austrian symbolist painter ( 1862–1918 )
“ Klimt ” redirects here. For other uses, see Klimt ( disambiguation ) Gustav Klimt ( July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918 ) was an austrian symbolist painter and one of the most big members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d’art. Klimt ‘s basal subject was the female torso, and his works are marked by a postmark amorousness. Amongst his figural works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most determine by japanese art and its methods. [ citation needed ] early in his artistic career, he was a successful cougar of architectural decorations in a conventional manner. As he began to develop a more personal style, his work was the discipline of controversy that culminated when the paintings he completed around 1900 for the ceiling of the Great Hall of the University of Vienna were criticized as pornographic. He subsequently accepted no more public commissions, but achieved a new success with the paintings of his “ golden phase ”, many of which include gold leaf. Klimt ‘s work was an authoritative influence on his younger peer Egon Schiele.

Life and ferment [edit ]

early biography [edit ]

Gustav Klimt in 1887 Klimt in a light Blue Smock by by Egon Schiele, 1913 Gustav Klimt was born in Baumgarten, near Vienna in the austrian Empire, the second of seven children—three boys and four girls. His mother, Anna Klimt ( née Finster ), had an unfulfilled ambition to be a musical performer. His founder, Ernst Klimt the Elder, once from Bohemia, was a aureate engraver. All three of their sons displayed artistic endowment early on. Klimt ‘s younger brothers were Ernst Klimt and Georg Klimt. Klimt lived in poverty while attending the Vienna Kunstgewerbeschule, a school of enforce arts and crafts, now the University of Applied Arts Vienna, where he studied architectural paint from 1876 until 1883. [ 5 ] He revered Vienna ‘s foremost history painter of the clock time, Hans Makart. Klimt promptly accepted the principles of a conservative train ; his early on work may be classified as academic. In 1877 his brother, Ernst, who, like his beget, would become an engraver, besides enrolled in the educate. The two brothers and their ally, Franz Matsch, began working together and by 1880 they had received numerous commissions as a team that they called the “ Company of Artists ”. They besides helped their teacher in painting murals in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Klimt began his professional career painting inside murals and ceilings in large public buildings on the Ringstraße, including a successful series of “ Allegories and Emblems ”. In 1888 Klimt received the Golden club of Merit from Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria for his contributions to murals painted in the Burgtheater in Vienna. He besides became an honorary member of the University of Munich and the University of Vienna. In 1892 Klimt ‘s father and brother Ernst both died, and he had to assume fiscal province for his father ‘s and buddy ‘s families. The tragedies besides affected his artistic imagination and soon he would move towards a new personal stylus. Characteristic of his expressive style at the goal of the nineteenth hundred is the inclusion of Nuda Veritas ( naked truth ) as a symbolic figure in some of his works, including Ancient Greece and Egypt ( 1891 ), Pallas Athene ( 1898 ) and Nuda Veritas ( 1899 ). [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Historians believe that Klimt with the nuda veritas denounced both the policy of the Habsburgs and austrian club, which ignored all political and social problems of that time. [ 8 ] In the early 1890s Klimt met austrian fashion designer Emilie Louise Flöge ( a sibling of his sister-in-law ) who was to be his companion until the conclusion of his life. His paint, The Kiss ( 1907–08 ), is thought to be an visualize of them as lovers which was painted five years after Klimt ‘s 1902 full-length portrait of her. He designed many costumes that she produced and modeled in his works. During this time period Klimt fathered at least fourteen children. [ 9 ]

Vienna Secession years [edit ]

