russian chess champion

Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov ( russian : Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов, IPA : [ ɐnɐˈtolʲɪj jɪvˈɡʲenʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ˈkarpəf ] ; born May 23, 1951 ) is a russian and early Soviet chess grandmaster, erstwhile World Chess Champion, ⁣and politician. He was the 12th World Chess Champion from 1975 to 1985, a three-time FIDE World Champion ( 1993, 1996, 1998 ), twice World Chess ace as a member of the USSR team ( 1985, 1989 ), and a six-time achiever of Chess Olympiads as a member of the USSR team ( 1972, 1974, 1980, 1982, 1986, 1988 ). The International Association of Chess Press awarded him nine Chess “ Oscars ” ( 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984 ). Karpov ‘s tournament successes include over 160 first-place finishes. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] He had a flower Elo rate of 2780, and his 102 full months at world number one is the third-longest of all time, behind Magnus Carlsen and Garry Kasparov, since the origin of the FIDE ranking number in 1970.

Karpov is besides an elect Member of the Duma in Russia. Since 2006, he has chaired the Commission for Ecological Safety and Environmental Protection of the Civic Chamber of the russian Federation, and since 2007, he has been a member of the Public Council under the Ministry of Defence. [ 3 ]

early life [edit ]

Karpov was born on May 23, 1951, [ 4 ] [ 5 ] in Zlatoust, in the Urals region of the early Soviet Union, and learned to play chess at the long time of four. [ 6 ] His early rise in chess was fleet, as he became a campaigner chief by historic period 11. At 12, he was accepted into Mikhail Botvinnik ‘s esteemed chess school, though Botvinnik made the following remark about the young Karpov : “ The son does not have a clue about chess, and there ‘s no future at all for him in this profession. ” [ 7 ] Karpov acknowledged that his agreement of chess theory was very confused at that clock, and former wrote that the homework Botvinnik assigned greatly helped him, since it required that he consult chess books and cultivate diligently. [ 8 ] Karpov improved so promptly under Botvinnik ‘s care that he became the youngest soviet headmaster in history at fifteen in 1966 ; this tied the record established by Boris Spassky in 1952. [ citation needed ]

career [edit ]

Young overlord [edit ]

Karpov in 1967 Karpov finished first in his first international tournament in Třinec several months subsequently, ahead of Viktor Kupreichik. In 1967, he won the annual Niemeyer Tournament at Groningen. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] Karpov won a amber decoration for academic excellence in high educate, and entered Moscow State University in 1968 to study mathematics. He belated transferred to Leningrad State University, finally graduating from there in economics. One cause for the transfer was to be closer to his coach, grandmaster Semyon Furman, who lived in Leningrad. In his writings, Karpov credits Furman as a major determine on his development as a first player. [ citation needed ] In 1969, Karpov became the first Soviet actor since Spassky ( 1955 ) to win the World Junior Championship, scoring an undefeated 10/11 in the final ampere at Stockholm. [ 11 ] This victory earned him the external master title. [ 12 ] In 1970, he tied for fourth and fifth places with Pal Benko at an international tournament in Caracas, Venezuela, [ 13 ] and earned the international grandmaster title. [ 14 ] FIDE awarded him the claim during its 41st congress, held during the Chess Olympiad in Siegen, West Germany in September 1970. [ 15 ]

grandmaster [edit ]

He won the 1971 Alekhine Memorial tournament in Moscow ( jointly with Leonid Stein ), ahead of a star-studded field, for his first meaning pornographic victory. His Elo denounce changeable from 2540 in 1971 to 2660 in 1973, when he shared second place in the USSR Chess Championship. [ citation needed ] Karpov ‘s world junior backing qualified him for one of the two Interzonals, [ 16 ] [ 17 ] a stage in the 1975 World Championship cycle to choose the rival to play universe supporter Bobby Fischer. He finished equal first in the Leningrad Interzonal, qualifying for the 1974 Candidates Matches. Karpov defeated Lev Polugaevsky by the seduce of +3=5 in the first Candidates ‘ match, earning the right to face former supporter Boris Spassky in the semifinal cycle. Karpov was on record saying that he believed Spassky would easily beat him and win the Candidates ‘ cycle to face Fischer, and that he ( Karpov ) would win the follow Candidates ‘ cycle in 1977. Spassky won the first game as Black in good style, but coherent, aggressive play from Karpov secured him overall victory by +4−1=6. The Candidates ‘ final was played in Moscow with Victor Korchnoi. Karpov took an early lead, winning the irregular game against the sicilian Dragon, then scoring another victory in the sixth game. Following ten back-to-back draw, Korchnoi threw away a succeed put in the seventeenth game to give Karpov a 3–0 lead. In game 19, Korchnoi succeeded in winning a long endgame, then notched a quick victory after a fumble by Karpov two games by and by. Three more draws, the last agreed by Karpov in a distinctly better stead, closed the match, as he therefore prevailed +3−2=19, moving on to challenge Fischer for the earth title. [ citation needed ]

