This article is about the alcoholic beverage. For early uses, see Whisky ( disambiguation ) Distilled alcoholic beverage

Whisky or whiskey is a type of distill alcoholic beverage made from ferment grain mash. versatile grains ( which may be malted ) are used for different varieties, including barley, corn, rye, and pale yellow. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casks, which are much old sherry casks or may besides be made of char ashen oak.

Whisky is a strictly regulated emotional state worldwide with many classes and types. The distinctive mix characteristics of the different classes and types are the agitation of grains, distillate, and ageing in wooden barrels .

etymology [edit ]

The password whisky ( or whiskey ) is an anglicization of the Classical Gaelic parole uisce ( or uisge ) meaning “ water ” ( now written as uisce in Modern Irish, and uisge in Scottish Gaelic ). This gaelic give voice shares its ultimate origins with Germanic water and Slavic voda of the same mean. Distilled alcohol was known in Latin as aqua vitae ( “ water of life ” ). This was translated into Old Irish as uisce beatha, which became Uisce beatha ( irish pronunciation : [ ˈɪʃcə ˈbʲahə ] ) in Irish and uisge beatha [ ˈɯʃkʲə ˈbɛhə ] in Scottish Gaelic. early forms of the news in English included uskebeaghe ( 1581 ), usquebaugh ( 1610 ), usquebath ( 1621 ), and usquebae ( 1715 ). [ 1 ]

Names and spellings [edit ]

much is made of the discussion ‘s two spellings : whisky and whiskey. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] There are two schools of think on the offspring. One is that the spelling difference is merely a matter of regional lyric convention for the spell of a parole, indicating that the spell varies depending on the intend consultation or the background or personal preferences of the writer ( like the difference between color and colour ; or recognize and recognise ), [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and the other is that the spell should depend on the style or origin of the spirit being described. There is general agreement that when quoting the proper name printed on a tag, the spell on the label should not be altered. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The spell whiskey is common in Ireland and the United States, while whisky is used in all other whisky-producing countries. [ 5 ] In the US, the usage has not always been coherent. From the late eighteenth hundred to the mid twentieth century, American writers used both spellings interchangeably until the introduction of newspaper expressive style guides. [ 6 ] Since the 1960s, American writers have increasingly used whiskey as the accept spelling for aged grain spirits made in the US and whisky for aged grain spirits made outside the US. [ 7 ] however, some outstanding American brands, such as George Dickel, Maker ‘s Mark, and Old Forester ( all made by different companies ), use the whisky spelling on their labels, and the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, the legal regulations for spirit in the US, besides use the whisky spelling throughout. [ 8 ] Within Scotland, the whiskey that is made in Scotland is simply called whisky, while outside Scotland ( and in the UK regulations that govern its output ) it is normally called Scotch whiskey, or merely “ Scotch ” ( specially in North America ) .

history [edit ]

early distill [edit ]

It is potential that distillate was practised by the Babylonians in Mesopotamia in the 2nd millennium BC, with perfumes and aromatics being distilled, [ 9 ] but this is subjugate to uncertain and disputed interpretations of evidence. [ 10 ] The earliest certain chemical distillations were by Greeks in Alexandria in the first hundred AD, [ 10 ] but these were not distillations of alcohol. The medieval Arabs adopted the distillate technique of the alexandrian Greeks, and written records in Arabic begin in the ninth century, but again these were not distillations of alcohol. [ 10 ] Distilling engineering passed from the medieval Arabs to the medieval Latins, with the earliest records in Latin in the early twelfth hundred. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] The earliest records of the distillation of alcohol are in Italy in the thirteenth hundred, where alcohol was distilled from wine. [ 10 ] An early description of the proficiency was given by Ramon Llull ( 1232–1315 ). [ 10 ] Its habit spread through chivalric monasteries, [ 12 ] largely for medicative purposes, such as the discussion of colic and smallpox. [ 13 ]

Ireland and Scotland [edit ]

