious doctrine. The city is the birthplace of house music ( a popular form of electronic dancing music ) and industrial music, and is the site of an influential hip hop scene. In the 1980s and 90s, the city was the global concentrate for family and industrial music, two forms of music created in Chicago, ampere well as being popular for alternative rock, punk rocker, and new wave. The city has been a center for rant culture, since the 1980s. A thrive independent rock music culture brought away Chicago indie. annual festivals feature versatile acts, such as Lollapalooza and the Pitchfork Music Festival. [ citation needed ] A 2007 composition on the Chicago music industry by the University of Chicago Cultural Policy Center ranked Chicago third among metropolitan U.S. areas in “ size of music industry ” and fourth among all U.S. cities in “ number of concerts and performances ”. [ 214 ] Chicago has a classifiable fine artwork tradition. For much of the twentieth hundred, it nurtured a strong style of figurative surrealism, as in the works of Ivan Albright and Ed Paschke. In 1968 and 1969, members of the Chicago Imagists, such as Roger Brown, Leon Golub, Robert Lostutter, Jim Nutt, and Barbara Rossi produced bizarre representational paintings. Henry Darger is one of the most observe figures of outsider art. [ citation needed ] Chicago contains a numeral of bombastic, outdoor works by well-known artists. These include the Chicago Picasso, Miró’s Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, Monument with Standing Beast by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain by Jaume Plensa, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall. [ citation needed ] Chicago besides hosts a nationally televised Thanksgiving parade that occurs annually. The Chicago Thanksgiving Parade is broadcast exist nationally on WGN-TV and WGN America, featuring a diverseness of divers acts from the community, marching bands from across the area, and is the only parade in the city to feature inflatable balloons every class. [ 215 ]

tourism

Ferries offer sightseeing tours and water-taxi fare along the Chicago River and Lake Michigan. In 2014, Chicago attracted 50.17 million domestic leisure travelers, 11.09 million domestic business travelers and 1.308 million oversea visitors. [ 216 ] These visitors contributed more than US $ 13.7 billion to Chicago ‘s economy. [ 216 ] Upscale shop along the Magnificent Mile and State Street, thousands of restaurants, a well as Chicago ‘s eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States ‘ third-largest convention destination. A 2017 study by Walk Score ranked Chicago the sixth-most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States. [ 217 ] Most conventions are held at McCormick Place, just confederacy of Soldier Field. The historic Chicago Cultural Center ( 1897 ), primitively serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city ‘s Visitor Information Center, galleries and exhibit halls. The ceiling of its Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot ( 12 m ) Tiffany field glass attic. Grant Park holds Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain ( 1927 ), and the Art Institute of Chicago. The parking lot besides hosts the annual Taste of Chicago festival. In Millennium Park, the reflective Cloud Gate public sculpture by artist Anish Kapoor is the centerpiece of the AT & T Plaza in Millennium Park. besides, an outdoor restaurant transforms into an ice rink in the winter season. Two improbable glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain. The fountain ‘s two towers display ocular effects from LED images of Chicagoans ‘ faces, along with water spouting from their lips. Frank Gehry ‘s detail, stainless steel set carapace, the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival concert series. Behind the pavilion ‘s degree is the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, an indoor venue for mid-sized do arts companies, including the Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque. [ citation needed ] aerial View of Navy Pier at Night Navy Pier, located barely east of Streeterville, is 3,000 foot ( 910 thousand ) long and houses retail stores, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls and auditoriums. In the summer of 2016, Navy Pier constructed a DW60 Ferris wheel. dutch Wheels, a universe renowned company that manufactures ferris wheels, was selected to design the new wheel. [ 218 ] It features 42 united states navy blue gondolas that can hold up to eight adults and two children. It besides has entertainment systems inside the gondola car adenine well as a climate controlled environment. The DW60 stands at approximately 196 ft ( 60 thousand ), which is 46 feet ( 14 thousand ) tall than the previous wheel. The new DW60 is the first in the United States and is the sixth improbable in the U.S. [ 219 ] Chicago was the first city in the world to always erect a ferris bicycle .
On June 4, 1998, the city formally opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre ( 4 hour angle ) lakefront parking lot, surrounding three of the city ‘s chief museums, each of which is of national importance : the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. The Museum Campus joins the southerly section of Grant Park, which includes the celebrated Art Institute of Chicago. Buckingham Fountain anchors the business district park along the lakefront. The University of Chicago Oriental Institute has an extensive collection of ancient egyptian and near Eastern archaeological artifacts. other museums and galleries in Chicago include the Chicago History Museum, the Driehaus Museum, the DuSable Museum of african american History, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, the Museum of Broadcast Communications, the Pritzker Military Library, the Chicago Architecture Foundation, and the Museum of Science and Industry. [ citation needed ] With an estimated completion date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the University of Chicago in Hyde Park and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation. [ 220 ] The Willis Tower ( once named Sears Tower ) is a popular address for tourists. The Willis Tower has an observation deck open to tourists year orotund with high up views overlooking Chicago and Lake Michigan. The observation deck includes an enclose field glass balcony that extends 10 feet ( 3 megabyte ) out on the side of the build up. Tourists are able to look directly down. [ citation needed ] In 2013, Chicago was chosen as one of the “ Top Ten Cities in the United States ” to visit for its restaurants, skyscrapers, museums, and waterfront, by the readers of Condé Nast Traveler, [ 221 ] [ 222 ] and in 2020 for the fourth year in a course, Chicago was named the peak U.S. city tourism address. [ 223 ]

