This article is about the music genre. For other uses, see Reggae ( disambiguation ) not to be confused with Reggaeton
Reggae ( ) is a music music genre that originated in Jamaica in the recently 1960s. The terminus besides denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. [ 1 ] A 1968 unmarried by Toots and the Maytals, “ Do the Reggay “ was the first popular song to use the password “ reggae ”, efficaciously naming the genre and introducing it to a ball-shaped consultation. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music stylus that was powerfully influenced by traditional mento a well as american jazz and rhythm and blues, and evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. [ 4 ] Reggae normally relates news, social gossip, and political comment. [ 5 ] It is instantaneously recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and brake drum downbeat and the upbeat rhythm method of birth control section. The immediate origins of reggae were in ska and rocksteady ; from the latter, reggae took over the manipulation of the bass as a percussion instrument. [ 6 ]
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Reggae is profoundly linked to Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930s, aiming at promoting pan-Africanism. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Soon after the rastafarian campaign appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafari and spread its gospel throughout the world. [ 8 ] Reggae music is an significant means of transporting vital messages of Rastafari. The musician becomes the messenger, and as Rastafari see it, “ the soldier and the musician are tools for change. ” [ 10 ] stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, sleep together, mento ( a celebratory, rural folk form that served its largely rural audience as dance music and an alternative to the hymn and adapted chanteys of local church service whistle ), [ 11 ] calypso, [ 12 ] and besides puff influence from traditional african folk music rhythm. One of the most well recognizable elements is upbeat rhythm ; staccato chords played by a guitar or piano ( or both ) on the offbeats of the measure. The tempo of reggae is normally slower paced than both ska and rocksteady. [ 13 ] The concept of bid and reception can be found throughout reggae music. The genre of reggae music is led by the drum and bass. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, [ 16 ] Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, [ 17 ] Lloyd Brevett from the Skatalites, [ 18 ] Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, [ 19 ] Lloyd Knibb from the Skatalites, [ 20 ] Winston Grennan, [ 21 ] Sly Dunbar, [ 22 ] and Anthony “ Benbow ” Creary from the Upsetters. [ 23 ] The bass guitar often plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized sol the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The guitar in reggae normally plays on the upbeat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, and Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its custom of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, [ 24 ] although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socialize. Reggae has spread to many countries around the world, frequently incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the spanish-speaking central american nation of Panama to the mainland South american countries of Venezuela and Guyana then to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, and has evolved into respective subgenres and fusions. many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, and there have been a count of european artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe. Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income. [ 25 ]
etymology [edit ]
The 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as “ a recently estab. sp. for rege “, as in rege-rege, a bible that can mean either “ rags, ragged clothe ” or “ a quarrel, a rowing ”. [ 26 ] Reggae as a musical term first gear appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit “ Do the Reggay “ by the Maytals which named the genre. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican slang news streggae ( unleash womanhood ) into reggae. [ 27 ] however, Toots Hibbert said :
There ‘s a bible we used to use in Jamaica called ‘streggae ‘. If a daughter is walking and the guys look at her and say ‘Man, she ‘s streggae ‘ it means she do n’t dress well, she look raggedy. The girls would say that about the men excessively. This one dawn me and my two friends were playing and I said, ‘OK man, let ‘s do the reggay. ‘ It was equitable something that came out of my mouth. So we merely start singing ‘Do the reggay, do the reggay ‘ and created a beat. People tell me belated that we had given the sound its name. Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. now it ‘s in the Guinness World of Records. [ 28 ]
Bob Marley claimed that the give voice reggae came from a spanish term for “ the king ‘s music ”. [ 29 ] The lining notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian religious doctrine reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning “ to the king ”. [ 30 ]
history [edit ]
Precursors [edit ]