The artwork of distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland no late than the fifteenth hundred, as did the coarse european practice of distilling “ greenish blue vitae ”, spirit alcohol, chiefly for medicative purposes. [ 14 ] The rehearse of medicative distillate finally passed from a monk place to the profane via professional medical practitioners of the time, The Guild of Barber Surgeons. [ 14 ] The earliest note of whiskey in Ireland comes from the seventeenth-century Annals of Clonmacnoise, which attributes the end of a captain in 1405 to “ taking a surfeit of greenish blue vitae ” at Christmas. [ 15 ] In Scotland, the inaugural evidence of whiskey product comes from an submission in the Exchequer Rolls for 1495 where malt is sent “ To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae ”, enough to make about 500 bottles. [ 16 ] James IV of Scotland ( r. 1488–1513 ) reportedly had a great wish for Scotch whiskey, and in 1506 the township of Dundee purchased a boastfully sum of whiskey from the Guild of Barber-Surgeons, which held the monopoly on production at the time. between 1536 and 1541, King Henry VIII of England dissolved the monasteries, sending their monks out into the general public. whiskey production moved out of a cloistered typeset and into personal homes and farms as newly independent monks needed to find a room to earn money for themselves. [ 13 ] The distillation process was still in its infancy ; whisky itself was not allowed to old age, and as a result tasted very raw and brutal compared to today ‘s versions. Renaissance-era whiskey was besides very potent and not diluted. Over time whiskey evolved into a much smoother drink in. With a royal license to distil Irish whiskey from 1608, the Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland is the oldest license whiskey distillery in the world. [ 17 ]

eighteenth hundred [edit ]

In 1707, the Acts of Union merged England and Scotland, and thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically. [ 18 ] Following parliament ‘s dissentious malt tax of 1725, most of Scotland ‘s distillate was either shut down or forced metro. Scotch whiskey was hidden under altars, in coffins, and in any available quad to avoid the governmental excisemen or revenuers. [ 13 ] scots distillers, operating out of homemade stills, took to distilling whiskey at night when the darkness hid the fume from the stills. For this cause, the drink became known as moonshine. [ 19 ] At one point, it was estimated that over half of Scotland ‘s whiskey output was illegal. [ 18 ] In America, whiskey was used as currentness during the american Revolution ; George Washington operated a large distillery at Mount Vernon. Given the distances and primitive fare network of colonial America, farmers frequently found it easier and more profitable to convert corn to whisky and transport it to market in that form. It besides was a highly coveted assorted and when an extra excise tax was levied against it in 1791, the Whiskey Rebellion erupted. [ 20 ]

nineteenth hundred [edit ]

A man pours some whiskey into a flask in this 1869 oil paint by scottish artist Erskine Nicol The drink of Scotch whiskey was introduced to India in the nineteenth century. The first distillery in India was built by Edward Dyer at Kasauli in the late 1820s. The operation was soon shifted to nearby Solan ( close to the british summer capital Shimla ), as there was an abundant supply of fresh spring water there. [ 21 ] In 1823, the UK passed the Excise Act, legalizing the distillation ( for a fee ), and this put a hardheaded end to the large-scale product of scots moonshine. [ 13 ] In 1831, Aeneas Coffey patented the Coffey even, allowing for a cheaper and more efficient distillate of whiskey. In 1850, Andrew Usher began producing a blend whiskey that mix traditional pot inactive whisky with that from the newly Coffey silent. The modern distillation method acting was scoffed at by some irish distillers, who clung to their traditional pot stills. many Irish contended that the new merchandise was, in fact, not whisky at all. [ 22 ] By the 1880s, the french brandy diligence was devastated by the phylloxera pest that ruined much of the grape crop ; as a result, whiskey became the elementary liquor in many markets. [ 13 ]

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twentieth century [edit ]

During the Prohibition era in the United States lasting from 1920 to 1933, all alcohol sales were banned in the area. The union government made an exemption for whiskey prescribed by a doctor and sold through accredited pharmacies. During this fourth dimension, the Walgreens pharmacy chain grew from 20 retail stores to about 400. [ 23 ]

product [edit ]

