Canvas and rubber shoes ( sneakers )
“ Chucks ” redirects here. For other uses, see Chuck
A pair of Chuck Taylor All-Stars in 2006

Chuck Taylor All-Stars or Converse All Stars ( besides referred to as “ Converse “, “ Chuck Taylors “, “ Chucks “, “ Cons “, “ All Stars “, and “ Chucky Ts “ ) is a model of casual brake shoe manufactured by Converse ( a auxiliary of Nike, Inc. since 2003 ) that was initially developed as a basketball shoe in the early twentieth century. The design of the Chuck Taylor All Star has remained largely unchanged since its insertion in the 1920s. The horseshoe consists of a sewed upper helping, a toe cap that is normally made of white arctic, and an outsole that is normally made of brown or tan arctic. Although Chuck Taylors are made of respective materials such as leather or suede cloth, the original and most widely known interpretation of the shoe is made from cotton canvas. The advanced detail of the original shoe was the “ informal line ” of gentle canvas tent that was intended to provide flexibility and prevent blisters. The Chuck Taylor II, an update model, was announced by company management in July 2015. Incorporating Nike engineering made from Ethylene Vinyl Acetate or EVA, it retains the outward appearance of the original horseshoe while including a full-length Lunarlon insole. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]

history [edit ]

Converse started making an early basketball brake shoe in 1917 and redesigned it in 1922, when Chuck Taylor asked the company to create a better shoe with more corroborate and flexibility. After Converse added Taylor ‘s signature to the ankle patch they became known as Chuck Taylor All Stars. By the 1960s the company had captured about 70 to 80 percentage of the basketball horseshoe market, but the brake shoe declined in popularity during the 1970s when basketball players wore competing brands. Chuck Taylor All Stars enjoyed a comeback in popularity in the 1980s as retro-style casual footwear. [ 3 ] [ 4 ]

early years [edit ]

ad from 1920 for the precursor of the Chuck Taylor All Star, Converse “ Non-Skids. ” Marquis Mills Converse founded the Converse Rubber Shoe Company in 1908 in Malden, Massachusetts. In 1917 the company designed the harbinger of the mod All Star shoe that it marketed under the appoint of “ Non-Skids ”. The shoe was composed of a rubberize sole and canvass upper and was designed for basketball players. [ citation needed ] In 1921, Charles “ Chuck ” Taylor, an american english semi-professional basketball actor, joined Converse as a salesman. [ 5 ] Within a year of Taylor ‘s arrival, the party had adopted his ideas for improvements to the brake shoe ‘s design to enhance its tractability and ankle corroborate. The restyled shoe besides incorporated a classifiable All-Star logo on the circular piece that protected the ankle. After Taylor ‘s signature was added to the ankle while as his endorsement, they became known as Chuck Taylor All Stars, the first celebrity-endorsed athletic shoe. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] To promote sales of Converse All Star shoes to basketball players, Taylor held basketball clinics in high school and college gymnasium and YMCAs all across the United States and taught the fundamentals of the game. [ 8 ] During the 1926–27 season Taylor besides served as a player-manager of the company-sponsored basketball team called the Converse All Stars. The Chicago-based tour team was established to promote sales of the ship’s company ‘s All Star basketball shoes. [ 9 ] numerous professional basketball players were soon wearing All Stars. Converse All Stars were the official shoe of the Olympics from 1936 to 1968. [ 6 ] [ 10 ] During World War II All Stars were the official acrobatic train shoes of the U.S. armed forces. [ 6 ]

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Post World War II popularity [edit ]

By the 1950s, Chuck Taylor All Stars had become a standard among high gear school, collegiate, and professional basketball players. [ 11 ] In the 1960s, Converse had captured about 70 to 80 percentage of the basketball shoe market, with Converse Chuck Taylor All Stars being worn by ninety percentage of professional and college basketball players. Due in large function to the sale of its All Stars, the ship’s company began to expand and open more factories. [ 4 ] [ 12 ] Converse began to struggle financially during the 1970s, due to contest and poor business decisions as the shoe lost its popularity among basketball players. many athletes switched to shoes with leather uppers and harder rubberize soles made by Converse ampere well as its competitors. [ 6 ] [ 11 ] Tree Rollins was thought to be the concluding player to regularly clothing poll Converse All Stars in the NBA during the 1979–1980 season, [ 13 ] [ 14 ] although Micheal Ray Richardson and Mickey Johnson concisely wore leather All Stars with the New Jersey Nets after 1982. [ 15 ] Chuck Taylor All Stars regained popularity in the 1980s and 1990s, making a shift to casual, retro-style footwear. [ 4 ] The athletic horseshoe evolved into the horseshoe of choice and a favorite for subcultures, particularly artists and musicians. [ 2 ] [ 12 ] By 2000 Converse had sold more than 600 million pairs of All Stars during its eighty years of manufacturing them. [ 11 ]

nike skill [edit ]