cuisine

Chicago lays claim to a big number of regional specialties that reflect the city ‘s ethnic and wage-earning roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza ; this dash is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno. [ 224 ] The Chicago-style reduce crust is besides popular in the city. [ 225 ] Certain Chicago pizza favorites include Lou Malnati ‘s and Giordano ‘s. [ 226 ] The Chicago-style hot dog, typically an all-beef hot andiron, is loaded with an array of toppings that much includes pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt on a poppy seed bun. [ 227 ] Enthusiasts of the Chicago-style blistering dog frown upon the manipulation of catsup as a trim, but may prefer to add giardiniera. [ 228 ] [ 229 ] [ 230 ] A distinctly Chicago sandwich, the italian beef sandwich is thinly chopped beef simmered in gold jus and served on an italian peal with sweetness peppers or hot giardiniera. A popular alteration is the Combo—an Italian gripe sandwich with the summation of an italian sausage. The Maxwell Street Polish is a broiled or french-fry kielbasa —on a hot frank roll out, topped with broiled onions, scandalmongering mustard, and hot sport peppers. [ 231 ] Chicken Vesuvio is roasted bone-in wimp cooked in oil and garlic future to garlicky oven-roasted potato wedges and a sprinkle of green peas. The Puerto Rican -influenced jibarito is a sandwich made with flatten, fried green plantains rather of bread. The mother-in-law is a tamale topped with chili and served on a hot frump bun. [ 232 ] The tradition of serving the greek dish saganaki while ablaze has its origins in Chicago ‘s Greek community. [ 233 ] The appetizer, which consists of a square of fry cheese, is doused with Metaxa and flambéed table-side. [ 234 ] Annual festivals feature versatile Chicago key signature dishes, such as taste of Chicago and the Chicago Food Truck Festival. [ 235 ] One of the world ‘s most decorate restaurants and a recipient role of three Michelin stars, Alinea is located in Chicago. long-familiar chefs who have had restaurants in Chicago include : Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless. In 2003, Robb Report named Chicago the state ‘s “ most exceeding dine destination ”. [ 236 ]

literature

“Hog Butcher for the World/Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat/ Player with Railroads and the Nation’s Freight Handler,/ Stormy, Husky, Brawling, City of the Big Shoulders.”Carl Sandburg ‘s most famous description of the city is as Chicago literature finds its roots in the city ‘s custom of crystalline, target journalism, lending to a strong custom of social realism. In the Encyclopedia of Chicago, Northwestern University Professor Bill Savage describes Chicago fiction as prose which tries to “ capture the essence of the city, its spaces and its people “. The challenge for early on writers was that Chicago was a frontier outpost that transformed into a global city in the couple of two generations. narrative fabrication of that time, much of it in the style of “ high-flown romance ” and “ genteel naturalism ”, needed a newfangled set about to describe the urban social, political, and economic conditions of Chicago. [ 237 ] Nonetheless, Chicagoans worked hard to create a literary custom that would stand the test of time, [ 238 ] and create a “ city of feeling ” out of concrete, steel, huge lake, and assailable prairie. [ 239 ] much luminary Chicago fabrication focuses on the city itself, with social criticism keeping exultation in check. At least three short-change periods in the history of Chicago have had a last influence on american english literature. [ 240 ] These include from the fourth dimension of the Great Chicago Fire to about 1900, what became known as the Chicago Literary Renaissance in the 1910s and early 1920s, and the time period of the Great Depression through the 1940s. What would become the influential Poetry magazine was founded in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, who was working as an art critic for the Chicago Tribune. The magazine discovered such poets as Gwendolyn Brooks, James Merrill, and John Ashbery. [ 241 ] T. S. Eliot ‘s first professionally published poem, “ The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock “, was inaugural published by Poetry. Contributors have included Ezra Pound, William Butler Yeats, William Carlos Williams, Langston Hughes, and Carl Sandburg, among others. The magazine was instrumental in launching the Imagist and Objectivist poetic movements. From the 1950s through 1970s, American poetry continued to evolve in Chicago. [ 242 ] In the 1980s, a modern human body of poetry performance began in Chicago, the Poetry Slam. [ 243 ]