Klimt became one of the founding members and president of the Wiener Sezession ( Vienna Secession ) in 1897 and of the group ‘s periodical, Ver Sacrum ( “ Sacred Spring ” ). He remained with the Secession until 1908. The goals of the group were to provide exhibitions for unconventional young artists, to bring the works of the best foreign artists to Vienna, and to publish its own magazine to showcase the oeuvre of members. The group declared no manifesto and did not set out to encourage any particular style— Naturalists, Realists, and Symbolists all coexisted. The government supported their efforts and gave them a rent on public state to erect an exhibition mansion. The group ‘s symbol was Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of good causes, wisdom, and the arts—of whom Klimt painted his radical adaptation in 1898. [ 11 ] Judith II (1909) ( 1909 ) In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to create three paintings to decorate the ceiling of the Great Hall of the University of Vienna. not completed until the turn of the century, his three paintings, Philosophy, Medicine, and Jurisprudence were criticized for their revolutionary themes and material, and were called “ pornographic “. Klimt had transformed traditional fable and symbolism into a new terminology that was more overtly sexual and hence more interrupt to some. The public exclaim came from all quarters—political, aesthetic and religious. As a consequence, the paintings (seen in gallery below) were not displayed on the ceiling of the Great Hall. This would be the death public commission accepted by the artist. All three paintings were destroyed when retreating german forces burned Schloss Immendorf in May 1945. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] His Nuda Veritas ( 1899 ) defined his bid to further “ shake up ” the constitution. [ 15 ] The starkly naked red-headed charwoman holds the mirror of truth, while above her is a quotation by Friedrich Schiller in conventionalized letter : “ If you can not please everyone with your deeds and your art, please alone a few. To please many is bad. ” In 1902, Klimt finished the Beethoven Frieze for the Fourteenth Vienna Secessionist exhibition, which was intended to be a celebration of the composer and featured a monumental polychrome sculpture by Max Klinger. Intended for the exhibition only, the frieze was painted directly on the walls with unaccented materials. After the exhibition the painting was preserved, although it was not displayed again until restored in 1986. The face on the Beethoven portrait resembled the composer and Vienna Court Opera film director Gustav Mahler. [ 17 ] During this period Klimt did not confine himself to public commissions. Beginning in the late 1890s he took annual summer holidays with the Flöge family on the shores of Attersee and painted many of his landscapes there. These landscapes constitute the only music genre away from figure painting that seriously matter to Klimt. In realization of his volume, the locals called him Waldschrat ( “ forest devil ” ). [ 18 ] Klimt ‘s Attersee paintings are of sufficient number and quality as to merit separate appreciation. formally, the landscapes are characterized by the same refining of design and emphatic model as the figural pieces. deep quad in the Attersee works is flattened so efficiently to a individual plane that it is believed that Klimt painted them by using a telescope. [ 19 ]

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Golden phase and critical success [edit ]

Klimt ‘s ‘Golden Phase ‘ was marked by plus critical reaction and fiscal success. many of his paintings from this menstruation included gold leaf. Klimt had previously used gold in his Pallas Athene ( 1898 ) and Judith I ( 1901 ), although the works most popularly associated with this period are the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I ( 1907 ) and The Kiss ( 1907–08 ). Klimt traveled little, but trips to Venice and Ravenna, both celebrated for their beautiful mosaics, most probably inspired his amber technique and his Byzantine imagination. In 1904, he collaborated with other artists on the lavish Palais Stoclet, the home of a affluent belgian industrialist that was one of the grandest monuments of the Art Nouveau long time. Klimt ‘s contributions to the dine room, including both Fulfillment and Expectation, were some of his finest cosmetic works, and as he publicly stated, “ credibly the ultimate stage of my development of decoration. ” In 1905, Klimt painted The Three Ages of Woman, depicting the bicycle of life. He created a motley portrait of Margarete Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein ‘s baby, on the juncture of her marriage. [ 21 ] then, between 1907 and 1909, Klimt painted five canvases of club women wrapped in fur. His apparent love of costume is expressed in the many photograph of Flöge modeling invest he had designed. As he worked and relaxed in his home, Klimt normally wore sandals and a retentive gown with no undergarments. His simpleton life was slightly cloistered, devoted to his art, family, and fiddling else except the Secessionist Movement from which he and many colleagues finally resigned. He avoided café club and rarely socialized with other artists. Klimt ‘s fame normally brought patrons to his doorway and he could afford to be highly selective. His painting method was very deliberate and conscientious at times and he required drawn-out sittings by his subjects. Although identical active sexually, he kept his affairs discerning and he avoided personal scandal. Klimt wrote little about his vision or his methods. He wrote largely postcards to Flöge and kept no diary. In a rare writing called “ Commentary on a non-existent self-portrait ”, he states “ I have never painted a self-portrait. I am less matter to in myself as a topic for a painting than I am in other people, above all women … There is nothing special about me. I am a painter who paints day after day from dawn to night … Whoever wants to know something about me … ought to look carefully at my pictures. ” In 1901 Hermann Bahr wrote, in his Speech on Klimt : “ just as merely a lover can reveal to a valet what biography means to him and develop its inmost meaning, I feel the like about these paintings. ” [ 23 ]

Death and Vienna tributes [edit ]