Reggae ‘s lead origins are in the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica, strongly influenced by traditional Caribbean mento and calypso music, arsenic well as american english jazz and cycle and blues. Ska was in the first place a generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967 and emerged from Jamaican R & B, which was based largely on American R & B and doo-wop. [ 31 ] Rastafari entered some countries chiefly through reggae music ; thus, the motion in these places is more emboss by its origins in reggae music and social milieu. [ 32 ] The Rastafari movement was a significant charm on reggae, with Rasta drummers like Count Ossie taking part in seminal recordings. [ 33 ] One of the predecessors of reggae cram is the Nyabinghi rhythm, a dash of ritual cram performed as a communal brooding practice in the rastafarian life. [ 34 ] In the latter half of the twentieth century, record player records became of central importance to the jamaican music diligence, playing a meaning cultural and economic function in the development of reggae music. [ 35 ] “ In the early 1950s, Jamaican entrepreneurs began issuing 78s ” [ 35 ] but this format would soon be superseded by the 7 ” single, first released in 1949. [ 36 ] In 1951 the first recordings of mento music were released as singles and showcased two styles of mento : an acoustic rural stylus, and a jazzy pop style. [ 37 ] early 7 ” singles to appear in Jamaica around this time were covers of popular American R & B hits, made by Kingston sound system operators to be played at populace dances. [ 35 ] meanwhile, Jamaican expatriates started issuing 45s on little freelancer labels in the United Kingdom, many mastered directly from jamaican 45s. [ 35 ] Ska arose in Jamaican studios in the recently 1950s, developing from this mix of American R & B, mento and calypso music. [ 27 ] Notable for its jazz-influenced automobile horn riffs, ska is characterized by a draw note walking bass line, guitar and piano offbeats, and a drum pattern with cross-stick trap and bass drum on the backbeat and candid hi-hat on the offbeats. When Jamaica gained independence in 1962, ska became the music of choice for young Jamaicans seeking music that was their own. Ska besides became democratic among mods in Britain. In the mid-1960s, ska gave ascend to rocksteady, a genre slower than ska featuring more romantic lyrics and less outstanding horns. [ 38 ] Theories abound as to why jamaican musicians slowed the ska tempo to create rocksteady ; one is that the singer Hopeton Lewis was unable to sing his hit song “ Take It Easy ” at a ska tempo. [ 27 ] The name “ rocksteady ” was codified after the exhaust of a single by Alton Ellis. Many rocksteady rhythms subsequently were used as the basis of reggae recordings, whose slower tempo allowed for the “ doubly skank ” guitar strokes on the upbeat .
egress in Jamaica [edit ]
Reggae developed from ska and rocksteady in the late 1960s. Larry And Alvin ‘s “ Nanny Goat ” and the Beltones ’ “ No More Heartaches ” were among the songs in the genre. The beat was classifiable from rocksteady in that it dropped any of the pretensions to the smooth, soulful phone that characterized slick American R & B, and alternatively was closer in affinity to US southerly funk, being heavily dependent on the rhythm method of birth control segment to drive it along. Reggae ‘s great advantage was its about unlimited tractability : from the early, choppy sound of Lee Perry ‘s “ People Funny Boy ”, to the uptown sounds of Third World ‘s “ nowadays That We ’ ve Found Love ”, it was an enormous jump through the years and styles, so far both are instantaneously recognizable as reggae. [ 39 ] The transformation from rocksteady to reggae was illustrated by the organ shuffle pioneered by jamaican musicians like Jackie Mittoo and Winston Wright and featured in transitional singles “ Say What You ‘re Saying ” ( 1968 ) by Eric “ Monty ” Morris and “ People Funny Boy ” ( 1968 ) by Lee “ Scratch ” Perry. [ citation needed ] early 1968 was when the first gear bona fide reggae records were released : “ Nanny Goat ” by Larry Marshall and “ no More Heartaches ” by the Beltones. That same year, the newest jamaican sound began to spawn big-name imitators in early countries. american artist Johnny Nash ‘s 1968 collision “ Hold Me Tight “ has been credited with first putting reggae in the american hearer charts. Around the same time, reggae influences were starting to surface in rock and pop music, one exercise being 1968 ‘s “ Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da “ by the Beatles. [ 40 ] The Wailers, a set started by Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer in 1963, is possibly the most spot band that made the transition through all three stages of early Jamaican democratic music : ska, rocksteady and reggae. Over a twelve Wailers songs are based on or use a lineage from Jamaican mento songs. other significant ska artists who made the leap to reggae admit Prince Buster, Desmond Dekker, Ken Boothe, and Millie Small, best know for her 1964 blue-beat/ska cover version of “ My Boy Lollipop “ which was a overhead hit internationally. [ 41 ] celebrated jamaican producers influential in the development of ska into rocksteady and reggae include : Coxsone Dodd, Lee “ Scratch ” Perry, Leslie Kong, Duke Reid, Joe Gibbs and King Tubby. Chris Blackwell, who founded Island Records in Jamaica in 1960, [ 42 ] relocated to England in 1962, where he continued to promote jamaican music. He formed a partnership with Lee Gopthal ‘s Trojan Records in 1968, which released reggae in the UK until bought by Saga records in 1974 .