Sports

Sporting News named Chicago the “ Best Sports City ” in the United States in 1993, 2006, and 2010. [ 244 ] Along with Boston, Chicago is the entirely city to continuously host major professional sports since 1871, having merely taken 1872 and 1873 off due to the Great Chicago Fire. additionally, Chicago is one of the eight cities in the United States to have won championships in the four major professional leagues and, along with Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia and Washington, is one of five cities to have won soccer championships adenine well. All of its major franchises have won championships within recent years – the Bears ( 1985 ), the Bulls ( 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998 ), the White Sox ( 2005 ), the Cubs ( 2016 ), the Blackhawks ( 2010, 2013, 2015 ), and the Fire ( 1998 ). Chicago has the third most franchises in the four major north american english sports leagues with five, behind the New York and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas, and have six top-level professional sports clubs when including Chicago Fire FC of Major League Soccer ( MLS ). [ citation needed ] The city has two Major League Baseball ( MLB ) teams : the Chicago Cubs of the National League play in Wrigley Field on the North Side ; and the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in Guaranteed Rate Field on the South Side. Chicago is the only city that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1901 ( New York hosted only one between 1958 and early 1962 ). The two teams have faced each other in a World Series alone once : in 1906, when the White Sox, known as the “ Hitless Wonders, ” defeated the Cubs, 4–2. [ citation needed ] The Cubs are the oldest major League Baseball team to have never changed their city ; [ 245 ] they have played in Chicago since 1871, and endlessly so since 1874 due to the Great Chicago Fire. They have played more games and have more wins than any other team in Major League baseball since 1876. [ 246 ] They have won three World Series titles, including the 2016 World Series, but had the doubtful honor of having the two longest droughts in american professional sports : They had not won their sport ‘s title since 1908, and had not participated in a World Series since 1945, both records, until they beat the Cleveland Indians in the 2016 World Series. [ citation needed ] The White Sox have played on the South Side endlessly since 1901, with all three of their home plate fields throughout the years being within blocks of one another. They have won three World Series titles ( 1906, 1917, 2005 ) and six American League pennants, including the first in 1901. The Sox are fifth in the American League in all-time wins, and sixth in pennants. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Bears, one of the last two remaining charter members of the National Football League ( NFL ), have won nine NFL Championships, including the 1985 Super Bowl XX. The other remaining rent franchise, the Chicago Cardinals, besides started out in the city, but is nowadays known as the Arizona Cardinals. The Bears have won more games in the history of the NFL than any other team, [ 247 ] and only the Green Bay Packers, their longtime rivals, have won more championships. The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field. Soldier Field re-opened in 2003 after an extensive renovation. The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association ( NBA ) is one of the most recognize basketball teams in the world. [ 248 ] During the 1990s, with Michael Jordan leading them, the Bulls won six NBA championships in eight seasons. [ 249 ] [ 250 ] They besides boast the youngest musician to win the NBA Most Valuable Player Award, Derrick Rose, who won it for the 2010–11 temper. [ 251 ] The Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League ( NHL ) began play in 1926, and are one of the “ Original Six “ teams of the NHL. The Blackhawks have won six Stanley Cups, including in 2010, 2013, and 2015. Both the Bulls and the Blackhawks play at the United Center. [ citation needed ] Chicago Fire FC is a member of Major League Soccer ( MLS ) and plays at Soldier Field. After playing its foremost eight seasons at Soldier Field, the team moved to suburban Bridgeview to play at SeatGeek Stadium. In 2019, the team announced a act back to Soldier Field. [ 252 ] The Fire have won one league title and four U.S. Open Cups, since their establish in 1997. In 1994, the United States hosted a successful FIFA World Cup with games played at Soldier Field. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Sky is a professional basketball team play in the Women ‘s National Basketball Association ( WNBA ). They play home games at the Wintrust Arena. The team was founded before the 2006 WNBA temper began. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Marathon has been held each year since 1977 except for 1987, when a half marathon was run in its invest. The Chicago Marathon is one of six World Marathon Majors. [ 253 ] Five area colleges play in Division I conferences : two from major conferences—the DePaul Blue Demons ( Big East Conference ) and the Northwestern Wildcats ( Big Ten Conference ) —and three from other D1 conferences—the Chicago State Cougars ( Western Athletic Conference ) ; the Loyola Ramblers ( Missouri Valley Conference ) ; and the UIC Flames ( Horizon League ). [ 254 ] Chicago has besides entered into eSports with the initiation of the Chicago Huntsmen, a professional call of Duty team that participates within the CDL. At the Call of Duty League ‘s Launch Week games in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the Chicago Huntsmen went on to beat both the Dallas Empire and Optic Gaming Los Angeles. [ citation needed ]

Parks and greenspace

When Chicago was incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto Urbs in Horto, a Latin phrase which means “ City in a Garden ”. today, the Chicago Park District consists of more than 570 parks with over 8,000 acres ( 3,200 hour angle ) of municipal park. There are 31 sand beaches, a overplus of museums, two first conservatories, and 50 nature areas. [ 255 ] Lincoln Park, the largest of the city ‘s parks, covers 1,200 acres ( 490 hour angle ) and has over 20 million visitors each year, making it third gear in the number of visitors after Central Park in New York City, and the National Mall and Memorial Parks in Washington, D.C. [ 256 ] There is a historic avenue arrangement, [ 257 ] a net of wide, tree-lined boulevards which connect a number of Chicago parks. [ 258 ] The boulevards and the parks were authorized by the Illinois legislature in 1869. [ 259 ] A number of Chicago neighborhoods emerged along these roadways in the nineteenth hundred. [ 258 ] The building of the avenue system continued intermittently until 1942. It includes nineteen boulevards, eight parks, and six squares, along twenty-six miles of interconnected streets. [ 260 ] The Chicago Park Boulevard System Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2018. [ 261 ] [ 262 ] With berths for more than 6,000 boats, the Chicago Park District operates the state ‘s largest municipal harbor system. [ 263 ] In addition to ongoing beautification and reclamation projects for the existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in holocene years, such as the Ping Tom Memorial Park in Chinatown, DuSable Park on the Near North Side, and most notably, Millennium Park, which is in the northwestern corner of one of Chicago ‘s oldest park, Grant Park in the Chicago Loop. [ citation needed ] The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago ‘s ballpark is far augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a net of loose spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city ‘s outskirts, [ 264 ] including both the Chicago Botanic Garden in Glencoe and the Brookfield Zoo in Brookfield. [ 265 ] Washington Park is besides one of the city ‘s biggest park ; covering closely 400 acres ( 160 hour angle ). The parking lot is listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in South Side Chicago. [ citation needed ]