While Converse dominated the U.S. basketball shoe market from the 1920s until the 1970s, it began to struggle in the late 1970s due to competition, poor clientele decision-making, and miss of sufficient funds. In subsequent years Converse filed for bankruptcy multiple times and fell into further debt. [ 6 ] Nike acquired Converse in 2003 for an calculate $ 305 million and continues to market Chuck Taylor All Stars. [ 16 ] Converse ‘s fabricate operations for Chuck Taylor All Stars, angstrom well as the company ‘s other shoes, was moved from the United States to other countries such as China, India, Vietnam and Indonesia. [ 6 ]

lawsuit [edit ]

In October 2014, after years of sending unsuccessful end and abstain letters, Converse filed a lawsuit against 31 companies for allegedly infringing on its fink stylus ’ s bumper toe, striped midsole, and toe cap. The brand argued that these companies were violating a common-law hallmark by importing “ knockoff ” sneakers with like elements. The tilt included brake shoe brands by major retailers, including Walmart, Skechers, Ed Hardy, Ralph Lauren and Fila. A number of companies settled with Converse and were dropped from the list. [ 17 ] In November 2015, Charles Bullock, headman administrative judge at the International Trade Commission, preliminarily ruled that several brands Converse filed against were violating Converse ’ second outsole design trademarks, i.e. the design on the bottom of the sole of the shoe. Judge Bullock farther ruled that while Skechers “ Twinkle Toes ” brands did share similarities to Converse, “ flash Toes ” were different enough and marketed in a way for it not be mistaken for Chuck Taylor All-Stars. [ citation needed ] Judge Bullock besides ruled that most of the shoes sold by Highline United under the Ash post did not infringe and that Converse did not have a valid coarse police target for its midsole. On June 23, 2016, coincidentally the forty-seventh anniversary of the end of Chuck Taylor, the International Trade Commission ruled that Converse ‘s alleged deal dress for the midsole blueprint of a combine toe crown, toe bumper, and stripe was not entitled to trademark protective covering under the common police and found invalid Converse ‘s federal trademark registration. This casing is presently on attract to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

design [edit ]

early on styles [edit ]

When first designed in the early decades of the twentieth century, the Converse All Star had three independent styles : a monochromatic horseshoe with a black canvas tent amphetamine and black rubber soles, an all-white, high-top exemplar with aristocratic and crimson shave ( designed for the 1936 Olympic Games ), and an all black leather and rubber eraser shoe. [ citation needed ] By 1923 the Converse All Star shoe was designed in its contemporary form after the company made improvements to the design based on Chuck Taylor ‘s input. The restyled Converse All Star basketball horseshoe besides had a distinctive five-pointed-star logo displayed on the high-top shoe ‘s ankle bandage. In addition, Taylor ‘s touch was incorporated into the high-top ‘s ankle patch, resulting in the purpose that became known as the Chuck Taylor All Star. [ 6 ] [ 5 ] [ 18 ] In 1949 Converse decided to make a black poll shoe with a white toe guard, laces and outer wraps to create the iconic black-and-white version of Converse All Stars. In 1957 Converse introduced the decollete “ Oxford ” -style version of the All Star horseshoe, and within a short time the company began to produce All Stars in multiple colors and prints. today, Converse makes the Chuck Taylor All Star in a variety of colors, styles, prints and fabrics. [ citation needed ]

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A match of white decollete All Star sneakers, showing the current back cad logo merely the high-cut shoe design features the iconic ankle patch with the All Star logo, but the cad of the shoe ‘s high- and decollete designs include a glued-on pronounce with an “ ALL★STAR ” logo. The low-cut shoes besides have a chase with the lapp logo as the heel stitched onto the tongue. [ 19 ] In 2013 the logo appearing on the list and natural language was slenderly altered to include “ CONVERSE ” in addition to “ ALL★STAR, ” but the ankle patches of the high-cut shoes remained unaltered. [ citation needed ]

Chuck Taylor All Star ’70 [edit ]

In 2013, Converse launched the Chuck Taylor All Star ’70, which featured a construct alike to the All Stars used for basketball that were built in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This retro model was different from the then-current Chuck Taylor All Stars, as versatile changes that happened to the All Star shoes over the intervening three decades. The ’70 model featured compact canvas, a higher rubber eraser midsole and flim-flam, compact padding, a smaller toe hood, supernumerary material that was stitched on the side wall behind the toe crown for support, a one-piece rubberize bottom sole versus the three while lone on the modern All Stars, and a black heel while versus a white one on the modern All Star. [ 20 ] Chuck II with knit sail

Chuck Taylor All Star II [edit ]