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couple with Fischer in 1975 [edit ]

Though a earth championship peer between Karpov and Fischer was highly expect, those hopes were never realised. Fischer not only insisted that the couple be the first gear to ten wins ( draws not counting ), but besides that the champion retain the crown if the score was tied 9–9. FIDE, the International Chess Federation, refused to allow this provision, and gave both players a deadline of April 1, 1975, to agree to play the catch under the FIDE-approved rules. [ 18 ] When Fischer did not agree, FIDE President Max Euwe declared on April 3, 1975, that Fischer had forfeited his title and Karpov was the newly World Champion. [ 19 ] Karpov late attempted to set up another equal with Fischer, but the negotiations fell through. This thrust the young Karpov into the function of World Champion without having faced the reigning champion. Garry Kasparov argued that Karpov would have had good chances because he had beaten Spassky convincingly and was a new breed of bully professional, and indeed had higher quality games, while Fischer had been inactive for three years. [ 20 ] This opinion is echoed by Karpov himself. [ 21 ] Spassky thought that Fischer would have won in 1975, but Karpov would have qualified again and beaten Fischer in 1978. [ 22 ] Karpov is on criminal record saying that if he had had the opportunity to play Fischer for the crown in his twenties, he could have been a much better player as a consequence. [ citation needed ]

World supporter [edit ]

Karpov with FIDE president Max Euwe and wife in 1976. Determined to prove himself a legitimate champion, Karpov participated in about every major tournament for the future ten years. He convincingly won the Milan tournament in 1975, and captured his first base of three soviet titles in 1976. He created a phenomenal mottle of tournament wins against the strongest players in the world. Karpov held the record for most consecutive tournament victories ( 9 ) until it was shattered by Garry Kasparov ( 14 ). As a resultant role, most chess professionals soon agreed that Karpov was a legitimate populace champion. [ 23 ] In 1978, Karpov ‘s first claim defense was against Viktor Korchnoi, the opponent he had defeated in the 1973–75 Candidates ‘ cycle ; the couple was played at Baguio, Philippines, with the winner needing six victories. As in 1974, Karpov took an early run, winning the eighth game after seven draws to open the match. When the grudge was +5−2=20 in Karpov ‘s favor, Korchnoi staged a rejoinder, and won three of the adjacent four games to draw charge with Karpov. Karpov then won the very next bet on to retain the title ( +6−5=21 ). [ citation needed ] Three years later, Korchnoi reemerged as the Candidates ‘ winner against german finalist Robert Hübner to challenge Karpov in Merano, Italy. Karpov handily won this match, 11–7 ( +6−2=10 ), in what is remembered as the “ Massacre in Merano ”. [ citation needed ] Karpov ‘s tournament career reached a acme at the Montreal “ Tournament of Stars ” tournament in 1979, where he finished joint beginning ( +7−1=10 ) with Mikhail Tal ahead of a field of potent grandmasters completed by Jan Timman, Ljubomir Ljubojević, Boris Spassky, Vlastimil Hort, Lajos Portisch, Hübner, Bent Larsen and Lubomir Kavalek. He dominated Las Palmas in 1977 with 13½/15. He besides won the prestigious Bugojno tournament in 1978 ( shared ), 1980 and 1986, the Linares tournament in 1981 ( shared with Larry Christiansen ) and 1994, the Tilburg tournament in 1977, 1979, 1980, 1982, and 1983, and the soviet Championship in 1976, 1983, and 1988. [ citation needed ] Karpov represented the Soviet Union at six Chess Olympiads, in all of which the USSR won the team gold decoration. He played as the first reserve at Skopje 1972, winning the board pry with 13/15. At decent 1974, he advanced to circuit board one and again won the board prize with 12/14. At La Valletta 1980, he was again control panel one and scored 9/12. At alfalfa 1982, he scored 6½/8 on board one. At Dubai 1986, he scored 6/9 on board two. His last was thessaloniki 1988, where on board two he scored 8/10. In Olympiad gambling, Karpov lost entirely two games out of 68 played. [ citation needed ] To illustrate Karpov ‘s laterality over his peers as champion, his score was +11−2=20 versus Spassky, +5=12 versus Robert Hübner, +6−1=16 versus Ulf Andersson, +3−1=10 versus Vasily Smyslov, +1=16 versus Mikhail Tal, and +10−2=13 versus Ljubomir Ljubojević. [ citation needed ]

competition with Kasparov [edit ]