International popularity [edit ]
Peter Tosh with Robbie Shakespeare, 1978 Reggae ‘s influence bubbled to the clear of the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 charts in late 1972. First Three Dog Night hit No. 1 in September with a cover of the Maytones ‘ version of “ Black and White “. then Johnny Nash was at No. 1 for four weeks in November with “ I Can See distinctly immediately “. Paul Simon ‘s individual “ Mother And Child Reunion “ – a lead which he recorded in Kingston, Jamaica with Jimmy Cliff ‘s backing group – was ranked by Billboard as the No. 57 song of 1972. In 1973, the film The Harder They Come starring Jimmy Cliff was released and introduced jamaican music to cinema audiences outside Jamaica. [ 43 ] Though the film achieved cult condition its restrict invoke think of that it had a smaller impingement than Eric Clapton ‘s 1974 cover of Bob Marley ‘s “ I Shot the Sheriff “ which made it onto the playlists of mainstream rock and pop radio stations worldwide. Clapton ‘s “ I Shot the Sheriff ” used modern rock production and recording techniques and faithfully retained most of the original reggae elements ; it was a discovery pastiche barren of any parody and played an important part in bringing the music of Bob Marley to a across-the-board rock audience. [ 27 ] By the mid-1970s, authentic reggae dub plates and specials were getting some exposure in the UK on John Peel ‘s radio picture, who promoted the music genre for the rest of his career. [ 44 ] Around the same fourth dimension, british film maker Jeremy Marre documented the Jamaican music scene in Roots Rock Reggae, capturing the flower of Roots reggae. [ 45 ] While the quality of Reggae records produced in Jamaica took a turn for the worse following the oil crisis of the 1970s, reggae produced elsewhere began to flourish. [ 46 ] [ 35 ] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the UK punk rock view flourished, and reggae was a noteworthy charm. The DJ Don Letts would play reggae and punk tracks at clubs such as The Roxy. Punk bands such as the Clash, the Ruts, the Members and the Slits played many reggae-influenced songs. Around the like time, reggae music took a newfangled path in the UK ; one that was created by the multiracial constitution of England ‘s inner cities and exemplified by groups like Steel Pulse, Aswad and UB40, american samoa well as artists such as Smiley Culture and Carroll Thompson. The jamaican ghetto themes in the lyrics were replaced with UK inside city themes, and Jamaican slang became blend with Cockney slang. In South London around this time, a newly subgenre of lovers rock, was being created. Unlike the Jamaican music of the same name which was chiefly dominated by male artists such as Gregory Isaacs, the South London genre was led by female singers like Thompson and Janet Kay. The UK Lovers Rock had a softer and more commercial sound.Other reggae artists who enjoyed external appeal in the early 1980s include Third World, Black Uhuru and Sugar Minott. The Grammy Awards introduced the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album category in 1985 .