(top), swan necked copper stills in the (bottom) The production of whiskey from barley to bottle, swan necked copper stills in the Glenfiddich distillery

distillate [edit ]

A still for making whiskey is normally made of copper, since it removes sulfur -based compounds from the alcohol that would make it unpleasant to drink. Modern stills are made of stainless sword with copper innards ( pipe, for example, will be lined with copper along with copper plate inlays along still walls ). The simplest standard distillate apparatus is normally known as a pot inactive, consisting of a single heated chamber and a vessel to collect purify alcohol. Column stills are frequently used in the output of grain whiskey and are the most normally used type of still in the production of bourbon and other american whiskeys. Column stills behave like a series of unmarried pot stills, formed in a long vertical tube. Whereas a single pot still charged with wine might yield a vapor enriched to 40–60 % alcohol, a column still can achieve a vapor alcohol capacity of 95.6 % ; an azeotropic concoction of alcohol and water .

Aging [edit ]

Whiskies do not mature in the bottle, only in the cask, so the “ age ” of a whiskey is only the fourth dimension between distillation and bottle. This reflects how much the barrel has interacted with the whiskey, changing its chemical makeup and taste. Whiskies that have been bottled for many years may have a curio value, but are not “ older ” and not necessarily “ better ” than a more late whiskey that matured in forest for a alike time. After a ten or two, extra age in a barrel does not necessarily improve a whiskey. [ 24 ] While aging in wooden casks, specially american oak and french oak casks, whiskey undergoes six processes that contribute to its final flavor : origin, vaporization, oxidation, concentration, filtration, and color. [ 25 ] extraction in detail results in whiskey acquiring a issue of compounds, including aldehydes and acids such as vanillin, vanillic acidic, and syringaldehyde. [ 26 ] Distillers will sometimes long time their whiskey in barrels previously used to long time early spirits, such as rummy or sherry, to impart finical flavours .

Packaging [edit ]

Most whiskies are sold at or near an alcoholic lastingness of 40 % abv, which is the statutory minimum in some countries [ 8 ] – although the military capability can vary, and cask-strength whiskey may have ampere a lot as doubly that alcohol percentage .

Exports [edit ]

Whisky is credibly the best know of Scotland ‘s manufacture products. Exports have increased by 87 % in the ten to 2012 and it contributes over £4.25 billion to the UK economy, making up a quarter of all its food and swallow revenues. [ 27 ] In 2012, the US was the largest market for Scotch whiskey ( £655 million ), followed by France ( £535 million ). [ 28 ] It is besides one of the UK ‘s overall top five fabrication export earners and it supports around 35,000 jobs. [ 29 ] Principal whiskey producing areas include Speyside and the Isle of Islay, where there are nine distilleries providing a major source of employment. In many places, the diligence is closely linked to tourism, with many distilleries besides functioning as attractions worth £30 million GVA each year. [ 30 ] In 2011, 70 % of canadian whiskey was exported, with about 60 % going to the US, and the rest by and large to Europe and Asia. [ 31 ] 15 million cases of canadian whiskey were sold in the US in 2011. [ 31 ]

Types [edit ]

Malted barley is an component of some whiskies. Whisky or whisky-like products are produced in most grain-growing areas. They differ in base product, alcoholic message, and quality .

  • Malt whisky – made primarily from malted barley
  • Grain whisky – made from any type of grain

Malts and grains are combined in versatile ways :

  • Single malt whisky is whisky from a single distillery made from a mash that uses only one particular malted grain. Unless the whisky is described as single-cask, it contains whisky from many casks, and different years, so the blender can achieve a taste recognisable as typical of the distillery. In most cases, single malts bear the name of the distillery, with an age statement and perhaps some indication of some special treatments, such as maturation in a port wine cask.
  • Blended malt whisky is a mixture of single malt whiskies from different distilleries. If whisky is labelled “pure malt” or just “malt” it is almost certainly a blended malt whisky. This was formerly called a “vatted malt” whisky.
  • Blended whisky is made from a mixture of different types of whisky. A blend may contain whisky from many distilleries so that the blender can produce a flavour consistent with the brand. The brand name may, therefore, omit the name of a distillery. Most Scotch, Irish and Canadian whisky is sold as part of a blend, even when the spirits are the product of one distillery, as is common in Canada.[32] American blended whisky may contain neutral spirits.
  • Cask strength (also known as barrel proof) whiskies are rare, and usually, only the very best whiskies are bottled in this way. They are bottled from the cask undiluted or only lightly diluted.
  • Single cask (also known as single barrel) whiskies are bottled from an individual cask, and often the bottles are labelled with specific barrel and bottle numbers. The taste of these whiskies may vary substantially from cask to cask within a brand.

