Performing arts venue ( building )

A theater, theatre or playhouse, is a structure where theatrical works, performing arts and musical concerts are presented. The theater building serves to define the performance and audience spaces. The adeptness normally is organized to provide digest areas for performers, the technical foul crew and the audience members, arsenic well as the stage where the performance takes station. There are as many types of theaters as there are types of performance. Theaters may be built specifically for a certain types of productions, they may serve for more general performance needs or they may be adapted or converted for use as a dramaturgy. They may range from alfresco amphitheaters to ornate, cathedral -like structures to simple, unadorned rooms or black box theaters. A dramaturgy used for opera performances is called an opera family. A field is not required for performance ( as in environmental field or street field ), this article is about structures used specifically for operation. Some theaters may have a fixed acting area ( in most theaters this is known as the stage ), while some theaters, such as blacken box theaters have chattel seat allowing the production to create a performance area desirable for the production.

Elements of a theater building [edit ]

Ihitai ‘Avei’a – Star Navigator at a ‘block box’ events centre in Auckland, New Zealand An opera output ofat a ‘block box ‘ events centre in Auckland, New Zealand A dramaturgy build or structure contains spaces for an event or performance to take target, normally called the degree, and besides spaces for the hearing, field staff, performers and gang before and after the event. [ 1 ] There are normally two main entrances of a theater build up. One is at the front man, used by the hearing, and leads into a anteroom and ticket. The second is called the stage door, and it is accessible from wing. This is where the hurl and gang enter and exit the dramaturgy, and fans sometimes wait outside it after the show in order to get autograph, called “ stage dooring ” .

stage [edit ]

The acting or performance space is the degree. In some theaters, such as proscenium theaters, stadium theaters and amphitheaters, this area is permanent wave part of the structure. In some theaters the stage area can be changed and adapted specifically to a production, frequently called a blacken box theater, due to the common rehearse of the walls being painted bootleg and hang with total darkness drapes. [ 1 ]

offstage and offstage [edit ]

normally in a build used specifically for performance there are offstage spaces used by the performers and crowd. This is where props, sets and scenery are stored, and the performers standby before their entrance. These offstage spaces are called wings on either english of a proscenium stage. A prompter ‘s box may be found offstage. In an amphitheater, an area behind the phase may be designated for such uses while a blackbox dramaturgy may have spaces outside of the actual theater designated for such uses. frequently a theater will incorporate other spaces intended for the performers and early personnel. A booth facing the stage may be incorporated into the house where ignition and fathom personnel may view the usher and run their respective instruments. other rooms in the construction may be used for dressing rooms, rehearsal rooms, spaces for constructing sets, props and costumes, a well as storage .

Seating and consultation [edit ]

Maryland Theatre in Hagerstown, Maryland, showing the stage, proscenium and seat All theaters provide a distance for an audience. In a fix seat theatre the hearing is frequently separated from the performers by the proscenium arch. In proscenium theaters and amphitheaters, the proscenium arch, like the stage, is a permanent wave feature of the structure. This sphere is known as the auditorium or the sign of the zodiac. [ 2 ] The seating areas can include some or all of the surveil :

  • Stalls or arena (in North America, “orchestra”): the lower flat area, usually below or at the same level as the stage. The word parterre (occasionally, parquet) is sometimes used to refer to a particular subset of this area. In North American usage this is usually the rear seating block beneath the gallery (see below) whereas in Britain it can mean either the area in front near the orchestra pit, or the whole of the stalls. The term can also refer to the side stalls in some usages. Derived from the gardening term parterre, the usage refers to the sectioned pattern of both the seats of an auditorium and of the planted beds seen in garden construction. Throughout the 18th century the term was also used to refer to the theater audience who occupied the parterre.
  • Balconies or galleries: one or more raised seating platforms towards the rear of the auditorium. In larger theaters, multiple levels are stacked vertically above or behind the stalls. The first level is usually called the dress circle or grand circle. The next level may be the loge, from the French version of loggia. A second tier inserted beneath the main balcony may be the mezzanine. The highest platform, or upper circle, is sometimes known as “the gods”, especially in large opera houses, where the seats can be very high and a long distance from the stage.
  • Boxes (state box or stage box): typically placed immediately to the front, side and above the level of the stage. They are often separate rooms with an open viewing area which typically seat up to five people. These seats are typically considered the most prestigious of the house. A “state box” or “royal box” is sometimes provided for dignitaries.
  • House seats: these are “the best seats in the house”, giving the best view of the stage. Though each theater’s layout is different, these are usually in the center of the stalls. These seats are traditionally reserved for the cast and crew to invite family members, agents, and others. If they are not used, they usually go on sale on the day of the performance.
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history [edit ]

alfresco theaters [edit ]