Women besides play a function in the reggae music industry personnel such as Olivia Grange, president of Specs-Shang Musik ; Trish Farrell, president of Island/Jamaica ; Lisa Cortes, president of the united states of Loose Cannon ; Jamaican-American Sharon Gordon, who has worked in the autonomous reggae music industry. [ 47 ]
Reggae heritage [edit ]
jamaican Prime Minister Bruce Golding made February 2008 the beginning annual Reggae Month in Jamaica. To celebrate, the Recording Industry Association of Jamaica ( RIAJam ) held its first Reggae Academy Awards on 24 February 2008. In addition, Reggae Month included a six-day Global Reggae conference, a reggae film festival, two radio place award functions, and a concert tribute to the late Dennis Brown, who Bob Marley cited as his favored singer. On the business side, RIAJam held events focused on reggae ‘s employment opportunities and electric potential external tax income. . [ 48 ] Reggae Month 2019 in Jamaica was welcomed with multiple events ranging from bodied reggae functions to major celebrations in honor of Bob Marley ‘s Birthday on 6 February to a tribute concert in honor of Dennis Brown on 24 February along with a sold-out concert by 2019 Reggae Grammy nominated artiste Protoje for his A Matter of Time Live held at Hope Gardens in Kingston on 23 February. In November 2018 “ reggae music of Jamaica ” was added to the UNESCO ‘s representative number of the intangible cultural Heritage of Humanity the decision recognised reggae ‘s “ contribution to external hold forth on issues of injustice, resistance, beloved and humanness underscores the dynamics of the element as being at once cerebral, socio-political, animal and apparitional. ” [ 49 ]
musical characteristics [edit ]
stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues ( R & B ), jazz, mento, calypso, African, and latin american music, adenine well as other genres. Reggae scene consist of two guitars, one for rhythm and one for lead—drums, conga, and keyboards, with a couple of vocalists. [ 51 ] Reggae is played in 4
4 clock time because the symmetrical rhythmical convention does not lend itself to other time signatures such as 3
4. One of the most easily recognizable elements is far-out rhythm ; staccato chords played by a guitar or piano ( or both ) on the offbeats of the quantify, frequently referred to as the skank. [ 52 ] This rhythmical form accents the second and fourth beats in each measure and combines with the drum ‘s stress on beatnik three to create a unique feel of phrasing. The reggae upbeat can be counted so that it falls between each count as an “ and ” ( example : 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and, etc. ) or counted as a half-time feel at twice the tempo so it falls on beats 2 and 4. This is in line to the means most other popular genres focus on tick one, the “ downbeat ”. [ 53 ] The tempo of reggae is normally slower than both ska and rocksteady. [ 13 ] It is this slower tempo, the guitar/piano offbeats, the stress on the third exhaust, and the consumption of syncopated, melodious bass lines that differentiate reggae from other music, although other musical styles have incorporated some of these innovations .
Drums and other percussion section [edit ]
A standard drum kit is broadly used in reggae, but the trap brake drum is frequently tuned very high to give it a timbales -type sound. Some reggae drummers use an extra timbale or high-tuned snare to get this voice. Cross-stick technique on the trap barrel is normally used, and tenor drum drums are often incorporated into the drumbeat itself .
“ One drop ” sixteenth-note drum blueprint Reggae drumbeats decrease into three main categories : One drop, Rockers, and Steppers. With the One drop, the emphasis is entirely on the backbeat ( normally on the snare, or as a side-stick combined with bass cram ). Beat one is empty except for a close high hat normally used, which is strange in democratic music. There is some controversy about whether reggae should be counted sol that this beat falls on two and four, or whether it should be counted doubly as fast, so it falls on three. An example played by Barrett can be heard in the Bob Marley and the Wailers song “ One drop ”. Barrett much used an unusual trio cross-rhythm on the hi-hat, which can be heard on many recordings by Bob Marley and the Wailers, such as “ Running away ” on the Kaya album .
Sly Dunbar An emphasis on the backbeat is found in all reggae drumbeats, but with the Rockers pulse, the vehemence is on all four beats of the legal profession ( normally on bass drum ). This beat was pioneered by Sly and Robbie, who late helped create the “ rub-a-dub ” sound that greatly influenced dancehall. Sly has stated he was influenced to create this expressive style by listening to American drummer Earl Young equally well as early disco and R & B drummers in the early to mid-1970s, as stated in the koran “ wail Blues ”. The archetypal case of the style is found in Sly Dunbar ‘s drumming on “ right meter ” by the Mighty Diamonds. The Rockers beat is not always straightforward, and diverse syncopations are frequently included. An exercise of this is the Black Uhuru sung “ Sponji Reggae ”. In Steppers, the bass cram plays every quarter rhythm of the stripe, giving the outwit an insistent drive. An model is “ Exodus ” by Bob Marley and the Wailers. Another common name for the Steppers beat is the “ four on the floor ”. Burning Spear ‘s 1975 song “ Red, Gold, and Green ” ( with Leroy Wallace on drums ) is one of the earliest examples. The Steppers pulse was adopted ( at a much higher tempo ) by some two-tone ska revival bands of the recently 1970s and early on 1980s. An unusual feature of reggae drum is that the drum fills frequently do not end with a climactic cymbal. A wide-eyed range of other percussion instrumentation are used in reggae. Bongos are often used to play free, improvised patterns, with heavy use of African-style cross-rhythms. Cowbells, claves and shakers tend to have more defined roles and a arrange model. Reggae drummers frequently involved these three tips for other reggae performers : ( 1 ) go for open, ringing tones when playing ska and rocksteady, ( 2 ) use any available material to stuff the bass brake drum so that it tightens up the kick to a deep, punchy thud, and ( 3 ) go without a ride cymbal, focusing on the hi-hat for timekeeping and thin crashes with fast decay for accents. [ 54 ]
freshwater bass [edit ]
Robbie Shakespeare in 1978 The bass guitar much plays the dominant allele function in reggae, and the drum and bass is often the most crucial part of what is called, in Jamaican music, a riddim ( rhythm ), a ( normally simple ) patch of music that is used repeatedly by different artists to write and record songs with. Hundreds of reggae singers have released different songs recorded over the same cycle. The cardinal character of the bass can be particularly heard in dub music – which gives an even bigger character to the drum and sea bass lineage, reducing the vocals and other instruments to peripheral roles .