american english [edit ]

assorted american whiskeys on memory shelves American whiskey is distilled from a sour mash of cereal grain. It must have the taste, aroma, and other characteristics normally attributed to whiskey. Some types of whiskey listed in the United States federal regulations [ 8 ] are :
These types of american whiskey must be distilled to no more than 80 % alcohol by volume, and barrelled at no more than 125 proof. only water may be added to the final product ; the accession of colouring or flavorer is prohibited. These whiskeys must be aged in new charred-oak containers, except for corn whiskey, which does not have to be aged. If it is aged, it must be in uncharred oak barrels or in used barrels. Corn whiskey is normally unaged and sold as a legal interpretation of moonshine. There is no minimum aging menstruation required for a heart to legally be called whiskey. If one of these whiskey types reaches two years aging or beyond, it is additionally designated as straight, for example, straight rye whiskey. A whiskey that fulfils all above requirements but derives from less than 51 % of any one specific granulate can be called just a straight whiskey without naming a grain. uranium regulations recognize other whiskey categories, [ 8 ] including :

  • Blended whiskey: a mixture that contains a blend of straight whiskeys and neutral grain spirits (NGS), and may also contain flavourings and colourings. The percentage of NGS must be disclosed on the label and may be as much at 80% on a proof gallon basis.
  • Light whiskey: produced in the US at more than 80% alcohol by volume and stored in used or uncharred new oak containers
  • Spirit whiskey: a mixture of neutral spirits and at least 5% of certain stricter categories of whiskey

Another significant pronounce in the market is Tennessee whiskey, which includes brands such as Jack Daniel ‘s, George Dickel, Collier and McKeel, [ 33 ] and Benjamin Prichard ‘s. [ 34 ] The main difference defining a Tennessee whiskey is that it must be filtered through sugar maple charcoal before aging, known as the Lincoln County Process. ( Benjamin Prichard ‘s, which is not then percolate, was grandfathered in when the necessity was introduced in 2017. ) [ 35 ] The rest of the distillation work of Tennessee Whiskey is identical to bourbon whiskey. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] Whiskey sold as “ Tennessee whiskey ” is defined as bourbon under NAFTA [ 38 ] and at least one other external trade agreement, [ 39 ] and is similarly required to meet the legal definition of bourbon under canadian law. [ 40 ]

australian [edit ]

australian whiskies have won ball-shaped whiskey awards and medals, including the World Whiskies Awards and Jim Murray ‘s Whisky Bible “ Liquid Gold Awards ”. [ 41 ]

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canadian [edit ]

diverse canadian whiskies By canadian law, canadian whiskies must be produced and aged in Canada, be distilled from a ferment mash of cereal ingrain, be aged in woodwind barrels with a capacitance limit of 700 litres ( 185 US gal ; 154 elf gallon ) for not less than three years, and “ possess the olfactory property, taste and fictional character by and large attributed to canadian whiskey ”. [ 42 ] The terms “ canadian Whisky ”, “ Rye Whisky ”, and “ canadian Rye Whisky ” are legally indistinguishable in Canada and do not require any specific ingrain in their production and are frequently blends of two or more grains. canadian whiskies may contain yellowish brown and flavorer in addition to the distilled squash spirits, and there is no maximal limit on the alcohol charge of the distillation. [ 42 ] The minimum bottle proof is 40 % ABV. [ 42 ] To be exported under one of the “ canadian Whisky ” designations, a whiskey can not contain more than 9.09 % import spirits. [ 43 ] canadian whiskies are available throughout the world and are a culturally significant export. Well know brands include Crown Royal, canadian Club, Seagram ‘s, and Wiser ‘s among others. The historic popularity of canadian whiskey in the United States is partially a result of rum runners illegally importing it into the country during the period of american Prohibition .