In 1911 his painting Death and Life received first prize in the earth exhibitions in Rome. In 1915 Anna, his mother, died. Klimt died three years subsequently in Vienna on February 6, 1918, having suffered a stroke and pneumonia due to the worldwide influenza epidemic of that year. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] He was buried at the Hietzinger Cemetery in Hietzing, Vienna. numerous paintings by him were left unfinished. The city of Vienna, Austria had many limited exhibitions commemorating the hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of Klimt ‘s birth in 2012. [ 27 ]

Folios [edit ]

Gustav Klimt : Das Werk [edit ]

Die Umarmung (“The Embrace”) – detail from the Klimt much used cosmetic patterns in his paintings. ( “ The Embrace ” ) – detail from the Palais Stoclet in Brussels The only leaf set produced in Klimt ‘s life, Das Werk Gustav Klimts, was published initially by H. O. Miethke ( of Gallerie Miethke, Klimt ‘s exclusive gallery in Vienna ) from 1908 to 1914 in an edition of 300, supervised personally by the artist. The beginning thirty-five editions ( I-XXXV ) each included an master string by Klimt, and the following thirty-five editions ( XXXVI-LXX ) each with a facsimile touch on the championship page. [ 29 ] Fifty images depicting Klimt ‘s most significant paintings ( 1893–1913 ) were reproduced using collotype lithography and mounted on a heavy, cream-colored wove wallpaper with deckled edges. Thirty-one of the images ( ten of which are multicolored ) are printed on Chine-collé. The remaining nineteen are high choice halftones prints. Each assemble was marked with a singular signet—designed by Klimt—which was impressed into the weave paper in gold metallic ink. The prints were issued in groups of ten to subscribers, in unbound black newspaper folders embossed with Klimt ‘s name. Because of the delicate nature of collotype lithography, angstrom well as the necessity for motley prints ( a feat unmanageable to reproduce with collotypes ), and Klimt ‘s own hope for paragon, the series that was published in mid-1908 was not completed until 1914. [ 30 ] Each of the fifty prints was categorized among five themes :

  1. Allegorical (which included multicolored prints of The Golden Knight, 1903 and The Virgin, c. 1912)
  2. Erotic-Symbolist (Water Serpents I and Water Serpents II, both c. 1907–08 and The Kiss, c. 1908)
  3. Landscapes (Farm Garden with Sunflowers, 1907)
  4. Mythical or Biblical (Pallas Athena, 1898; Judith and The Head of Holofernes, 1901; and Danaë, c. 1908)
  5. Portraits (Emilie Flöge, 1902)
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The monochromatic collotypes deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the halftone works were printed with a variety of colored inks ranging from sepia to blue and green. emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria was the first gear to purchase a leaf set up of Das Werk Gustav Klimts in 1908 .

Fünfundzwanzig Handzeichnungen [edit ]

Fünfundzwanzig Handzeichnungen ( “ twenty-five Drawings ” ) was released the year after Klimt ‘s death. Many of the drawings in the collection were erotic in nature and fair deoxyadenosine monophosphate polarizing as his paint works. Published in Vienna in 1919 by Gilhofer & Ranschburg, the edition of 500 features twenty-five monochrome and two-color collotype reproductions, about identical from the master works. While the stage set was released a year after Klimt ‘s death, some artwork historians suspect he was involved with product design due to the meticulous nature of the print ( Klimt had overseen the production of the plates for Das Werk Gustav Klimts, making indisputable each one was to his exact specifications, a level of quality carried through similarly in Fünfundzwanzig Handzeichnungen ). The first ten editions besides each contained an original Klimt draw. [ 31 ] many of the works contained in this bulk depict erotic scenes of nude women, some of whom are masturbating alone or are coupled in lesbian embraces. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] When a count of the original drawings were exhibited to the public, at Gallerie Miethke in 1910 and the International Exhibition of Prints and Drawings in Vienna in 1913, they were met by critics and viewers who were hostile towards Klimt ‘s contemporary position. There was an consultation for Klimt ‘s erotic drawings, however, and fifteen of his drawings were selected by viennese poet Franz Blei for his translation of Hellenistic satirist Lucian ‘s Dialogues of the Courteseans. The book, limited to 450 copies, provided Klimt the opportunity to show these more lurid depictions of women and avoided censoring thanks to an audience composed of a modest group of ( by and large male ) affluent patrons.