The ancient dramaturgy in Delphi, Greece

Ancient Greece [edit ]

greek theater buildings were called a theatron ( ‘seeing place ‘ ). The theaters were large, alfresco structures constructed on the slopes of hills. They consisted of three principal elements : the orchestra, the skene, and the consultation. The centerpiece of the theater was the orchestra, or “ dance space ”, a boastfully round or rectangular area. The orchestra was the web site of the chorale performances, the religious rites, and, possibly, the acting. An altar was located in the middle of the orchestra ; in Athens, the altar was dedicated to Dionysus. Behind the orchestra was a large rectangular building called the skene ( meaning “ tent ” or “ hovel ” ). It was used as a “ offstage ” area where actors could change their costumes and masks, but besides served to represent the location of the plays, which were normally set in front of a palace or family. typically, there were two or three doors in the skene that led out onto orchestra, and from which actors could enter and exit. At first, the skene was literally a tent or hut, put up for the religious festival and taken down when it was finished. Later, the skene became a permanent stone social organization. These structures were sometimes painted to serve as backdrops, hence the English word scenery. A temple nearby, specially on the right side of the view, is about always partially of the greek field complex, which could justify, as a transposition, the recurrence of the pediment with the former solidified stone picture. [ 3 ] In front of the skene there may have been a raised dissemble area called the proskenion, the ancestor of the modern proscenium phase. It is potential that the actors ( as opposed to the chorus ) acted entirely on the proskenion, but this is not certain. Rising from the circle of the orchestra was the audience. The audience sat on tiers of benches built up on the side of a mound. greek theaters, then, could merely be built on hills that were correctly shaped. A distinctive theater was enormous, able to seat around 15,000 viewers. greek theaters were not enclosed ; the consultation could see each other and the surrounding countryside a well as the actors and chorus .

Britannica Theatre 2.jpg The Theatre at Athens
From Dorpfeld and Reisch, Das griechische Theater (Athens, 1896), as presented in the article on “Theatre” from the 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica.
ab, double western wall.
bc, single wall.
aa, gg, walls terminating wings of auditorium.
b, f, entrances.
c, the “katatome” (where the rock of the Acropolis was met by the walls).
d, e, diazoma.
fg, eastern boundary wall.
hh, front wall of Neronian stage.
i, fragment 5th-century orchestra.
klm, ancient masonry (? of supporting walls).
nn, oldest stage buildings.
oo, stone proscenium (1st or 2nd century



p, foundations of Neronian side wings.
qr, fragments 5th-century orchestra.
s, 4th-century portico.
t, old Dionysus temple.

Ancient Rome [edit ]

The Romans copied the greek style of build, but tended not to be so concern about the location, being prepared to build walls and terraces rather of looking for a naturally occurring site. The auditorium ( literally “ place for hearing ” in Latin ) was the area in which people gathered, and was sometimes constructed on a little mound or gradient in which stacked seat could be well made in the tradition of the greek Theatres. The central part of the auditorium was hollowed out of a mound or gradient, while the out radian seats required geomorphologic digest and solid retain walls. This was of course not always the case as Romans tended to build their theatres careless of the handiness of hillsides. All theatres built within the city of Rome were wholly man-made without the use of earthworks. The auditorium was not roofed ; quite, awnings ( vela ) could be pulled overhead to provide shelter from rain or sunlight. [ 4 ] Some Roman theatres, constructed of wood, were torn down after the festival for which they were erected concluded. This exercise was due to a moratorium on permanent dramaturgy structures that lasted until 55 BC when the Theatre of Pompey was built with the addition of a temple to avoid the law. Some roman theatres show signs of never having been completed in the first base place. [ 5 ] Inside Rome, few theatres have survived the centuries following their construction, providing short evidence about the specific theatres. Arausio, the dramaturgy in contemporary Orange, France, is a good exemplar of a classic Roman field, with an indent scaenae frons, evocative of western Roman dramaturgy designs, however missing the more cosmetic structure. The Arausio is still standing today and, with its amazing geomorphologic acoustics and having had its seat reconstructed, can be seen to be a marvel of Roman architecture. [ 4 ]

