Cyclopentane ( besides called C pentane ) is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon paper atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane. It occurs as a colorless melted with a gasoline -like smell. Its melting point is −94 °C and its churn point is 49 °C. Cyclopentane is in the classify of cycloalkanes, being alkanes that have one or more rings of carbon paper atoms. It is formed by cracking cyclohexane in the presence of alumina at a high temperature and pressure. It was beginning prepared in 1893 by the german pharmacist Johannes Wislicenus. [ 4 ]
Industrial usage [edit ]
Cyclopentane is used in the manufacture of synthetic resins and rubber adhesives and besides as a blow agent in the manufacture of polyurethane insulating foam, and is found in many domestic appliances such as refrigerators and freezers, replacing alternatives such as CFC-11 and HCFC-141b. [ 5 ]
Reading: Cyclopentane – Wikipedia
Multiply alkylated cyclopentane ( MAC ) lubricants have low volatility and are used in some forte applications. [ 6 ]
formulation of cycloalkanes [edit ]
Cycloalkanes can be formulated via a procedure known as catalytic reform. For exercise, 2-methylbutane can be reformed into cyclopentane, by manipulation of a platinum catalyst. This is particularly well known in automobiles, as branched alkanes will burn much more readily .
Fluorinated versions [edit ]
This hydrocarbon has besides been fluorinated into compounds such as heptafluorocyclopentane [ 7 ] and octafluorocyclopentane, [ 8 ] which are used industrially .
Conformations [edit ]
In a regular pentagon the angles at the vertices are all 108°, slightly less than the bond angle in perfectly tetrahedrally bonded carbon paper, which is about 109.47°. But cyclopentane is not planar in its convention conformations. It puckers in order to increase the distances between the hydrogen atoms ( something which does not happen in the planar cyclopentadienyl anion C5H−5 because it does n’t have arsenic many hydrogen atoms ). This means that the average C-C-C slant is less than 108°. There are two conformations that give local anesthetic minimum of the department of energy, the “ envelope ” and the “ half-chair ”. The envelope has mirror symmetry ( Cs ), while the one-half president has double rotational symmetry ( C2 ). In both cases the symmetry implies that there are two pairs of equal C-C-C angles and one C-C-C slant that has no pair. In fact for cyclopentane, unlike for cyclohexane ( C6H12, see cyclohexane shape ) and higher cycloalkanes, it is not possible geometrically for all the angles and bond lengths to be equal except if it is in the form of a flat unconstipated pentagon.
- 3D envelope
References [edit ]
- Media related to Cyclopentane at Wikimedia Commons