Cystine is an oxidized dimer phase of amino acid cysteine with recipe ( SCH2CH ( NH2 ) CO2H ) 2. Cystine is a white solid which is slenderly soluble in body of water. It provides two biological functions : a site of oxidation-reduction reactions and mechanical linkage which allows protein for retaining their cubic social organization. It is associated dimeric inessential amino acidic assembled by oxidation of cysteine. Two molecules of Cysteine are combined together by disulfide bridge for forming cysteine .

It is a sulphur containing derived function attained from oxidation of cysteine amino acid thiol side chains. It acts as an antioxidant and prevents tissues against befoulment and radiotherapy and slowing down aging process. It aid protein synthesis. It is abundant in assorted protein of skeletal tissues and skin or found in insulin or digestive enzymes chromotrypsinogen A, trypsinogen and papain. It is a favored form cysteine for glutathione synthesis in cells engaged in immune system. Neurons and Lymphocytes uses cysteine for glutathione product. optimization of glutathione levels in macrophases or astrocytes having cysteine let cells for providing cysteine to lymphocytes and neurons associated upon demand .
Food Sources of Cystine

Health Benefits of Cysteine
here are health benefits discussed about cysteine :

  1. Antioxidant activity

L-cysteine acts as a magpie of free radicals which cause cellular wrong through oxidative try and promotes antioxidant capacitance through glutathione preservation. It is the well-known benefit of L-cysteine which slows down aging work and prevents dangerous health conditions. It enhances level of glutathione and supports immune function. research shows that immunological functions are related with insufficiency of cysteine and glutathione that could be enhanced significantly and restored by supplementation of L-cysteine. Studies including HIV patients show ability of L-cysteine to enhance immune system. learn shows that formulation comprises of NAC, omega-3 fatty acid fatso acids, bovine colostrum and combination of minerals and vitamins reduced descent of immune cells. other study shows that restoring glutathione levels, L-cysteine appear have beneficial affect on immune officiate of people with HIV. supplement of L-cysteine improves immune function in postmenopausal women. inquiry shows that NAC provision for 2-4 months results prolonged strengthening of immune in postmenopausal women by lowering probability of immune system associated diseases as they ages .

  1. Detoxifies body
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L-cysteine prevents side effects which are caused by drug reactions or toxic chemicals. Cysteine has a pivotal character in detoxifying consistency. toxic metals contain pre-oxidative effects and they diminish glutathione levels so supplementation of L-cysteine helps to restore levels which help to detoxify toxins. Doctors give NAC to people with acetaminophen overdose for preventing liver or kidney damage. Drug prompt acute liver failure is a fatal disease which is caused by toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone-imine which results depletion of glutathione. overdose patients when treated with NAC allow significant emergence in glutathione activity .

  1. Enhance male fertility

supplement of L-cysteine helps to alleviate depletion of glutathione during oxidative stress and is effective for treating sterility in men with poor semen timbre, oxidative stress and DNA damage. study shows that NAC acts as an effective treatment for male sterility from clinical varicocele when veins become enlarge inside scrotum. Study results shows that concentration of sperm seemed to be improved by using NAC .

  1. Balance blood sugar level
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L-cysteine is helpful to support natural ability of the body in managing and regulating normal floor of blood boodle. Animal survey shows that supplement of L-cysteine reduces glycemia and markers of vascular excitement in diabetic patients. Supplementation of L-cysteine lowers lineage levels of glucose or insulin resistance significantly. There is besides a reduction in plasma protein oxidation levels in rats medicated with L-cysteine.

L-cysteine promotes digestive capacity of the torso due to its ability of slowing aging serve. As people ages, digestive problems such as gastroenteritis and low stomach acid becomes important. It could be ascribable to the being of free radicals in the body. discipline shows that supplement of L-cysteine help to lower symptoms of ulcerative colitis which is an inflammatory intestine disease which cause inflammation and sores in digestive tract that lasts for long. Research concluded that mesalamine and NAC improved symptoms of ulcerative colitis due to moo chemokines which attract white lineage cells and forms free radicals. NAC is condom and well-tolerated .

  1. Respiratory health

NAC acts as an expectorant which break down mucus in the body. It lowers frequency and badness of wheezing or respiratory attacks by enhancing glutathione and thinning mucus which builds up in bronchial tubes. It is found to be helpful for those suffering allergy symptoms or having respiratory discipline such as chronic clogging pneumonic disease and bronchitis. research shows that supplementation of L-cysteine serve to lower the burden of oxidant and inflammation found in COPD patients which is a condition involving an abnormal incendiary response in lungs and restricted airflow which makes difficulty in breathing. NAC is used to lower COPD symptoms, exacerbations or expedite refuse of lung functions .

  1. Treat psychiatric problems
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research has shown manipulation of NAC for treating psychiatric illnesses. review shows that diverse disorders are benefited with NAC having restricted options and suboptimal outcomes having current treatments. analyze shows that NAC is able to treat for addiction including nicotine addiction, cannabis addiction, pathological gamble and cocaine addiction. report card shows habit of NAC to lower symptoms of obsessional compulsive disorder by promoting control of compulsive wash or obsessional triggers in patients. Study found NAC to be useful for patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It is because of antioxidant bodily process of NAC, as suggested by growing soundbox of literature, psychiatric disorders are due in oxidative stress or dysfunction of glutamate metamorphosis. Glutamate is a crucial sender for normal function of brain but glutamate in excess results toxic wrong to brain. L-cysteine help to adjust levels of glutamate by preventing and treating brain disorders such as schizophrenia. study shows that L-cysteine helps to prevent and treat angina, acne, emphysema, asthma, lung cancer and colon cancer .

References:
hypertext transfer protocol : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystine

hypertext transfer protocol : //pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/L-cystine # section=Top
hypertext transfer protocol : //www.britannica.com/science/cystine
hypertext transfer protocol : //draxe.com/l-cysteine/

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