danish [edit ]

Denmark began producing whiskey early on in 1974. The first Danish one malted to go on sale was Lille Gadegård from Bornholm, in 2005. [ 44 ] Lille Gadegård is a winery angstrom well, and uses its own wine casks to mature whiskey. The moment Danish distilled single malt whiskey for sale was Edition No.1 from the Braunstein microbrewery and distillery. It was distilled in 2007, using water system from the Greenlandic ice plane, and entered the commercialize in March 2010. [ 45 ] Another distillery is Stauning Whisky, based in Jutland. Nyborg Destilleri, from the island Funen ( Fyn ) in the center of Denmark, produces organic whiskey and other organic spirits. The distillery was established in 2009, and in 2020 they launched their first 10 class old whiskey .

english [edit ]

There are presently [ when? ] at least eight distilleries producing english whiskey. Distillers operated in London, Liverpool, and Bristol until the late nineteenth century, after which production of English one malt whiskey ceased until 2003. [ 46 ]

finnish [edit ]

In 2005, there were two working distilleries in Finland and a third one under construction. Whisky retail sales in Finland are controlled entirely by the submit alcohol monopoly Alko and ad of potent alcoholic beverages is banned. [ 47 ]

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french [edit ]

french whiskey is whiskey produced in France. The distilleries producing french whiskey include Glann are Mor and Warenghem in Brittany, Guillon in the Champagne region, and Grallet-Dupic in Lorraine. Buckwheat whiskey is produced by Distillerie des Menhirs in Plomelin, Brittany. There are over 40 whiskey distilleries presently operating or opening in France. The first french whiskey was produced at Warenghem distillery in 1987, who then introduced the first single malt French whiskey in 1998. [ citation needed ] According to a study in 2016, the french are the largest consumers of whiskey in the world, particularly Scotch. [ citation needed ]

georgia [edit ]

The first Georgian whiskey has been made by georgian wine-maker, co-founder of “ Askaneli Brothers ”, Jimsher Chkhaidze. JIMSHER whiskey is made by traditional scots method and is presented from 2016. On the bottle and tag plan worked georgian product interior designer Zviad Tsikolia. [ 48 ] New Georgian blended whiskey is presented with three varieties, such are :

  • Aged in Georgian ex-wine “Saperavi” oak cask;
  • Aged in Georgian ex-wine “Tsinandali” oak cask;
  • Aged in ex-Georgian Brandy oak cask;

georgian whiskey is available on markets such as China, Poland, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. In 2017 on “ World Whiskey Masters ” tasting contest which happened in London, Georgian whiskey got ash grey medal in different categories. On the lapp year Georgian whiskey was rewarded with its first amber decoration and silver medals on the contest “ Global Travel Retail Spirits Masters ”. In March 2018 JIMSHER got rewarded by silver medal decoration in “ Best World Whisky ” category by “ International Whisky Competition ”. [ 49 ]

german [edit ]

german whiskey production is a relatively late phenomenon having alone started in the early 1990s. The styles produced resemble those made in Ireland, Scotland and the United States : one malts, blends, wheat, and bourbon-like styles. There is no standard spell of german whiskies with distilleries using both “ whiskey ” and “ whiskey ”. In 2008 there were 23 distilleries in Germany producing whiskey. [ 50 ]

amerind [edit ]

