“ television receiver drama ” and “ Television play ” redirect here. For other uses, see Television play ( disambiguation )
In film and television receiver, drama is a category or writing style of narrative fabrication ( or semi-fiction ) intended to be more good than humorous in tone. [ 1 ] Drama of this kind is normally qualified with extra terms that specify its finical super-genre, macro-genre, or micro-genre, [ 2 ] such as soap opera, police crime drama, political drama, legal drama, historical drama, domestic drama, adolescent drama, and comedy-drama ( dramedy ). These terms tend to indicate a particular set or subject-matter, or else they qualify the otherwise dangerous tone of a drama with elements that encourage a broader stove of moods. To these ends, a basal component in a drama is the occurrence of conflict —emotional, social, or otherwise—and its resolution in the run of the storyline.
All forms of cinema or television that involve fabricated stories are forms of play in the broader sense if their storytelling is achieved by means of actors who represent ( mimesis ) characters. In this broader sense, drama is a mode distinct from novels, short stories, and narrative poetry or songs. [ 3 ] In the mod era before the birth of film or television receiver, “ play ” within theater was a character of play that was neither a comedy nor a tragedy. It is this narrower sense that the film and television receiver industries, along with film studies, adopted. “ Radio drama “ has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has besides been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. [ 4 ]
Types of drama in film and television [edit ]
The Screenwriters Taxonomy contends that film genres are basically based upon a film ’ sulfur atmosphere, character and report, and consequently the labels “ drama ” and “ drollery ” are besides across-the-board to be considered a music genre. [ 2 ] alternatively, the taxonomy contends that film drama are a “ Type ” of film ; listing at least ten different sub-types of movie and television play. [ 5 ]
documentary [edit ]
Dramatized adaptation of real-life events. While not always completely accurate, the general facts are more-or-less genuine. [ 6 ] The remainder between a documentary and a documentary is that in a objective it uses real people to describe history or stream events ; in a documentary it uses professionally trail actors to play the roles in the current event, that is “ dramatize ” a moment. Examples : Black Mass ( 2015 ) and Zodiac ( 2007 ) .
Docufiction [edit ]
different from documentary, docu-fictional films combine documentary and fabrication, where actual footage or real events are intermingled with recreate scenes. [ 7 ] Examples : Interior. Leather Bar ( 2013 ) and Your Name Here ( 2015 ) .
Comedy drama [edit ]
A unplayful fib that contains some characters or scenes inherently humorous to the audience. [ 8 ] Examples : The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel ( 2011 ), The Man Without a Past ( 2002 ), Silver Linings Playbook ( 2012 ), Three Colours: White ( 1994 ) and The Truman Show ( 1998 ) .
Hyperdrama [edit ]
Coined by film professor Ken Dancyger, these stories exaggerate characters and situations to the detail of becoming legend, legend or fagot narrative. [ 9 ] Examples : Fantastic Mr. Fox ( 2009 ) and Maleficent ( 2014 ) .
light drama [edit ]
blithe stories that are, however, dangerous in nature. [ 10 ] Examples : The Help ( 2011 ) and The Terminal ( 2004 ) .
psychological play [edit ]
Drama deals on the characters ‘ inner biography and psychological problems. [ 11 ] Examples : Requiem for a Dream ( 2000 ), Oldboy ( 2003 ), Anomalisa ( 2005 ), Babel ( 2006 ), and Whiplash ( 2014 ) .
sarcasm [edit ]
sarcasm can involve humor, but the result is typically sharp social comment that is anything but amusing. Satire often uses irony or hyperbole to expose faults in company or individuals that influence social ideology. [ 12 ] Examples : Idiocracy ( 2006 ) and Thank You for Smoking ( 2005 ) .
Straight play [edit ]
Straight Drama applies to those that do not attempt a specific access to drama but, rather, consider drama as a lack of comedic techniques. [ 12 ] Examples : Ghost World ( 2001 ) and Wuthering Heights ( 2011 ) .
Type/genre combinations [edit ]
According to the Screenwriters Taxonomy, all film descriptions should contain their type ( drollery or play ) combined with one ( or more ) of the eleven super-genres. [ 2 ] This combination does not create a separate genre, but preferably, provides a better sympathy of the film. According to the taxonomy, combining the type with the music genre does not create a freestanding genre. [ 2 ] For example, the “ Horror Drama ” is simply a dramatic horror film ( as opposed to a comedic repugnance film ). “ Horror Drama ” is not a writing style separate from the repugnance music genre or the drama character. [ 13 ]
Action drama [edit ]
Action dramas tend to be intuitive, not cerebral, with dynamic fight scenes, extensive pursuit scenes, and heart-racing stunts. The champion is closely constantly sharp-witted, quick on their feet, and able to improvise mentally and physically. The hero begins the movie with an home problem, cursorily followed by an external problem. By floor ’ south end, the bomber resolves both problems. [ 2 ] Examples of action play include Die Hard ( 1988 ) and the Mad Max series .