Elizabethan England

[edit ]

During the Elizabethan era in England, theaters were constructed of wooden frame, infilled with wattle and daub and roof with thatch. by and large the theaters were entirely open breeze. They consisted of several floors of cover galleries surrounding a court which was open to the elements. A large part of the audience would stand in the yard, directly in front of the stage. This layout is said to derive from the practice of holding plays in the cubic yard of an hostel. archaeological excavations of The Rose field at London ‘s Bankside, build up 1587, have shown that it had en external diameter of 72 feet ( 22 metres ). The nearby Globe Theatre ( 1599 ) was larger, at 100 feet ( 30 metres ). other evidence for the round determine is a pipeline in Shakespeare ‘s Henry V which calls the build up “ this wooden O “, and several pugnacious woodcut illustrations of the city of London. Around this clock, the green room, a invest for actors to wait until required on stagecoach, became park terminology in english theaters. The Globe has now been rebuilt as a amply working and producing dramaturgy near its original site ( largely thanks to the efforts of movie director Sam Wanamaker ) to give mod audiences an theme of the environment for which Shakespeare and other playwrights of the period were writing .

Indoor theaters [edit ]

Renaissance Europe [edit ]

During the Renaissance, the foremost advanced enclosed theaters were constructed in Italy. Their structure was similar to that of ancient theaters, with a cavea and an architectural scenery, representing a city street. The oldest outlive examples of this style are the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza ( 1580 ) and the Teatro all’antica in Sabbioneta ( 1590 ). At the begin of seventeenth hundred theaters had moved indoors and began to resemble the arrangement we see most frequently nowadays, with a stage separated from the audience by a proscenium arch. This coincided with a growing interest in scenic elements painted in perspective, such as those created by Inigo Jones, Nicola Sabbatini and the Galli district attorney Bibiena family. The perspective of these elements could alone be viewed properly from the center back of the auditorium, in the alleged “ duke ‘s professorship. ” The higher one ‘s status, the close they would be seated to this advantage point, and the more the accurately they would be able to see the perspective elements. The beginning enclosed theaters were court theaters, clear lone to the sovereigns and the nobility. The first base opera house loose to the public was the Teatro San Cassiano ( 1637 ) in Venice. The italian opera houses were the model for the subsequent theaters throughout Europe .

german operatic influence [edit ]

Richard Wagner placed great importance on “ climate context ” elements, such as a darken theater, good effects, and seating arrangements ( lowering the orchestra orchestra pit ) which focused the attention of hearing on the stagecoach, completely immersing them in the fanciful world of the music play. These concepts were rotatory at the time, but they have since come to be taken for granted in the mod operatic environment ampere well as many other types of theatrical performance endeavors .

contemporary theaters [edit ]

contemporary theaters are much non-traditional, such as very adaptable spaces, or theaters where audience and performers are not separated. A major example of this is the modular field, notably the Walt Disney Modular Theater. This big theater has floors and walls divided into small chattel sections, with the floor sections on adjustable hydraulic pylons, so that the space may be adjusted into any configuration for each individual play. As new styles of field performance have evolved, so has the desire to improve or recreate performance venues. This applies evenly to aesthetic and presentation techniques, such as stage lighting. specific designs of contemporaneous alive theaters include proscenium, thrust, black box theater, theater in the round off, amphitheater, and arena. In the classical indian dance, Natya Shastra defines three phase types. In Australia and New Zealand a minor and simple theater, particularly one contained within a larger venue, is called a theatrette. [ 6 ] The parole originated in 1920s London, for a minor music venue. [ 7 ] theatrical performances can besides take place in venues adapted from other purposes, such as train carriages. In late years the Edinburgh Fringe has seen performances in an Hover Car and a taxi .

asian theater design [edit ]

Noh [edit ]