Distilled alcoholic beverages that are labelled as “ whiskey ” in India a were normally blends based on neutral spirits that are distilled from fermented molasses /Grain with merely a humble share consisting of traditional malt whiskey, normally about 10 to 12 percentage. Outside India, such a drink would more probable be labelled a rummy. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] According to the Scotch Whisky Association ‘s 2013 annual report, “ there is no compulsory definition of whiskey in India, and the indian volunteer standard does not require whiskey to be distilled from cereals or to be matured. ” [ 53 ] Molasses-based blends made up 90 percentage of the spirits consumed as “ whiskey ” in India, [ 54 ] although whiskey wholly distilled from malt and early grains is besides produced. [ 55 ] By 2004 shortages of pale yellow had been overcome and India was one of the largest producers. Amrut, the first base single malt whiskey produced in India, was launched in Glasgow, Scotland in 2004. [ 56 ] After expanding in Europe it was launched in India in 2010. By 2022 India produced many whiskies both for the local market—the most lucrative market for whiskey in the world—and export. indian single malts comprised 15 % of the local anesthetic market in 2017, increasing to 33 % in 2022. In the three years to 2022 sales of indian malts increased by an annual average of 42 %, compared with 7 % for imported rivals. [ 57 ]

irish [edit ]

diverse Irish whiskeys irish whiskeys are normally distilled three times, Cooley Distillery being the exception as they besides double distill. [ 58 ] Though traditionally distilled using pot stills, the column hush is now used to produce granulate whiskey for blends. By law, irish whiskey must be produced in Ireland and aged in wooden casks for a time period of no less than three years, although in practice it is normally three or four times that period. [ 59 ] Unpeated malt is about constantly used, the independent exception being Connemara Peated Malt whiskey. There are respective types of whiskey common to Ireland : single malt, single grain, blended whiskey and single pot placid whiskey. irish whiskey was once the most popular emotional state in the world, though a hanker period of decline from the late nineteenth hundred to the late twentieth hundred greatly damaged the diligence, [ 60 ] so much so that, although Ireland boasted over 30 distilleries in the 1890s, a hundred later this number had fallen to good three. however, Irish whiskey has seen a great revival in popularity since the late twentieth century, and has been the fastest growing spirit in the worldly concern every year since 1990. [ 60 ] With exports growing by over 15 % per annum in late years, existing distilleries have been expanded and a phone number of newly distilleries constructed. As of mid 2019, Ireland now has twenty-five distilleries in operation, with twenty-four more in either planned or under development. [ 61 ] however, many of these have not been operating retentive enough to have products sufficiently aged for sale, and only one of which was operating prior to 1975 .

mexican [edit ]

mexican whiskey is relatively unseasoned as it has not been as popular in the area as other condense drinks but recently many distillers in the area have started to make a push to create homegrown whiskey and make it adenine democratic as whiskey from other countries .

japanese [edit ]

Japan produces both one malt and blended whiskies. The basal is a grind of malt barley, dried in kiln fired with a little peat ( although less than what is used for some peated Scotch whiskies ), and is distilled using the pot still method. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Before 2000, japanese whiskey was primarily for the domestic market and exports were limited. In holocene years, though, japanese whiskey has grown in popularity on the global marketplace. japanese whiskies such as Suntory and Nikka won many prestigious international awards between 2007 and 2014. japanese whiskey has earned a reputation for quality. [ 64 ] [ 65 ]

scotch [edit ]

respective Scotch whiskies Whisky made in Scotland is known as Scotch whiskey, or just as “ Scotch ” ( specially in North America ) .
The regions of Scotch whiskey economical whiskies are generally distilled twice, although some are distilled a third time and others even up to twenty times. [ 66 ] Scotch Whisky Regulations require anything bearing the label “ Scotch ” to be distilled in Scotland and matured for a minimal of three years in oak casks, among early, more particular criteria. [ 67 ] Any age argument on the bottle, in the form of a number, must reflect the senesce of the youngest scotch whiskey used to produce that intersection. A whiskey with an age statement is known as guarantee age whiskey. [ 68 ] Scotch whiskey without an age statement may, by law, be a young as three years erstwhile. [ 69 ] The basic types of Scotch are malt and grain, which are combined to create blends. Scotch malt whiskies were divided into five main regions : Highland, Lowland, Islay, Speyside and Campbeltown. [ 70 ] Each of the whiskey producing regions have a clear-cut spirit profile and characteristics to the whiskey they produce. [ 71 ] There is besides a one-sixth area recognized by some sources, though not by the Scotch Whisky Association, [ 72 ] The Islands, excluding Islay. [ 73 ] This unofficial region, ( part of the Highlands according to the Association ), includes the follow whisky-producing islands making Island individual malted : Arran, Jura, Mull, Orkney, and Skye .