In this typical reggae sea bass line, the roots of the chords are emphasized, with musical interest created by going from the root toss off to the one-fifth of the chord. A dot quarter note and one-eighth note rhythm method of birth control is used repeatedly. The bass voice in reggae is dense and big, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The bass line is much a repeated two or four prevention flick when simple chord progressions are used. The simplest exercise of this might be Robbie Shakespeare ‘s bass line for the Black Uhuru hit “ Shine Eye Gal ”. In the character of more building complex harmonic structures, such as John Holt ‘s version of “ Stranger in Love ”, these elementary patterns are altered to follow the chord progress either by immediately moving the traffic pattern around or by changing some of the inside notes in the phrase to better support the chords .
Guitars [edit ]
Al Anderson The guitar in reggae normally plays on the off beat of the rhythm. so if one is counting in 4
4 time and counting “ 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and … ”, one would play a downstroke on the “ and ” separate of the beat. [ 55 ] A musical figure known as skank or the ‘bang ” has a very dampen, inadequate and grating chop sound, about like a percussion instrument. Sometimes a double chop is used when the guitar hush plays the off beat, but besides plays the follow eighth-note beats on the up-stroke. An exercise is the intro to “ Stir It Up “ by the Wailers. Artist and producer Derrick Harriott says, “ What happened was the musical thing was real widespread, but entirely among a certain sort of people. It was constantly a down-town thing, but more than precisely hearing the music. The equipment was so powerful and the vibration therefore strong that we feel it. ” [ 56 ]
Keyboards [edit ]
From the earliest days of Ska recordings, a piano was used to double the rhythm guitar ‘s skank, playing the chords in a staccato style to add body, and playing casual excess beats, runs and riffs. The piano share was widely taken over by synthesizers during the 1980s, although synthesizers have been used in a peripheral function since the 1970s to play incidental melodies and countermelodies. Larger bands may include either an extra keyboardist, to cover or replace horn and tune lines, or the main keyboardist filling these roles on two or more keyboards. The reggae organ-shuffle is singular to reggae. In the master translation of reggae, the drummer played a reggae groove that was used in the four stripe presentation, allowing the piano to serve as a percussion instrument. [ 57 ] Typically, a Hammond electric organ -style sound is used to play chords with a choppy feel. This is known as the bubble. This may be the most difficult reggae keyboard rhythm. The organ burp can be broken toss off into 2 basic patterns. In the first, the 8th beats are played with a space-left-right-left-space-left-right-left pattern, where the spaces represent downbeats not played—that and the left-right-left falls on the ee-and-a, or and-2-and if counted at double time. In the second basic form, the left field hand plays a double chop as described in the guitar part while the right hand plays longer notes on beat 2 ( or beat 3 if counted at double clock ) or a syncopated blueprint between the bivalent chops. Both these patterns can be expanded on and improvise embellishments are sometimes used .