waki seat. 10: waki spot. 11: shite spot. 12: shite-bashira. 13: metsuke-bashira. 14: waki-bashira. 15: fue-bashira. 1 : hashigakari. 2 : kyōgen spot. 3 : stage attendants. 4 : stick brake drum. 5 : hip drum. 6 : shoulder drum. 7 : flute. 8 : chorus. 9 : seat. 10 : point. 11 : descry. 12 :. 13 :. 14 :. 15 : The traditional stage used in Noh dramaturgy is based on a chinese blueprint. It is wholly candid, providing a shared experience between the performers and the audience throughout the play. Without any prosceniums or curtains to obstruct the view, the consultation sees each actor at moments even before entering the primary platform of the stage. The theater itself is considered emblematic and treated with reverence both by the performers and the consultation. [ 8 ] The stage includes a large square platform, barren of walls or curtains on three sides, and traditionally with a painting of a pine tree at the spinal column. The platform is elevated above the target where the audience sits, which is covered in white perplex dirty. The four stage corners are marked by cedar pillars, and the whole is topped by a roof, even when the Noh stagecoach is erected indoors. A ceramic jar system under the stage amplifies the sounds of dancing during the performance. There is a small door to permit entry of the musicians and vocalists. The freelancer roof is one of the most recognizable characteristic of the Noh phase. Supported by four column, the roof symbolizes the holiness of the stage, with its architectural plan derived from the worship pavilion ( haiden ) or sacred dance pavilion ( kaguraden ) of Shinto shrines. The ceiling besides unifies the theater space and defines the stage as an architectural entity. [ 8 ] The pillars supporting the roof are named shitebashira ( principal character ‘s pillar ), metsukebashira ( gazing pillar ), wakibashira ( secondary coil character ‘s pillar ), and fuebashira ( flute column ), clockwise from upstage right respectively. Each column is associated with the performers and their actions. [ 9 ] The stage is made wholly of unfinished hinoki, a japanese cypress, with about no cosmetic elements. The poet and novelist Toson Shimazaki writes that “ on the stage of the Noh dramaturgy there are no sets that change with each firearm. Neither is there a curtain. There is entirely a simple panel ( kagami-ita ) with a painting of a green pine tree. This creates the impression that anything that could provide any shading has been banished. To break such monotony and make something happen is no easily thing. ” [ 8 ] Another alone feature of the phase is the hashigakari, a pin down bridge at upstage right used by actors to enter the stagecoach. Hashigakari means “ pause bridge ”, signifying something aeriform that connects two discriminate worlds on a same degree. The bridge symbolizes the mythic nature of Noh plays in which nonnatural ghosts and spirits frequently appear. In contrast, hanamichi in Kabuki theaters is literally a path ( michi ) that connects two spaces in a individual earth, therefore has a wholly unlike meaning. [ 8 ] A contemporary Noh theatre with indoor roofed structure A contemporary Noh theater with indoor roofed structure

Kabuki [edit ]

Shibai Ukie (“A Scene from a Play”) by Masanobu Okumura (1686–1764), depicting Edo Ichimura-za theater in the early 1740s ( “ A scene from a Play ” ) by Masanobu Okumura ( 1686–1764 ), depicting Edo Ichimura-za dramaturgy in the early 1740s The japanese kabuki stage features a projection called a hanamichi ( 花道 ; literally, flower path ), a walk which extends into the hearing and via which dramatic entrances and exits are made. Okuni besides performed on a hanamichi degree with her cortege. The stagecoach is used not alone as a walk or path to get to and from the main stage, but crucial scenes are besides played on the stage. Kabuki stages and theaters have steadily become more technologically twist, and innovations including revolving stages and trap doors were introduced during the eighteenth hundred. A driving force has been the desire to manifest one frequent theme of kabuki field, that of the sudden, dramatic revelation or transformation. [ 10 ] A act of stagecoach tricks, including actors ‘ rapid appearance and disappearance, employ these innovations. The term keren ( 外連 ), much translated playing to the gallery, is sometimes used as a catch-all for these tricks. Hanamichi and respective innovations including revolve stage, seri and chunori have all contributed to kabuki bid. Hanamichi creates depth and both seri and chunori provide a vertical dimension .

Koothambalam [edit ]

Koothambalam Theatre Exterior The amerind Koothambalam temple is a space used to perform Sanskrit drama. Called the koothambalam or kuttampalam, it is a large high-caste rectangular, synagogue in Kerala which represented a “ ocular sacrifice ” to any deities or gods of the temple. They were built for kutiyattam or “ combined acting ” performances, which merely two dramas are performed today. [ 11 ] The temple has a pyramidal roof, with high walls, and a high-ceilinged inside. Within the big temple has a stage inside which is a big chopine with its own pyramid roof. The stage area is classify from the audience sphere with the musician ( a drummer on a high seat ) behind the stagecoach, and dressing rooms besides at the buttocks with passing doors behind. The hearing would be seated on a smooth, polished floor. respective Koothambalams exist within several indian temples, [ clarification needed ] [ does this mean several in each? ] and follow the like rectangular plan and social organization.

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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