Gustav Klimt An Aftermath [edit ]

Composed in 1931 by editor program Max Eisler and printed by the austrian State Printing Office, Gustav Klimt An Aftermath was intended to complete the life pagination Das Werk Gustav Klimts. The folio contains thirty colored collotypes ( fourteen of which are multicolored ) and follows a exchangeable format found in Das Werk Gustav Klimts, replacing the unique Klimt-designed signets with gold-debossed plate numbers. One hundred and fifty sets were produced in English, with twenty of them ( Nos. I–XX ) presented as a “ gala edition ” bound in aureate leather. The set up contains detail images from previously released works ( Hygeia from the University Mural Medicine, 1901 ; a section of the third University Mural Jurisprudence, 1903 ), american samoa well as the bare paintings ( Adam and Eve, Bridal Progress ) .

Paintings [edit ]

Drawings [edit ]

In 1963, the Albertina museum in Vienna began researching the drawings of Gustav Klimt. The research project Gustav Klimt. Die Zeichnungen, has since been associated with intensive exhibition and publication activities. between 1980 and 1984 Alice Strobl published the three-volume catalogue raisonné, which records and describes all drawings by Gustav Klimt known at the meter in chronological order. An extra auxiliary volume was published in 1989. In the pursuit class Strobl transferred her work to the art historian and curator marian Bisanz-Prakken, who had assisted her since 1975 in the decision and classification of the works and who continues the research visualize to this day. Since 1990, marian Bisanz-Prakken has redefined, documented, and scientifically processed around 400 far drawings. [ 34 ] This makes the Albertina Vienna the only institution in the world that has been examining and scientifically classifying the artist ‘s works for half a hundred. The inquiry plan now includes information on over 4,300 works by Gustav Klimt .

Selected works [edit ]

Rosebushes under the Trees Oberösterreichisches Bauernhaus Sonja Knips

bequest [edit ]

posthumous auction history [edit ]

Klimt ‘s paintings have brought some of the highest prices recorded for individual works of art. In November 2003, Klimt ‘s Landhaus am Attersee sold for $ 29,128,000, [ 39 ] but that sale was soon eclipsed by prices paid for Willem de Kooning ‘s Woman III and late Klimt ‘s own Adele Bloch-Bauer II, the latter of which sold for $ 150 million in 2016. More frequently than paintings, however, the artist ‘s works on composition can be found on the artwork grocery store. The art grocery store database Artprice lists 67 auction entries for paintings, but 1564 for drawings and watercolors. [ 40 ] The most expensive draw sold sol far was “ Reclining Female Nude Facing Left ”, which was made between 1914 and 1915 and sold in London in 2008 for GB£505,250. [ 41 ] however, the majority of the artwork trade wind traditionally takes space privately [ 42 ] through galleries such as Wienerroither & Kohlbacher, which specialize in the trade with original works by Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele and regularly present these at monographic exhibitions and international art fairs. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] In 2006, the 1907 portrait, Adele Bloch-Bauer I, was purchased for the Neue Galerie New York by Ronald Lauder reportedly for US $ 135 million, surpassing Picasso ‘s 1905 Boy With a Pipe ( sold May 5, 2004 for $ 104 million ), as the highest report price ever paid for a painting up to that point. On August 7, 2006, Christie ‘s auction house announced it was handling the sale of the remaining four works by Klimt that were recovered by Maria Altmann and her co-heirs after their long legal conflict against Austria ( see Republic of Austria v. Altmann ). Altmann ‘s competitiveness to regain her family ‘s paintings has been the subject of a act of objective films, including Adele’s Wish. [ 45 ] Her struggle besides became the national of the dramatic movie the Woman in Gold, a movie inspired by Stealing Klimt, the objective featuring Maria Altmann herself. [ 46 ] The portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer II was sold at auction in November 2006 for $ 88 million, the third-highest priced piece of art at auction at the time. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] The Apple Tree I ( c. 1912 ) sold for $ 33 million, Birch Forest ( 1903 ) sold for $ 40.3 million, and Houses in Unterach on Lake Atter ( 1916 ) sold for $ 31 million. jointly, the five restore paintings netted more than $ 327 million. The paint Litzlberg am Attersee was auctioned for $ 40.4 million November 2011. [ 51 ]

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ocular art [edit ]

Beech Grove I, 1902 Gustav Klimt -, 1902 According to the writer Frank Whitford : “ Klimt of run, is an crucial artist—he ‘s a very popular artist—but in terms of the history of art, he ‘s a very unimportant artist. Although he sums up so much in his work, about the club in which he found himself—in art diachronic terms his effect was negligible. So he ‘s an artist in truth in a cul-de-sac. ” [ 52 ] Klimt ‘s work had a strong determine on the paintings of Egon Schiele, with whom he would collaborate to found the Kunsthalle ( Hall of Art ) in 1917, to try to keep local artists from going overseas. Artists who reinterpreted Klimt ‘s work include Slovak artist Rudolf Fila .