Karpov had cemented his status as the world ‘s best player and worldly concern champion by the clock Garry Kasparov arrived on the scene. In their first match, the World Chess Championship 1984 in Moscow, the first player to win six games would win the equal. Karpov built a 4–0 lead after nine games. The adjacent 17 games were drawn, setting a record for populace entitle matches, and it took Karpov until game 27 to gain his fifth win. In game 31, Karpov had a acquire position but failed to take advantage and settled for a draw. He lost the adjacent game, after which 14 more draws ensued. Karpov held a solidly winning position in Game 41, but again drop the ball and had to settle for a drawing card. After Kasparov won games 47 and 48, FIDE President Florencio Campomanes unilaterally terminated the match, citing the players ‘ health. [ 24 ] Karpov is said to have lost 10 kilogram over the course of the match. [ 25 ] The match had lasted an unprecedented five months, with five wins for Karpov, three for Kasparov, and 40 draws. [ citation needed ] A replay was set for belated in 1985, besides in Moscow. The events of the alleged Marathon Match forced FIDE to return to the previous format, with a match limited to 24 games ( with Karpov remaining champion if the couple finished 12–12 ). Karpov needed to win the concluding game to draw the match and retain his title, but lost, surrendering the deed to his opponent. The final score was 13–11 ( +3−5=16 ) in favor of Kasparov.

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[ citation needed ] Karpov remained a formidable opponent ( and the global No. 2 ) until the mid-1990s. He fought Kasparov in three more world championship matches in 1986 ( held in London and Leningrad ), 1987 ( in Seville ), and 1990 ( in New York City and Lyon ). All three matches were extremely close up : the scores were 11½–12½ ( +4−5=15 ), 12–12 ( +4−4=16 ), and 11½–12½ ( +3−4=17 ). In all three matches, Karpov had winning chances up to the last games. In particular, the 1987 Seville match featured an amaze blurt out by Kasparov in the 23rd game. In the final examination game, needing only a trace to win the title, Karpov cracked under time pressure at the end of the first school term of looseness, missed a version leading to an about impel draw, and allowed Kasparov to adjourn the bet on with an extra pawn. After a foster mistake in the second session, Karpov was slowly ground down and resigned on move 64, ending the match and allowing Kasparov to keep the title. [ citation needed ] In their five world backing matches, Karpov scored 19 wins, 21 losses, and 104 draws in 144 games. [ citation needed ]. overall, Karpov played five matches against Kasparov for the title from 1984 to 1990 without ever defeating him in a match .

FIDE champion again ( 1993–1999 ) [edit ]

Karpov in 1993 In 1992, Karpov lost a Candidates Match against Nigel Short. But in the World Chess Championship 1993, Karpov reacquired the FIDE World Champion entitle when Kasparov and Short disconnected from FIDE. Karpov defeated Timman – the loser of the Candidates ‘ final against Short. The next major merging of Kasparov and Karpov was the 1994 Linares chess tournament. The discipline, in eventual complete orderliness, was Karpov, Kasparov, Shirov, Bareev, Kramnik, Lautier, Anand, Kamsky, Topalov, Ivanchuk, Gelfand, Illescas, Judit Polgár, and Beliavsky ; with an median Elo military rank of 2685, the highest ever at that fourth dimension. Impressed by the forte of the tournament, Kasparov had said respective days before the tournament that the achiever could rightly be called the world ace of tournaments. possibly spurred on by this comment, Karpov played the best tournament of his life. He was undefeated and earned 11 points out of 13 ( the best first tournament winning percentage since Alekhine won San Remo in 1930 ), finishing 2½ points ahead of second-place Kasparov and Shirov. Many of his wins were spectacular ( in particular, his gain over Topalov is considered possibly the finest of his career ). This performance against the best players in the populace put his Elo rating tournament operation at 2985, the highest performance rat of any player in history up until 2009, when Magnus Carlsen won the category XXI Pearl Spring chess tournament with a performance of 3002. Chess statistician Jeff Sonas considers Karpov ‘s Linares performance the best tournament result in history. [ 26 ] Karpov defended his FIDE title against the rising star Gata Kamsky ( +6−3=9 ) in 1996. In 1998, FIDE largely scrapped the old system of Candidates ‘ Matches, alternatively having a big smasher event in which a large number of players contested short matches against each other over just a few weeks. In the first base of these events, the FIDE World Chess Championship 1998, champion Karpov was seeded straightaway into the final, defeating Viswanathan Anand ( +2−2=2, rapid tiebreak 2–0 ). In the subsequent cycle, the format was changed, with the champion having to qualify. Karpov refused to defend his title, and ceased to be FIDE World Champion after the FIDE World Chess Championship 1999. [ citation needed ]

Towards retirement [edit ]