law and politics

government

The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. The mayor of Chicago is the head executive, elected by cosmopolitan election for a term of four years, with no condition limits. The stream mayor is Lori Lightfoot. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the versatile departments. deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the mayor, Chicago ‘s clerk and treasurer are besides elected citywide. The City Council is the legislative outgrowth and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city. [ 266 ] The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions and approves the city budget. [ 267 ] The Chicago Police Department provides law enforcement and the Chicago Fire Department provides arouse suppression and emergency medical services for the city and its residents. Civil and criminal law cases are heard in the Cook County Circuit Court of the State of Illinois court organization, or in the Northern District of Illinois, in the federal system. In the state court, the public prosecutor is the Illinois state ‘s lawyer ; in the Federal court it is the United States lawyer .

Politics

During much of the last half of the nineteenth century, Chicago ‘s politics were dominated by a growing democratic Party organization. During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a potent group custom with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations. For much of the twentieth hundred, Chicago has been among the largest and most dependable democratic strongholds in the United States ; with Chicago ‘s democratic right to vote the submit of Illinois has been “ solid bluing “ in presidential elections since 1992. evening before then, it was not unheard of for Republican presidential candidates to win handily in downstate Illinois, only to lose statewide due to large democratic margins in Chicago. The citizens of Chicago have not elected a republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into agency. The strength of the party in the city is partially a consequence of Illinois department of state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago ‘s populace school fund. [ citation needed ] Chicago contains less than 25 % of the country ‘s population, but it is split between eight of Illinois ‘ 19 districts in the United States House of Representatives. All eight of the city ‘s representatives are Democrats ; only two Republicans have represented a meaning share of the city since 1973, for one term each : Robert P. Hanrahan from 1973 to 1975, and Michael Patrick Flanagan from 1995 to 1997. [ citation needed ] machine politics persisted in Chicago after the descent of similar machines in other big U.S. cities. During much of that fourth dimension, the city administration found confrontation chiefly from a liberal “ mugwump ” faction of the Democratic Party. The independents ultimately gained master of city politics in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington ( in office 1983–1987 ). From 1989 until May 16, 2011, Chicago was under the leadership of its longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the democratic primary coil vote held in the jump is by and large more meaning than the general elections in November for U.S. House and Illinois State seats. The aldermanic, mayoral, and other city offices are filled through nonpartisan elections with runoffs as needed. [ citation needed ] The city is base of former United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama ; Barack Obama was once a state legislator representing Chicago and subsequently a US senator. The Obamas ‘ residence is located near the University of Chicago in Kenwood on the city ‘s south side. [ 270 ]