Crime drama [edit ]
Crime drama explore themes of accuracy, department of justice, and freedom, and contain the fundamental dichotomy of “ criminal vs. lawman ”. Crime films make the audience jump through a series of mental “ hoops ” ; it is not uncommon for the crime drama to use verbal gymnastics to keep the audience and the supporter on their toes. [ 2 ] Examples of crime play include : The Big Short ( 2015 ), The Godfather ( 1972 ), and The Usual Suspects ( 1995 ) .
Drama thriller [edit ]
In a play thriller, the protagonist is often an ignorant hero reluctantly drawn into the story and must do battle with an epic villain to save the lives of innocent victims ; the hero inevitably finds himself profoundly involved in a position involving harebrained criminals with a very blue by, who will threaten, double-cross, and kill anyone who stands in their manner. [ 14 ] According to screenwriter and scholar Eric R. Williams :
evening the typical good guys in other genres ( the patrol, detectives, and guards ) ca n’t be trusted in a thriller. Granted, there are “ good guys ” in a thriller, but the audience and champion never in truth know who they are until the end. Thrillers explore the ideas of Hope and Fear, constantly tearing the hero ( and more importantly : the audience ) between these two extremes. It is not uncommon to have the hearing hope that the champion will defeat the villain however remain fearful that they will not. Often, there is a central mystery that the supporter must solve, one that is obfuscated from the consultation and the hero, so that it is unmanageable to know what is needed to successfully unravel the at hand sense of destine that hangs over the hero. [ 2 ]
Films such as Black Swan ( 2010 ), Se7en ( 1995 ), Shutter Island ( 2010 ), and Zodiac ( 2007 ) are thriller play .
Fantasy drama [edit ]
According to Eric R. Williams, the hallmark of illusion play films is “ a sense of wonder, typically played out in a visually intense universe inhabited by mythic creatures, magic trick and/or superhuman characters. Props and costumes within these films much belie a feel of mythology and folklore – whether ancient, futuristic, or other-worldly. The costumes, arsenic well as the exotic world, reflect the personal, inside struggles that the hero faces in the floor. ” [ 2 ] Examples of illusion drama include : Life of Pi ( 2012 ), Lord of the Rings ( 2001-2003 ), Pan’s Labyrinth ( 2006 ), and Where the Wild Things Are ( 2009 ) .
Horror drama [edit ]
Horror drama much involves the central characters isolated from the rest of club. These characters are much teenagers or people in their early twenties ( the genre ’ second central hearing ) and are finally killed off during the course of the film. thematically, repugnance films frequently serve as a morality narrative, with the cause of death serving up violent penance for the victims ’ past sins. [ 5 ] Metaphorically, these become battles of good vanadium. Evil or Purity vs. Sin. The Conjuring ( 2013 ), Psycho ( 1960 ), Halloween ( 1978 ), and Friday the 13th ( 1980 ) are examples of repugnance play films .
life play ( day-in-the-life ) [edit ]
Day-in-the-life films takes belittled events in a person ’ s life and raises their level of importance. The “ modest things in liveliness ” feel as crucial to the supporter ( and the audience ) as the climactic conflict in an action film, or the concluding gunfight in a western. [ 5 ] Often, the protagonists deal with multiple, overlapping issues in the course of the film – barely as we do in biography. Films of this type/genre combination include : 12 Years a Slave ( 2013 ), Dallas Buyers Club ( 2013 ), Moonlight ( 2016 ), and The Wrestler ( 2008 ) .
romanticist play [edit ]
amatory drama are films with central themes that reinforce our beliefs about love ( e.g. : themes such as “ sleep together at first gear sight ”, “ love conquers all ”, or “ there is person out there for everyone ” ) ; the history typically revolves around characters falling into ( and out of, and rear into ) love. [ 15 ] Annie Hall ( 1977 ), Carol ( 2015 ), Her ( 2013 ) , La La Land ( 2016 ) and The Notebook ( 2004 ) are examples of love affair drama .
Science fabrication drama [edit ]
The science fabrication play film is often the history of a protagonist ( and her allies ) facing something “ nameless ” that has with the potential to change the future of world ; this unknown may be represented by a villain with inexplicable powers, a creature we do not understand, or a scientific scenario that threatens to change the world ; the skill fiction fib forces the audience to consider the nature of human beings, the confines of prison term or space, and/or the concepts of human universe in general. [ 16 ] Examples include : Blade Runner ( 1982 ), Children of Men ( 2006 ), A Clockwork Orange ( 1971 ), Planet of the Apes ( 1968 ), and Ready Player One ( 2018 ) .