Horns [edit ]
horn sections are frequently used in reggae, frequently playing introductions and countermelodies. Instruments included in a typical reggae horn section include sax, trumpet or trombone. In more late times, real horns are sometimes replaced in reggae by synthesizers or recorded samples. The horn section is frequently arranged around the beginning horn, playing a dim-witted melody or counter tune. The inaugural horn is normally accompanied by the moment automobile horn playing the lapp melodious phrase in unison, one octave higher. The third base horn normally plays the tune an octave and a fifth higher than the foremost automobile horn. The horns are by and large played reasonably softly, normally resulting in a soothing sound. however, sometimes punchier, louder phrases are played for a more up-tempo and aggressive sound.
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Vocals [edit ]
The vocals in reggae are less of a defining characteristic of the genre than the instrumentation and rhythm, as about any song can be performed in a reggae style. however, it is very common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, and Iyaric dialects. Vocal harmony parts are much used, either throughout the tune ( as with vocal groups such as the Mighty Diamonds ), or as a counterpoint to the main vocal line ( as with the back vocalists, the I-Threes ). More building complex vocal arrangements can be found in the works of groups like the Abyssinians and British reggae isthmus Steel Pulse. An unusual aspect of reggae scorch is that many singers use tremolo ( bulk cycle ) rather than vibrato ( pitch oscillation ). luminary exponents of this technique include Horace Andy and vocal group Israel Vibration. The toasting outspoken style is unique to reggae, originating when DJs improvised address introductions to songs ( or “ toasts ” ) to the point where it became a distinct rhythmical vocal style, and is broadly considered to be a precursor to rap. It differs from knock chiefly in that it is by and large melodious, while knock is generally more a spoken form without melodious subject .
lyric themes [edit ]
Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. many early reggae bands covered Motown or Atlantic soul and funk songs. Some reggae lyrics attempt to raise the political awareness of the audience, such as by criticizing materialism, or by informing the hearer about controversial subjects such as apartheid. many reggae songs promote the use of cannabis ( besides known as herb, ganja, or sinsemilla ), considered a sacrament in the Rastafari bowel movement. There are many artists who utilize religious themes in their music – whether it be discussing a particular religious subject, or plainly giving praise to God ( Jah ). other coarse socio-political topics in reggae songs include black patriotism, anti-racism, anti- colonialism, [ 58 ] anti-capitalism and criticism of political systems and “ Babylon ”. In late years, Jamaican ( and non-Jamaican ) reggae musicians have used more positivist themes in reggae music. The music is widely considered a care for cultural export for Jamaica, indeed musicians who still desire build up for their island nation have begun focusing on themes of hopefulness, faith, and love. For elementary children, reggae songs such as “ Give a small Love ”, “ One Love ”, or “ Three little Birds ”, all written by Bob Marley, can be sung and enjoyed for their optimism and cheerful lyrics. [ 59 ]
criticism of dancehall and reggae lyrics [edit ]
Some dancehall and ragga artists have been criticised for homophobia, [ 60 ] including threats of violence. [ 61 ] Buju Banton ‘s song “ Boom Bye-Bye ” states that gays “ haffi dead ”. other celebrated dancehall artists who have been accused of homophobia include Elephant Man, Bounty Killer and Beenie Man. The controversy surrounding anti-gay lyrics has led to the cancellation of UK tours by Beenie Man and Sizzla. Toronto, Canada has besides seen the cancellation of concerts due to artists such as Elephant Man and Sizzla refusing to conform to alike censoring pressures. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] After lobbying from the Stop Murder Music alliance, the dancehall music diligence agreed in 2005 to stop free songs that promote hatred and ferocity against cheery people. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] In June 2007, Beenie Man, Sizzla and Capleton signed up to the Reggae Compassionate Act, in a deal brokered with top dancehall promoters and Stop Murder Music activists. They renounced homophobia and agreed to “ not make statements or perform songs that motivate hatred or violence against anyone from any community ”. Five artists targeted by the anti-homophobia political campaign did not sign up to the act, including Elephant Man, TOK, Bounty Killa and Vybz Kartel. [ 66 ] Buju Banton and Beenie Man both gained incontrovertible imperativeness coverage around the world for publicly renouncing homophobia by signing the Reggae Compassion Act. however, both of these artists have since denied any interest in anti-homophobia function and both deny having signed any such act. [ 67 ]
global meaning [edit ]
Reggae has spread to many countries around the world, much incorporating local anesthetic instruments and fusing with early genres. [ 68 ] In November 2018 UNESCO added the “ reggae music of Jamaica ” to the Representative List of the intangible cultural Heritage of Humanity. [ 49 ] [ 69 ]