crime

Chicago had a murder pace of 18.5 per 100,000 residents in 2012, ranking 16th among u cities with 100,000 people or more. [ 271 ] This was higher than in New York City and Los Angeles, the two largest cities in the United States, which have lower mangle rates and lower sum homicides. however, it was less than in many smaller american cities, including New Orleans, Newark, and Detroit, which had 53 murders per 100,000 residents in 2012. The 2015 year-end crime statistics showed there were 468 murders in Chicago in 2015 compared with 416 the year ahead, a 12.5 % increase, a well as 2,900 shootings—13 % more than the year anterior, and up 29 % since 2013. Chicago had more homicides than any early city in 2015 in entire but not on per caput footing, according to the Chicago Tribune. [ 272 ] In its annual crime statistics for 2016, the Chicago Police Department reported that the city experienced a dramatic rise in gunman violence, with 4,331 shooting victims. The department besides reported 762 murders in Chicago for the year 2016, a total that marked a 62.79 % increase in homicides from 2015. [ 273 ] In June 2017, the Chicago Police Department and the Federal ATF announced a fresh tax force, like to past tax forces, to address the hang of illegal guns and repeat offenses with guns. [ 274 ] According to reports in 2013, “ most of Chicago ‘s violent crime comes from gangs trying to maintain restraint of drug-selling territories ”, [ 275 ] and is specifically related to the activities of the Sinaloa Cartel, which is active voice in respective american cities. By 2006, the trust sought to control most illicit drug sales. [ 276 ] Violent crime rates vary significantly by sphere of the city, with more economically developed areas having low rates, but early sections have much higher rates of crime. [ 275 ] In 2013, the violent crime rate was 910 per 100,000 people ; [ 277 ] the mangle rate was 10.4 – while high crime districts saw 38.9, depleted crime districts saw 2.5 murders per 100,000. [ 278 ] The number of murders in Chicago peaked at 970 in 1974, when the city ‘s population was over 3 million people ( a murder rate of about 29 per 100,000 ), and it reached 943 murders in 1992, ( a murder rate of 34 per 100,000 ). [ 279 ] however, Chicago, like early major U.S. cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, falling to 448 homicides in 2004, its lowest sum since 1965 and lone 15.65 murders per 100,000. Chicago ‘s homicide total remained low during 2005 ( 449 ), 2006 ( 452 ), and 2007 ( 435 ) but rose to 510 in 2008, breaking 500 for the first prison term since 2003. [ 280 ] [ 281 ] In 2009, the murder count fell to 458 ( 10 % down ). [ 282 ] and in 2010 Chicago ‘s mangle rate fell to 435 ( 16.14 per 100,000 ), a 5 % decrease from 2009 and lowest levels since 1965. [ 283 ] In 2011, Chicago ‘s murders fell another 1.2 % to 431 ( a rate of 15.94 per 100,000 ). [ 284 ] but shot improving to 506 in 2012. [ 286 ] In 2012, Chicago ranked 21st in the United States in numbers of homicides per person, and in the first base half of 2013 there was a significant drop per-person, in all categories of fierce crime, including homicide ( down 26 % ). [ 287 ] Chicago ended 2013 with 415 murders, the lowest number of murders since 1965, and overall crime rates dropped by 16 percentage. [ 288 ] In 2013, the city ‘s murder rate was only slightly higher than the national average as a wholly. [ 289 ] According to the FBI, St. Louis, New Orleans, Detroit, and Baltimore had the highest murder rate along with several other cities. [ 290 ] Jens Ludwig, director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, estimated that shootings cost the city of Chicago $ 2.5 billion in 2012. [ 291 ] As of 2021, Chicago has become the american city with the highest count of carjackings. Chicago began experiencing a massive soar in carjackings after 2019, and at least 1,415 such crimes took place in the city in 2020. [ 292 ] According to the Chicago Police Department, carjackers are using grimace masks that are widely worn ascribable to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic to effectively blend in with the public and conceal their identity. On January 27, 2021, Mayor Lightfoot described the worsening wave of carjackings as being ‘top of take care, ‘ and added 40 patrol officers to the CPD carjacking unit of measurement. [ 293 ]

Employee pensions

In September 2016, an Illinois department of state appellate court found that cities do not have an obligation under the Illinois Constitution to pay certain benefits if those benefits had included an passing date under whichever negotiated agreement they were covered. The Illinois Constitution prohibits governments from doing anything that could cause retirement benefits for government workers to be “ diminished or impaired. ” In this particular encase, the fact that the workers ‘ agreements had passing dates let the city of Chicago set an termination date of 2013 for contribution to health benefits for workers who retired after 1989. [ 294 ]

education

Guinness World Records as the largest municipal public library building in the world. When it was opened in 1991, the central Harold Washington Library appeared inas the largest municipal public library build in the populace .

Schools and libraries

Chicago Public Schools ( CPS ) is the governing body of the school district that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including respective selective-admission attraction schools. There are eleven selective registration high schools in the Chicago Public Schools, [ 295 ] designed to meet the needs of Chicago ‘s most academically advanced students. These schools offer a rigorous course of study with chiefly honors and Advanced Placement ( AP ) courses. [ 296 ] Walter Payton College Prep High School is ranked number one in the city of Chicago and the department of state of Illinois. [ 297 ] Northside College Preparatory High School is ranked irregular, Jones College Prep is third gear, and the oldest magnet school in the city, Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, which was opened in 1975, is graded fourthly. [ 298 ] The magnet educate with the largest registration is Lane Technical College Prep High School. [ citation needed ] Lane is one of the oldest schools in Chicago and in 2012 was designated a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education. [ 299 ] Chicago high school rankings are determined by the average quiz scores on express accomplishment tests. [ 300 ] The zone, with an registration exceeding 400,545 students ( 2013–2014 20th Day Enrollment ), is the third-largest in the U.S. [ 301 ] On September 10, 2012, teachers for the Chicago Teachers Union went on assume for the beginning time since 1987 over pay, resources and other issues. [ 302 ] According to data compiled in 2014, Chicago ‘s “ option system ”, where students who test or apply and may attend one of a number of public high gear schools ( there are about 130 ), sorts students of different accomplishment levels into unlike schools ( high perform, middle do, and low do schools ). [ 303 ] Chicago has a network of Lutheran schools, [ 304 ] and several individual schools are run by early denominations and faiths, such as the Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Ridge. respective secret schools are wholly secular, such as the Latin School of Chicago in the Near North Side neighborhood, the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park, the british School of Chicago and the Francis W. Parker School in Lincoln Park, the Lycée Français de Chicago in Uptown, the Feltre School in River North and the Morgan Park Academy. [ citation needed ] There are besides the individual Chicago Academy for the Arts, a high school focused on six different categories of the arts and the public Chicago High School for the Arts, a high school focused on five categories ( ocular arts, theater, musical theater, dance, and music ) of the arts. [ 305 ] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates Catholic schools, that include Jesuit preparatory schools and others including St. Rita of Cascia High School, De La Salle Institute, Josephinum Academy, DePaul College Prep, Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Brother Rice High School, St. Ignatius College Preparatory School, Mount Carmel High School, Queen of Peace High School, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, Marist High School, St. Patrick High School and Resurrection High School. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Public Library system operates 79 public libraries, including the central library, two regional libraries, and numerous branches distributed throughout the city. [ citation needed ]