On July 28, 2015, Converse released the Chuck Taylor All Star II. This shoe differed from the standard, modern translation of the Chuck Taylor All Star in several ways, [ 21 ] including a chummy Tencel canvas ; a higher rubber midsole and confuse that was similar in size to the All Star ’70, but it had lighter weight rubber ; a thick Lunarlon padding ; a slenderly smaller toe cap ; two elastic bands at the base of the tongue, to avoid slippage to the sides ; a sewn-on ankle piece on the high-tops ; a two-piece arctic bottom sole versus the three while sole on the modern All Stars ; a heel patch with 3D letters versus a flat one on the mod All Star version. [ citation needed ] A few months after the release of the Chuck II, several special series were released with unlike canvas textures such as the Chuck II Knit, the Chuck II Shield Canvas, and the Chuck II Rio Open Knit, to celebrate the Rio Olympics. [ 22 ] A class after the release, the Chuck II was considered a commercial failure, with retailers reporting poor sales. [ 23 ]

Converse Modern [edit ]

In June 2017, Converse announced a new line of sneakers for release in the United States that was designed by Hiroshi Fujiwara, Tinker Hatfield, and Mark Parker. A hi-top and a low-top range were planned, with initial color offerings in silver, royal blue, [ 24 ] crimson, green, black, pink, and blue. [ 25 ] A deluxe range in white or black apparent leather were besides planned for business casual wear. [ 26 ] These shoes would follow the classical Chuck Taylor design, but featured several improvements : [ 27 ] a circular pucker upper with a futuristic bright finish ; [ 28 ] a cushioned foam rubber eraser sole similar to the Air Jordans ; a Neoprene tongue ; and a TPU -fused toecap. [ 27 ]

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sociocultural impact [edit ]

Although Chuck Taylor All-Stars had vanished from the professional basketball scene by 1979, they continued to flourish in popular acculturation and manner as casual footwear. Chuck Taylors have played a function in several subcultures, which the caller has promoted as separate of the brand ‘s ongoing cultural popularity. In addition, Chuck Taylor All-Stars have continued to prove their iconic status through their function and portrait in film, art, and music polish, adenine well as some sports subcultures such as powerlifting and skateboarding. [ 29 ] Chuck Taylors are culturally associated with authenticity. They were popularized by James Dean for rebels and outcasts. They were besides associated with Andy Warhol, Kurt Cobain ( while not worn by Cobain himself on that occasion, the open inject of Nirvana ‘s iconic music video recording for Smells Like Teen Spirit features black Chucks ), the Ramones, and Karl Lagerfeld. While campaigning with running mate and future President Joe Biden in 2020, then-California senator Kamala Harris made a fashion statement by wearing Chuck Taylors as a stand-in for high heels at their public appearances. [ 30 ]

Film and television [edit ]

Chuck Taylor All Star shoes have been worn by actors in sport films that include Elvis Presley in Change of Habit ( 1969 ), Sylvester Stallone in Rocky ( 1976 ), respective cast members of Animal House ( 1978 ), basketball players in Grease ( 1978 ), Tom Hanks in Bachelor Party ( 1984 ), Michael J. Fox in Back to the Future ( 1985 ), [ 31 ] the cast members of Hoosiers ( 1986 ), and Mike Myers and Dana Carvey in Wayne’s World ( 1992 ). The television debris crown of Hoosiers besides featured the iconic black high-tops. additionally, in Disney ‘s The Sword in the Stone Merlin can be seen wearing red Chuck Taylor All Star shoes when he returns from Bermuda. The shed of respective democratic network television series such as Dennis the Menace, M*A*S*H ( 1972–83 ), and Happy Days ( 1974–1984 ) have worn Converse All Star shoes. They are besides big in many Chuck Lorre sitcoms, being the primary sneakers worn by Leonard Hofstadter from The Big Bang Theory and Christy Plunkett from Mom. David Tennant wore the iconic footwear during his tenure as the Tenth Doctor ( 2005-10 ) on the BBC sci-fi series Doctor Who. [ citation needed ]

art [edit ]

In 2015, Converse released the Converse All-Star Andy Warhol solicitation, in partnership with the Andy Warhol Foundation. In award of Warhol ‘s contributions to ocular artwork, Converse designed the All-Star shoe to commemorate Warhol ‘s subcultural determine. [ 33 ]

Powerlifting [edit ]

Although it was in the first place intended for basketball, powerlifting athletes have embraced Chuck Taylors as an ideal shoe for the frolic. [ 29 ] Chucks have bland, rubber soles that enforce correct pose on movements such as deadlifts, squats, and terrace presses. Seventy-one-year-old Pete Bennett set a universe record for the jack in his age class at 465 pounds ( 211 kilogram ) in a copulate of Chuck Taylors. [ 29 ] The poll substantial allows powerlifters to push their feet to the outside on squats which helps keep their knees out and activates their glutes. [ 34 ] The low-top Chuck Taylors provide complete ankle mobility, as the canvas does not cover the ankles .

References [edit ]

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