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swedish [edit ]

Whisky started being produced in Sweden in 1955 by the nowadays defunct Skeppets whisky brand. Their last bottle was sold in 1971. [ 74 ] In 1999 Mackmyra Whisky was founded and is today the largest manufacturer and has won several awards including european Whisky of the year in Jim Murray ‘s 2011 Whisky Bible [ 75 ] and the International Wine & Spirits Competition ( IWSC ) 2012 Award for Best european Spirits Producer of 2012. [ 76 ]

taiwanese [edit ]

Kavalan was the beginning private whiskey distillery in Taiwan. In January 2010, one of the distillery ‘s products caused a stir by beating three Scotch whiskies and one English whiskey in a blind tasting organised in Leith, Scotland, to celebrate Burns Night. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The distillery was named by Whisky Magazine as the World Icons of Whisky “ Whisky Visitor Attraction of the year ” for 2011, and its products have won several other awards. [ 3 ] In 2012, Kavalan ‘s Solist Fino Sherry Cask malt whiskey was named “ fresh whiskey of the year ” by Jim Murray in his guide, Jim Murray’s Whisky Bible. [ 6 ] In 2015, Kavalan ‘s Solist Vinho Barrique Single Cask was named the world ‘s best individual malt whiskey by World Whiskies Awards. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] In 2016, Kavalan Solist Amontillado Sherry Single Cask was named the world ‘s best single malted whiskey by World Whisky Awards. [ 77 ]

welsh [edit ]

Although distillate of whiskey in Wales began in Middle Ages there were no commercially manoeuver distilleries during the twentieth hundred. The rise of the sobriety movement saw the refuse of the commercial production of liquor during the nineteenth hundred and in 1894 Welsh whiskey production ceased. The revival of Welsh whisky began in the 1990s. initially a “ prince of Wales ” malt whiskey was sold as Welsh whiskey but was simply blend economical bottled in Wales. A lawsuit by Scotch distillers ended this enterprise. [ 78 ] In 2000, Penderyn Distillery started production of Penderyn single malt whiskey. The foremost bottles went on sale on 1 March 2004, Saint David ‘s Day, and it is now sold worldwide. Penderyn Distillery is located in the Brecon Beacons National Park and is considered to be the smallest distillery in the global. [ 79 ]

other [edit ]

ManX Spirit from the Isle of Man is distilled elsewhere and re-distilled in the state of its nominal “ origin ”. The ManX distillery takes a previously matured Scotch malt whiskey and re-distils it. [ 80 ] In 2010 a Czech whiskey was released, the 21-year-old “ Hammer Head ”. [ 81 ] Puni is an italian distillery in Glurns that makes one malt whiskey, including Alba, which is matured in Marsala casks. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] In 2008 at least two distilleries in the traditionally brandy -producing Caucasus region announced their plans to enter the russian domestic market with whiskies. The Stavropol -based Praskoveysky distillery bases its product on irish whiskey, while in Kizlyar, Dagestan ‘s “ russian Whisky ” announced a Scotch-inspired toast in single malt, blended and wheat varieties. [ 85 ] Destilerías y Crianza del Whisky S.A. is a whiskey distillery in Spain. Its eight-year-old Whisky DYC is a combination of malts and spirits distilled from barley aged individually a minimal of eight years in american oak barrels. [ 86 ] Frysk Hynder is a frisian unmarried malt, distilled and bottled in the Us Heit Distillery. It is the first individual malt produced in Friesland, Netherlands. [ 50 ] Buckwheat whiskey is produced by Distillerie des Menhirs in Brittany, France, and by several distillers in the United States. [ 87 ]

chemistry [edit ]

overview [edit ]