cultural influence [edit ]

In 2006, an austrian art-house biographic movie about his life was released starring John Malkovich as Klimt. In 2008, the Couturier John Galliano found inspiration for the christian Dior Spring-Summer 2008 haute couture collection in Klimt ‘s work. respective of Klimt ‘s most celebrated works from his aureate period inspired the championship sequence for the animize adaptation of the manga series, Elfen Lied, in which the art is recreated to fit with the series ‘ own characters and is arranged as a collage with the song “ lilium ”. The open to the zanzibar copal Sound of the Sky besides is largely inspired by Klimt ‘s works, which was besides directed by the same film director as Elfen Lied. The purpose of the state of Centopia on the television receiver series Mia and Me is inspired by Klimt ‘s works. The artwork of the television game Transistor besides uses patterns and embellishments inspired by Klimt. [ 53 ] Gustav Klimt and his work have been the subjects of many collector coins and medals, such as the 100 Euro Painting Gold Coin, issued on November 5, 2003, by the austrian Mint. The obverse depicts Klimt in his studio with two unfinished paintings on easels. [ 54 ] Tawny Chatmon, an american english photographic artist know for her portraits of Black children overlaid with gold leaf and paint, has sought to place Black figures in glittering gold clothing inspired by Klimt ’ s lavish portraits of blank viennese women. [ 55 ]

memorial of 150th anniversary of birth [edit ]

In accession to the permanent wave exhibitions on display, the city of Vienna, Austria celebrated the hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of the birth of Klimt with special exhibitions throughout the city. Guided walk tours through the city allowed people to see some of the buildings where Klimt worked. Google commemorated Gustav Klimt with a Google scribble [ 56 ] celebrating Klimt ‘s paint The Kiss on his hundred-and-fiftieth birthday, 14 July 2012. [ 57 ] [ 58 ] In 2012, the austrian Mint began a five-coin amber serial to coincide with the hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of Klimt ‘s birth. The first 50 Euro gold coin was issued on January 25, 2012 and featured a portrait of Klimt on the obverse and a dowry of his paint of Adele Bloch-Bauer. [ 59 ]

Gustav Klimt Foundation [edit ]

In 2013, the Gustav Klimt Foundation was set up by Ursula Ucicky, widow of Klimt ‘s bastard son Gustav Ucicky, with a mission to “ preserve and disseminate Gustav Klimt ‘s bequest. ” The managing director of the Leopold Museum, Peter Weinhäupl, was appointed as Chairman of the foundation. As a reaction, the museum ‘s film director Tobias G. Natter resigned in protest, citing Ucicky ‘s past as a nazi propaganda film-maker. [ 60 ]

nazi looted art : restitution and litigation [edit ]

In 2000, a government committee recommended that Klimt ‘s Lady with Hat and Feather Boa, in Belvedere Museum in Vienna, be restituted to the heirs of the jewish family that had owned it before the Nazi Anschluss. [ 61 ] National Public Radio reported on January 17, 2006 that “ The austrian National Gallery is being compelled by a national arbitration circuit board to return five paintings by Gustav Klimt to a Los Angeles based woman, the heir of a jewish class that had its artwork stolen by the Nazis. The paintings are estimated to be worth at least $ 150 million. ” [ 62 ] This incident, involving Maria Altmann, was subsequently made into the Hollywood movie Woman in Gold, starring Helen Mirren. [ 63 ] The paintings were sold by auction house Christie ‘s for $ 325 million in 2006. In 2021 the french minister of culture announced that the alone Klimt in France ‘s national collections was Nazi plunder which should be restituted to the heirs of the jewish family that had been persecuted by Nazis. [ 64 ] Rosebushes Under the Trees, painted in 1905, had been owned by Nora Stiasi, who had been forced to sell it before being murdered by the Nazis. [ 65 ] It is presently hanging in France ‘s Orsay Museum which purchased it from Swiss art dealer Peter Nathan in 1980. [ 66 ] A exchangeable painting, besides painted by Klimt and known as Apple Trees II, which was besides nazi plunder, was mistakenly returned to the wrong kin by the austrian authorities. [ 67 ] other Klimts that have been the object of ownership battles due to a history of Nazi looting include the Beethoven Frieze, [ 68 ] [ 69 ] Water Snakes II, [ 70 ] Blooming Meadow [ 71 ] and Portrait of Gertrude Lowe. [ 72 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

further learn [edit ]

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