Sports drama [edit ]
obviously, in the sports super-genre, characters will be playing sports. thematically, the story is frequently one of “ Our team ” versus “ Their Team ” ; their team will always try to win, and our team will show the global that they deserve recognition or redemption ; the narrative does not constantly have to involve a team. The floor could besides be about an individual athlete or the report could focus on an individual playing on a team. [ 17 ] Examples of this genre/type include : Hoosiers ( 1986 ), The Hustler ( 1961 ), Moneyball ( 2011 ), and Remember the Titans ( 2000 ) .
War play [edit ]
War films typically tells the fib of a modest group of detached individuals who – one by one – get killed ( literally or metaphorically ) by an outside force until there is a final fight to the death ; the theme of the protagonists facing death is a central anticipation in a war film. In a war film even though the enemy may out-number, or out-power, the hero, we assume that the enemy can be defeated if only the hero can figure out how. [ 5 ] Examples include : 1944 ( 2015 ), Apocalypse Now ( 1979 ), Hacksaw Ridge ( 2016 ), The Hurt Locker ( 2008 ), Life is Beautiful ( 1997 ), and Wildeye ( 2015 ) .
westerly drama [edit ]
Films in the western super-genre much take place in the american english Southwest or Mexico, with a large number of scenes occurring outdoors so we can soak in scenic landscapes. visceral expectations for the audience include fistfights, gunfight, and chase scenes. There is besides the expectation of dramatic bird’s-eye images of the countryside including sunsets, wide open landscape and endless deserts and sky. [ 2 ] Examples of western dramas include : Django Unchained ( 2012 ), Hell or High Water ( 2016 ), Mad Max ( 1979 ), No Country for Old Men ( 2007 ), and Unforgiven ( 1992 ) .
Misidentified categories [edit ]
Some film categories that use the bible “ comedy ” or “ drama ” are not recognized by the Screenwriters Taxonomy as either a movie music genre or a movie character. For exemplify, “ Melodrama ” and “ crazy comedy ” are considered Pathways, [ 18 ] while “ romantic comedy ” and “ kin Drama ” are macro-genres. [ 19 ]
family drama [edit ]
A macro-genre in the Screenwriters Taxonomy. These films tell a history in which many of the central characters are related. The history revolves around how the family as a wholly reacts to a central challenge. There are four micro-genres for the Family Drama : Family Bond, Family Feud, Family Loss, and Family Rift. [ 2 ]
melodrama [edit ]
A sub-type of drama films that uses plots that appeal to the heightened emotions of the consultation. melodramatic plots frequently deal with “ crises of human emotion, failed romance or friendship, strained familial situations, calamity, illness, neuroses, or aroused and physical asperity ”. [ 20 ] Film critics sometimes use the term “ pejoratively to connote an unrealistic, pathos-filled, camp fib of romance or domestic situations with stereotyped characters ( often including a central female character ) that would immediately appeal to feminine audiences ”. [ 21 ] besides called “ women ‘s movies ”, “ weepies ”, tearjerkers, or “ dame flicks ”. If they are targeted to a male hearing, then they are called “ guy war cry ” films. Often considered “ soap-opera ” drama .
crime drama / police procedural / legal play [edit ]
Character development based on themes involving criminals, police enforcement and the legal system .
diachronic drama [edit ]
Films that focus on dramatic events in history .
medical play [edit ]
Focuses on doctors, nurses, hospital staff, and ambulance redemptive victims and the interactions of their day by day lives .
adolescent drama [edit ]
Focuses on adolescent characters, particularly where a secondary school setting plays a role .
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
Sources [edit ]
- Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43437-8.
- Cook, Pam, and Mieke Bernink, eds. 1999. The Cinema Book. 2nd ed. London: British Film Institute. ISBN 0-851-70726-2.
- Elam, Keir. 1980. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. New Accents ser. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-416-72060-9.
- Hayward, Susan. 1996. Key Concepts in Cinema Studies. Key Concepts ser. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10719-9.
- Neale, Steve. 2000. Genre and Hollywood. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02606-7.
- Sheehan, Helena. 1987. Irish Television Drama: A Society and Its Stories ISBN 0-86029-011-5
- Williams, Eric R. (2017) The Screenwriters Taxonomy: A Roadmap to Creative Storytelling. New York, NY: Routledge Press, Studies in Media Theory and Practice. ISBN 978-1-315-10864-3.