The Humvee has been the U.S. military ‘s main light vehicle platform since it was rolled out in big numbers from the mid 1980s Military light utility vehicle, or plainly light utility vehicle, ( LUV ), is a term used for the lightest weight class military fomite class. [ 1 ] A Jeep -like four-wheel drive vehicle for military use [ 2 ] by definition lighter than other military trucks and vehicles, inherently compact and normally with luminosity or no armor, with short body overhangs for agile all-terrain mobility, and frequently around 4-passenger capacity .
Since World War II – jeeps like this U.S. Army Willys MB, became a basic of twentieth century armies around the world, and an original of light military vehicles
Worldwide, and since the earliest large scale mechanization of the military, hundreds of different light vehicles have been used for military utility program serve, ranging from readily available commercial products, merely repainted in military colors, to purpose-designed tactical vehicles, that were particularly developed for military applications and operation in ahead areas. light utility vehicles are typically general or multi-purpose – used to carry troops, staff, ( mounted ) weapons, supplies, evacuate wounded soldiers and many other divers roles. [ 2 ] historically originated in the first half of the twentieth century, when modernization of armies meant replacing horses and other draft animals through mechanization, equally well as increasing mobility of the infantry, to gain an essential tactical advantage, the nature and operate on circumstances for the military ‘s lightest utility vehicles have since changed. In twenty-first century missions, small arms fire and improvise explosive devices ( IEDs ) continuously model highly dangerous threats to mobile infantry, and the military ‘s lightest utility vehicles have frequently become heavier and larger, as a result of addition of armor, for the purpose of crew protection. [ citation needed ] Designs for modern light military vehicle platforms have to balance maneuverability, speed, weapons capability, survivability and transportability – all of high importance to ground troops in operations. [ citation needed ] civilian adaptations of the Willys MB Jeep and Land Rover were the first frolic utility vehicles, and some SUVs such as the Chevy Blazer have been used as military alight utility vehicles. The importance of this kind of military fomite was summed up by General Eisenhower, who wrote that most aged officers regarded the jeep as one of the six most critical U.S. vehicles in World War II. [ 4 ] furthermore, general George Marshall called the jeep “ America ’ mho greatest contribution to modern war. ” [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] like vehicles are among the most common military vehicles in armies of most nations .
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World War II [edit ]
The Dodge WC serial was built in some 50 variants. Shown a command / radio cable car, and an ambulance behind it Schwimmwagen was an amphibious vehicle The Germanwas an amphibious vehicle In 1939, the U.S. Army began standardizing its general-purpose trucks by limiting procurement to five chassis cargo classes, from 1⁄2-ton to 7+1⁄2-ton, but the united states army was “ to use commercial trucks with merely a few modifications such as brush guards and towing pintles .. ” [ 8 ] however, in 1940 the categories were revised. A new, lightest chassis, “ quarter-ton ” class was introduced, at the penetrate of the range, and the 1⁄2-ton class was supplanted by a 3⁄4-ton human body – both were classified as “ light ” trucks ; 1+1⁄2-tonners were considered “ medium ”. [ 9 ] The Willys MB Jeep of World War II used by the U.S. Army is credibly the most widely known fomite of this class. Over 640,000 Jeeps were built for World War II, and they inspired many vehicles alike in layout, or function. Besides the jeep, the U.S. besides produced some 330,000 half- and three quarter-ton Dodge WC series trucks, in a across-the-board range of variants. together, the Willys and Ford jeeps, and Dodge ‘s WC-series trucks made up closely all of the WW II U.S. unaccented vehicle output of about a million ( ~988,000 ) units. [ 9 ]
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In World War II, Germany used the Volkswagen Kübelwagen for a alike role. It only had rear-wheel campaign, but could take advantage of light weight unit, a very bland, smooth underbelly, [ 11 ] rear axle portal geared hubs, and a rear-mounted locomotive for mobility. early american english dune buggies were besides based on the Volkswagen, and the Desert Storm-era Desert Patrol Vehicle evolved from the dune buggy shape for combat use. The Volkswagen Schwimmwagen featured a bathtub-like unitary boat-body and propulsion screw. The Jeep was similarly adapted as the Ford GPA “ Seep ”, but was never vitamin a successful as the Schwimmwagen, which became the most mass-produced amphibious car in history. Unlike the Kübelwagen, the Schwimmwagen was equipped with four-wheel drive, and with its super-smooth underbelly and portal vein geared hub front and rear, arguably the most adequate to light german mountain bike in World War II. [ citation needed ] The Soviet Union produced the GAZ-64 based largely on the US jeep design, succeeded by the GAZ-67 and GAZ-67B, until ca. 1953 .
The U.S. revised its jeep into the Willys M38 and M38A1, which was used in the Korean War. It was followed in 1960 by the M151 jeep, which was designed with Ford. By the mid-1980s, this role would be taken over by the larger and heavier Humvee, which would be used as a combat vehicle in Iraq. The United States besides purchased commercial Utility Cargo Vehicles based on commercially available unhorse trucks. U.S. forces are presently defining the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle which would be designed to be armored from the beginning, with the smallest 4-person cargo capacitance class corresponding to the traditional jeep role. In 1948, the british Land Rover was developed. in the first place intended to be a civilian and agrarian successor to the Willys Jeep ( the prototype Land Rover was built on the chassis of a Willys and used Willys transmittance parts but production vehicles used no Jeep components ) the Land Rover was brought into military service in 1949, finally becoming the standard Light Utility Vehicle for the british Army and many arm forces of the Commonwealth and displacing the aim built and more expensive Austin Champ. The original Land Rover plan evolved into the contemporary Land Rover Defender which is calm in military avail throughout the earth. About 1953 Russia replaced its GAZ-67B by the GAZ-69, until that series was replaced by the UAZ-469 commander jeep which was introduced in 1971. In the 1960s, China ‘s Beijing Automobile Works produced its own “ jeep ”, the Beijing BJ212 which was largely a chinese copy of the soviet UAZ-469B. Often called the “ Beijing Jeep ”, the BJ121 was widely used in both military and civilian service in China, with over 200,000 produced by end of production in 1983. In May 1983, American Motors Corporation ( AMC ) agreed to allow the update BJ2020S to use the 85 horsepower engine of the XJ Jeep Cherokee. [ 12 ] The latest chinese light utility will be the BJ2022JC ‘Brave Warrior ‘, built by Beijing Benz-Daimler Chrysler Automobile Co. Adapted from existing Mercedes Benz designs, the BJ2022JC will carry 0.7 short ton [ vague ], with a wheelbase of 110 inches, and has an independent suspension organization with a 101.5 kilowatt 3.2 L turbo-charged inter-cooling diesel engine. [ 13 ]
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In 2014, Boeing and MSI Design designed the Phantom Badger, in response to the aging Humvee fleet, which was excessively large for newer aircraft to practicably carry. [ 14 ]
HMMWV-like vehicles [edit ]
GAZ-2975 “ Tigr ” on rehearsal of Moscow Victory Parade The HMMWV platform represented a prototype change in the U.S. military – abolishing the dichotomy between the minor quarter-ton rigs, and the versatile other, larger “light” trucks, after more than four decades. Intended to replace all of the Army ‘s 1⁄4-ton to 1+1⁄4-ton vehicles with one single human body, the resulting 1⁄4-ton Humvee became a lot larger and heavier than the jeeps, and inspired a modern coevals of vehicles, used in similar military roles .