Whiskies and other distill beverages, such as cognac and rum, are complex beverages that contain a huge rate of flavouring compounds, of which some 200 to 300 are easily detected by chemical analysis. The flavorer chemicals include “ carbonyl compounds, alcohols, carboxyl acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, tannins, and other polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and oxygen-containing, heterocyclic compound compounds “ and esters of fatso acids. [ 88 ] The nitrogen compounds include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines. [ 89 ] The sulfur compounds include thiophenes and polysulfides which seem to contribute to whiskey ‘s roast character. [ 90 ]

Flavours from treating the malt [edit ]

The classifiable smoky relish found in versatile types of whiskey, specially Scotch, is due to the use of peat smoke to treat the malted .

Flavours from distillate [edit ]

The season of whiskey is partially determined by the presence of congeners and fusel oils. Fusel oils are higher alcohols than ethyl alcohol, are gently toxic, and have a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. An excess of fusel oils in whiskey is considered a defect. A variety show of methods are employed in the distillate process to remove undesirable fusel oils. traditionally, American distillers focused on secondary filtration using charcoal, perplex, sandpaper, or linen to remove undesired distillates. Acetals are quickly formed in distillates and a great many are found in purify beverages, the most outstanding being acetaldehyde diethyl acetal ( 1,1-diethoxyethane ). Among whiskies the highest levels are associated with malt whiskey. [ 91 ] This acetal is a star spirit compound in sherry, and contributes fruitiness to the aroma. [ 92 ] The diketone diacetyl ( 2,3-butanedione ) has a buttery aroma and is confront in about all distilled beverages. Whiskies and cognac typically contain more of this than vodka, but significantly less than rums or brandies. [ 93 ] Polysulfides and thiophenes enter whiskey through the distillation procedure and contribute to its roasted season. [ 90 ]

Flavours from oak [edit ]

A char oak barrel used to age whiskey Whisky that has been aged in oak barrels absorbs substances from the forest. One of these is cis-3-methyl-4-octanolide, known as the “ whiskey lactone “ or “ quercus lactone ”, a compound with a firm coconut olfactory property. [ 94 ] [ 95 ] commercially charred oaks are rich in phenolic resin compounds. One sketch identified 40 different phenolic resin compounds. The coumarin scopoletin is present in whiskey, with the highest level reported in Bourbon whiskey. [ 96 ] In an experiment, whiskey aged 3 years in orbit on the International Space Station tasted and measured significantly different from like test subjects in gravity on Earth. Particularly, wood extractives were more salute in the outer space samples. [ 97 ]

Flavours and colouring from additives [edit ]

Depending on the local regulations, extra flavourings and colouring compounds may be added to the whiskey. canadian whiskey may contain yellowish brown and flavorer in summation to the distilled chat up spirits. Scotch whiskey may contain lend ( E150A ) caramel color, but no other additives. The addition of flavourings is not allowed in american “ straight ” whiskey, but is allowed in american blends .

Chill filtration [edit ]

Whisky is frequently “ chill filtered “ : chilled to precipitate out fatty acerb esters and then filtered to remove them. Most whiskies are bottled this way, unless specified as unchillfiltered or non-chill filtered. This is done chiefly for cosmetic reasons. Unchillfiltered whiskies frequently turn cloudy when stored at aplomb temperatures or when cool water is added to them, and this is perfectly normal. [ 98 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

promote read [edit ]

  • Andrews, Allen (2002). The Whisky Barons. Glasgow: Angels’ Share (Neil Wilson Publishing). ISBN 978-1-897784-84-6.
  • Buxton, Ian; Hughes, Paul S. (2014). The Science and Commerce of Whisky. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-1-84973-150-8.
  • Smith, Gavin D. (2009). The A–Z of Whisky (3rd ed.). Glasgow: Angels’ Share (Neil Wilson Publishing). ISBN 978-1-906476-03-8.
  • Media related to Whisky at Wikimedia Commons
  • Whisky travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • The dictionary definition of whisky at Wiktionary
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