Colleges and universities

Since the 1850s, Chicago has been a world center field of higher education and research with several universities. These institutions systematically rank among the top “ National Universities ” in the United States, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. [ citation needed ] Highly regarded universities in Chicago and the surround area are : the University of Chicago ; Northwestern University ; Illinois Institute of Technology ; Loyola University Chicago ; DePaul University ; Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago. early noteworthy schools include : Chicago State University ; the School of the Art Institute of Chicago ; East–West University ; National Louis University ; North Park University ; Northeastern Illinois University ; Robert Morris University Illinois ; Roosevelt University ; Saint Xavier University ; Rush University ; and Shimer College. [ 306 ] William Rainey Harper, the first president of the united states of the University of Chicago, was implemental in the creation of the junior college concept, establishing nearby Joliet Junior College as the first in the nation in 1901. [ 307 ] His bequest continues with the multiple community colleges in the Chicago proper, including the seven City Colleges of Chicago : Richard J. Daley College, Kennedy–King College, Malcolm X College, Olive–Harvey College, Truman College, Harold Washington College and Wilbur Wright College, in addition to the privately held MacCormac College. [ citation needed ] Chicago besides has a high gear concentration of post-baccalaureate institutions, alumnus schools, seminaries, and theological schools, such as the Adler School of Professional Psychology, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, the Erikson Institute, The Institute for Clinical Social Work, the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, the Catholic Theological Union, the Moody Bible Institute, the John Marshall Law School and the University of Chicago Divinity School. [ citation needed ]

Media

television receiver

The Chicago metropolitan area is the third-largest media market in North America, after New York City and Los Angeles and a major media hub. [ 308 ] Each of the big four U.S. television networks, CBS, ABC, NBC and Fox, directly owns and operates a high-definition television post in Chicago ( WBBM 2, WLS 7, WMAQ 5 and WFLD 32, respectively ). Former CW consort WGN-TV 9, which is owned by the Tribune Media, is carried with some programming differences, as “ WGN America “ on cable television and satellite television receiver countrywide and in parts of the Caribbean .
The early Harpo Studios in West Loop, Chicago was home of The Oprah Winfrey Show from 1986 until 2011 and other Harpo Production operations until 2015. Chicago has besides been the home of several big talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, Steve Harvey Show, The Rosie Show, The Jerry Springer Show, The Phil Donahue Show, The Jenny Jones Show, and more. The city besides has one PBS penis station ( its second : WYCC 20, removed its affiliation with PBS in 2017 [ 309 ] ) : WTTW 11, producer of shows such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop’s Play-Along and The McLaughlin Group. As of 2018, Windy City Live is Chicago ‘s only day talk prove, which is hosted by Val Warner and Ryan Chiaverini at ABC7 Studios with a live weekday hearing. Since 1999, Judge Mathis besides films his syndicate arbitration-based reality court show at the NBC Tower. Beginning in January 2019, Newsy began producing 12 of its 14 hours of live news programming per day from its new facility in Chicago. [ citation needed ]

Newspapers

Two major casual newspapers are published in Chicago : the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the Tribune having the larger circulation. There are besides several regional and special-interest newspapers and magazines, such as Chicago, the Dziennik Związkowy ( Polish Daily News ), Draugas ( the Lithuanian daily newspaper ), the Chicago Reader, the SouthtownStar, the Chicago Defender, the Daily Herald, Newcity, [ 310 ] [ 311 ] StreetWise and the Windy City Times. The entertainment and cultural cartridge holder Time Out Chicago and GRAB magazine are besides published in the city, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as local anesthetic music magazine Chicago Innerview. In accession, Chicago is the home of satirical national news release, The Onion, vitamin a well as its sister pop-culture issue, The A.V. Club. [ 312 ]

Movies and filming

Since the 1980s, many motion pictures have been filmed or set in the city such as The Untouchables, The Blues Brothers, The Matrix, Brewster’s Millions, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Sixteen Candles, Home Alone, The Fugitive, I, Robot, Mean Girls, Wanted, Batman Begins, The Dark Knight, Dhoom 3, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Transformers: Age of Extinction, Transformers: The Last Knight, Divergent, Man of Steel, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Sinister 2, Suicide Squad, Justice League, Rampage and The Batman. In The Dark Knight Trilogy and the DC Extended Universe, Chicago was used as the divine guidance and film site for Gotham City and Metropolis respectively. [ 313 ] [ 314 ] Chicago has besides been the set of a number of television shows, including the position comedies Perfect Strangers and its spinoff Family Matters, Married… with Children, Punky Brewster, Kenan & Kel, Still Standing, The League, The Bob Newhart Show, and Shake It Up. The city served as the venue for the medical play ER and Chicago Hope, vitamin a well as the fantasy drama series Early Edition and the 2005–2009 play Prison Break. Discovery Channel films two shows in Chicago : Cook County Jail and the Chicago translation of Cash Cab. other celebrated shows include CBS ‘s The Good Wife and Mike and Molly. [ citation needed ] Chicago is presently the place for Showtime ‘s Shameless, and NBC ‘s Chicago Fire, Chicago P.D. and Chicago Med. [ 315 ] All three Chicago franchise shows are filmed locally throughout Chicago and maintain firm national viewership averaging 7 million viewers per express. [ 316 ]