Karpov ‘s classical tournament play has been badly limited since 1997, since he prefers to be more involved in russian politics. He had been a member of the Supreme Soviet Commission for Foreign Affairs and the president of the soviet Peace Fund before the Soviet Union dissolved. In accession, he has been involved in several disputes with FIDE. [ 27 ] In the September 2009 FIDE rate tilt, he dropped out of the worldly concern ‘s lead 100 for the beginning fourth dimension. Karpov normally limits his play to exhibition events, and has revamped his style to specialize in rapid chess. In 2002, he won a catch against Kasparov, defeating him in a rapid time control condition match 2½–1½. In 2006, he tied for first with Kasparov in a safety blitz tournament, ahead of Korchnoi and Judit Polgár. [ 28 ] Karpov and Kasparov played a assorted 12-game pit from September 21–24, 2009, in Valencia, Spain. It consisted of four rapid ( or semi-rapid ) and eight blitz games and took place precisely 25 years after the two players ‘ fabled meet at the World Chess Championship 1984. [ 29 ] Kasparov won the pit 9–3. Karpov played a peer against Yasser Seirawan in 2012 in St. Louis, Missouri, an crucial center of the north american chess view, winning 8–6 ( +5−3=6 ). [ 30 ] In November 2012, he won the Cap d’Agde rapid tournament that bears his name ( Anatoly Karpov Trophy ), beating Vasyl Ivanchuk ( ranked 9th in the October 2012 FIDE earth rankings ) in the concluding .

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personal life after retirement [edit ]

Karpov founded his chess school in the tan building. The sign bearing his name has been removed, and the school is in the process of changing its diagnose. In 2003, Karpov opened his first gear american chess school in Lindsborg, Kansas. [ 31 ] On March 2, 2022, the educate announced a name change to International School of Chess of the Midwest due to the 2022 russian invasion of Ukraine. [ 32 ] Karpov has been a member of the one-sixth, seventh and eighth russian State Dumas. [ 33 ] Since 2005, he has been a extremity of the Public Chamber of Russia. He has involved himself in several humanitarian causes, such as advocating the use of iodize salt. [ 34 ] On December 17, 2012, Karpov supported [ 35 ] the law in the russian Parliament banning adoption of russian orphans by U.S. citizens. Karpov expressed back of the annexation of Crimea by the russian Federation, and accused Europe of trying to demonize Putin. [ 36 ] In August 2019, Maxim Dlugy said that Karpov had been waiting since March for the approval of a non-immigrant visa to the United States, despite frequently visiting the country since 1972. Karpov had been scheduled to teach a summer camp at the Chess Max Academy. Dlugy said that Karpov had been questioned at the US embassy in Moscow about whether he planned to communicate with american english politicians. [ 37 ] Karpov was among the russian State Duma members placed under sanctions by the EU during the 2021–2022 Russo-Ukrainian crisis. [ 38 ] In March 2022, the FIDE Council suspended Karpov ‘s title of FIDE Ambassador for Life because of the russian invasion of Ukraine. [ 39 ] [ non-primary source needed ] In March 2010 Karpov announced that he would be a candidate for the presidency of FIDE. The election took place in September 2010 at the 39th Chess Olympiad. [ 40 ] In May, a fund-raise event took stead in New York with the participation of Kasparov and of Magnus Carlsen, both of whom supported his bid and campaigned for him. [ 41 ] Nigel Short besides supported Karpov ‘s campaigning. On September 29, 2010, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov was reelected as president of FIDE, 95 votes to 55. [ 42 ]

style [edit ]

Karpov ‘s “ feather boa constrictor “ [ 43 ] [ 44 ] playing expressive style is solidly positional, taking minimal risks but reacting mercilessly to the slightest error by his opponent. As a resultant role, he is much compared to José Raúl Capablanca, the third populace champion. [ 45 ] Karpov himself describes his style as follows :

Let us say the game may be continued in two ways : one of them is a beautiful tactical blow that gives originate to variations that do n’t yield to precise calculations ; the other is clear positional pressure that leads to an endgame with microscopic chances of victory …. I would choose [ the latter ] without thinking doubly. If the opponent offers exquisite meet I do n’t object ; but in such cases I get less satisfaction, even if I win, than from a crippled conducted according to all the rules of scheme with its pitiless logic. [ 46 ]

luminary games [edit ]

Hobbies [edit ]

Karpov ‘s extensive postage collection of Belgian philately and belgian Congo stamps and postal history covering mail from 1742 through 1980 was sold by David Feldman ‘s auction company between December 2011 [ 47 ] and 2012. He is besides known to have large chess stomp and chess book collections. His private chess library consists of 9,000 books. [ 48 ]

Honours and awards [edit ]

Books [edit ]

Karpov has authored or co-author respective books, most of which have been translated into English .

References [edit ]

foster read [edit ]

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