radio receiver

Chicago has five 50,000 watt AM radio stations : the CBS Radio -owned WBBM and WSCR ; the Tribune Broadcasting -owned WGN ; the Cumulus Media -owned WLS ; and the ESPN Radio -owned WMVP. Chicago is besides home to a number of national radio receiver shows, including Beyond the Beltway with Bruce DuMont on Sunday evenings. [ citation needed ] Chicago Public Radio produces nationally aired programs such as PRI ‘s This American Life and NPR ‘s Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me!. [ citation needed ]

music

In 2005, indie rock artist Sufjan Stevens created a concept album about Illinois titled Illinois ; many of its songs were about Chicago and its history. [ citation needed ]

Industrial writing style

The city was particularly crucial for the development of the harsh and electronic based music music genre known as industrial. many themes are transgressive and derived from the works of authors such as William S. Burroughs. While the writing style was pioneered by Throbbing Gristle in the deep 70s, the genre was largely started in the United Kingdom, with the Chicago-based phonograph record tag Wax Trax ! late establishing itself as America ‘s home for the genre. The label inaugural found success with Ministry, with the dismissal of the cold life sentence single, which entered the US Dance charts in 1982. [ citation needed ] The record label late signed many big industrial acts, with the most celebrated being : My life with the Thrill Kill Kult, KMFDM, Front Line Assembly and Front 242. Richard Giraldi of the Chicago Sun-Times note on the significance of the label and wrote, “ american samoa significant as chess Records was to blues and soul music, Chicago ‘s Wax Trax imprint was good american samoa significant to the punk rock, new wave and industrial genres. ” [ 317 ]

Video games

Chicago is besides featured in a few video games, including Watch Dogs and Midtown Madness, a real-life, car-driving simulation plot. Chicago is home to NetherRealm Studios, the developers of the Mortal Kombat series .

infrastructure

department of transportation

antenna photograph of the Jane Byrne Interchange, opened in the 1960s Chicago is a major transportation hub in the United States. It is an significant component in global distribution, as it is the third-largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong and Singapore. The city of Chicago has a higher than average share of households without a cable car. In 2015, 26.5 percentage of Chicago households were without a car, and increased slenderly to 27.5 percentage in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percentage in 2016. Chicago averaged 1.12 cars per family in 2016, compared to a national modal of 1.8. [ 319 ]

Expressways

Seven mainline and four accessory interstate highways ( 55, 57, 65 ( only in Indiana ), 80 ( besides in Indiana ), 88, 90 ( besides in Indiana ), 94 ( besides in Indiana ), 190, 290, 294, and 355 ) run through Chicago and its suburb. Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with three of them named after former U.S. Presidents ( Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Reagan ) and one named after two-time democratic campaigner Adlai Stevenson. The Kennedy and Dan Ryan Expressways are the busiest state maintained routes in the stallion state of Illinois. [ 320 ]

theodolite systems

The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three serve boards : CTA, Metra, and Pace .
Greyhound Lines provides inter-city bus serve to and from the city, and Chicago is besides the hub for the Midwest network of Megabus ( North America ) .

passenger fulminate

Amtrak long distance and commuter rail services originate from Union Station. Chicago is one of the largest hub of passenger railing service in the state. The services displace in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., New York City, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Portland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Quincy, St. Louis, Carbondale, Boston, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, Pontiac, Los Angeles, and San Antonio. An attack was made in the early twentieth century to link Chicago with New York City via the Chicago – New York Electric Air Line Railroad. Parts of this were built, but it was never completed .

Bicycle and iceboat sharing systems

In July 2013, the bicycle-sharing system Divvy was launched with 750 bikes and 75 dock stations [ 322 ] It is operated by Lyft for the Chicago Department of Transportation. [ 323 ] As of July 2019, Divvy operated 5800 bicycles at 608 stations, covering about all of the city, excluding Pullman, Rosedale, Beverly, Belmont Cragin and Edison Park. [ 324 ] In May 2019, The City of Chicago announced its Chicago ‘s Electric Shared Scooter Pilot Program, scheduled to run from June 15 to October 15. [ 325 ] The broadcast started on June 15 with 10 different iceboat companies, including iceboat sharing market leaders Bird, Jump, Lime and Lyft. [ 326 ] Each ship’s company was allowed to bring 250 electric scooters, although both Bird and Lime claimed that they experienced a higher demand for their scooters. [ 327 ] The plan ended on October 15, with closely 800,000 rides taken. [ 328 ]

Freight rail

Chicago is the largest hub in the railroad track industry. [ 329 ] Six of the seven Class I railroads meet in Chicago, with the exception being the Kansas City Southern Railway. [ 330 ] As of 2002, hard freight train congestion caused trains to take as farseeing to get through the Chicago area as it took to get there from the West Coast of the area ( about 2 days ). [ 331 ] According to U.S. Department of Transportation, the volume of imported and exported goods transported via rail to, from, or through Chicago is forecast to increase closely 150 percentage between 2010 and 2040. [ 332 ] CREATE, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program, comprises about 70 programs, including crossovers, overpasses and underpasses, that intend to importantly improve the travel rapidly of freight movements in the Chicago area. [ 333 ]

Airports

Chicago is served by O’Hare International Airport, the world ‘s busiest airport measured by airline operations, [ 334 ] on the far Northwest Side, and Midway International Airport on the Southwest Side. In 2005, O’Hare was the world ‘s busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second-busiest by total passenger traffic. [ 335 ] Both O’Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. Gary/Chicago International Airport and Chicago Rockford International Airport, located in Gary, Indiana and Rockford, Illinois, respectively, can serve as alternate Chicago area airports, however they do not offer as many commercial flights as O’Hare and Midway. In late years the state of Illinois has been leaning towards building an wholly newly airport in the Illinois suburbs of Chicago. [ 336 ] The City of Chicago is the populace headquarter for United Airlines, the populace ‘s third-largest airline .

Port authority

The Port of Chicago consists of respective major port facilities within the city of Chicago operated by the Illinois International Port District ( once known as the Chicago Regional Port District ). The central chemical element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. [ 337 ]

  • Iroquois Landing Lakefront Terminal: at the mouth of the Calumet River, it includes 100 acres (0.40 km2) of warehouses and facilities on Lake Michigan with over 780,000 square meters (8,400,000 square feet) of storage.
  • Lake Calumet terminal: located at the union of the Grand Calumet River and Little Calumet River 6 miles (9.7 km) inland from Lake Michigan. Includes three transit sheds totaling over 29,000 square meters (310,000 square feet) adjacent to over 900 linear meters (3,000 linear feet) of ship and barge berthing.
  • Grain (14 million bushels) and bulk liquid (800,000 barrels) storage facilities along Lake Calumet.
  • The Illinois International Port district also operates Foreign trade zone No. 22, which extends 60 miles (97 km) from Chicago’s city limits.

Utilities

electricity for most of northerly Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, besides known as ComEd. Their military service territory borders Iroquois County to the confederacy, the Wisconsin border to the north, the Iowa border to the west and the Indiana molding to the east. In northern Illinois, ComEd ( a division of Exelon ) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state. Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75 % of its electricity from nuclear baron. recently, the city began installing weave turbines on government buildings to promote renewable energy. [ 338 ] [ 339 ] [ 340 ] Natural accelerator is provided by Peoples Gas, a subsidiary company of Integrys Energy Group, which is headquartered in Chicago. domestic and industrial waste was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, chiefly in the Calumet area. From 1995 to 2008, the city had a blue bag broadcast to divert reclaimable defy from landfills. [ 341 ] Because of first gear engagement in the bluing bag programs, the city began a pilot program for blue sky bin recycling like other cities. This prove successful and gloomy bins were rolled out across the city. [ 342 ]

Health systems

The Illinois Medical District is on the Near West Side. It includes Rush University Medical Center, ranked as the irregular best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2014–16, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Jesse Brown VA Hospital, and John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, one of the busiest trauma centers in the nation. [ 343 ] Two of the country ‘s premier academic medical centers reside in Chicago, including Northwestern Memorial Hospital and the University of Chicago Medical Center. The Chicago campus of Northwestern University includes the Feinberg School of Medicine ; Northwestern Memorial Hospital, which is ranked as the best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2017–18 ; [ 344 ] the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab ( once named the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago ), which is ranked the best U.S. rehabilitation hospital by U.S. News & World Report ; [ 345 ] the new Prentice Women ‘s Hospital ; and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children ‘s Hospital of Chicago. The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the second largest medical educate in the United States ( 2,600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana–Champaign ). [ 346 ] In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago ‘s Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburb of North Chicago and Maywood, respectively. The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove. The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives, the American Hospital Association and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association are all based in Chicago .

sister cities

Chicago has 28 sister cities around the world. [ 347 ] Like Chicago, many of them are the main city of a state that has had big numbers of immigrants settle in Chicago. These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational, and other ties. [ 348 ] To celebrate the sister cities, Chicago hosts a annual festival in Daley Plaza, which features cultural acts and food tastings from the other cities. [ 347 ] In addition, the Chicago Sister Cities program hosts a act of deputation and courtly exchanges. [ 347 ] In some cases, these exchanges have led to further informal collaborations, such as the academic relationship between the Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University and the Institute of Gerontology of Ukraine ( primitively of the Soviet Union ), that was in the first place established as separate of the Chicago-Kyiv sister cities plan. [ 349 ] Sister cities [ 347 ]

See besides

Notes

  1. a b Mean monthly maximum and minimum ( i.e. the expect highest and lowest temperature readings at any bespeak during the year or given calendar month ) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020 .
  2. ^[148][149] official records for Chicago were kept at diverse locations in downtown from January 1871 to 31 December 1925, University of Chicago from 1 January 1926 to 30 June 1942, Midway Airport from 1 July 1942 to 16 January 1980, and at O’Hare Airport since 17 January 1980 .
  3. ^“Twinned Cities” ( PDF ). ΚΕΔΕ (in Greek). Archived from the original ( PDF ) on January 15, 2016. Chicago is not listed as a baby city on the official list of the greek politics .

References

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