united states [edit ]
Reggae en Español spread from mainland South american Caribbean from Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. It does not have any specific characteristics early than being sung in spanish, normally by artists of latin american origin. Samba reggae originated in Brazil as a blend of samba with Jamaican reggae. Reggae besides has a presence in Veracruz, Mexico. The most celebrated Jarocho reggae group being Los Aguas Aguas from Xalapa. Some of the most popular reggae groups across Latin America come from the Southern Cone, such as the Chilean dance band Gondwana, and the argentinian dance band Los Cafres. The Puerto Rican set Cultura Profética is besides wide recognized in the region. spanish american reggae includes three elements : the incorporation of the spanish speech ; the use of translations and versions based on known riddims and background music ; and regional consciousness. It is a culture medium of rebellious controversy rising from the belowground. hispanic reggae is related to rap, sharing characteristics that can be found not merely in the social conditions in which they developed in the region but besides in the characteristics of social sectors and classes that welcome them. [ 70 ] brazilian samba-reggae utilize themes such as the civil rights bowel movement and the Black Soul movement, and specially the jamaican independence apparent motion since the 1960s and its messages in reggae and Rastafari. Thus, the sudden popularity of reggae music and musicians in Bahia, Brazil, was not the resultant role of the effects of the multinational music industry, but of the need to establish cultural and political links with black communities across the Americas that had faced and were facing exchangeable sociopolitical situations. [ 71 ] musically, it was the bloco afro Olodum and its lead percussionist, Neguinho do Samba, that began to combine the basic samba pulse of the blocos with merengue, salsa, and reggae rhythm and debuted their experimentations in the carnival of 1986. The newfangled toques ( drumming patterns ) were labeled “ samba-reggae ” and consisted basically of a pattern in which the surdo sea bass drums ( four of them at the minimum ) divided themselves into four or five interlock parts. In the country of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil, reggae is a very democratic rhythm. São Luis, the state capital, is known as the brazilian Jamaica. The city has more than 200 “ radiolas ”, name given to sound teams formed by DJs and sound systems with dozens of powerful amplifiers boxes stacked. Reggae in Maranhão has its own characteristics, such as tune and the way of dance, equally well as having its own radio and television receiver programs. In 2018, the Reggae Museum of Maranhão was inaugurated, the moment reggae museum in the universe ( after Jamaica ), with the objective of preserving the reggae polish history in the state. [ 72 ] In the United States, bands like Rebelution, Slightly Stoopid, Stick Figure, and SOJA are considered progressive reggae bands sometimes referred to as Cali Reggae or Pacific Dub. The american english reggae scene is heavily centred in Southern California, with large scenes besides in New York City, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Miami, and Honolulu. For decades, hawaiian reggae has had a big pursuit on the hawaiian islands and the West seashore of the US. [ 73 ] On the east slide upstate NY has seen a rise in master roots reggae bands such as Giant Panda Guerilla Dub Squad and John Brown ‘s body who were inspired by Jamaican reggae bands that performed in the area back in the 80s and 90s. [ 74 ] Matisyahu gained prominence by blending traditional jewish themes with reggae. [ 75 ] Compounding his practice of the hazzan style, Matisyahu ‘s lyrics are largely english with more than casual habit of Hebrew and Yiddish. There is a big Caribbean bearing in Toronto and Montreal, Canada, with English and french influences on the reggae music genre. [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] Canadian ring Magic ! ‘s 2013 single “ Rude “ was an external reach. In 2017, Toots and the Maytals became the second reggae-based group to ever perform at the Coachella festival, after Chronixx in 2016. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ]
Europe [edit ]
The UK was a basal finish for Caribbean people looking to emigrate equally early as the 1950s. Because of this, Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, and has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Most luminary of these is lovers rock, but this fusion of jamaican music into english culture was germinal in the geological formation of other musical forms like drum and bass and dubstep. The UK became the base from which many Jamaican artists toured Europe and due to the big number of jamaican musicians emigrating there, the UK is the rout of the larger european scene that exists today. Many of the universe ‘s most celebrated reggae artists began their careers in UK. Singer and Grammy Award-winning reggae artist Maxi Priest began his career with germinal british sound system Saxon Studio International. Three reggae-tinged singles from the Police ‘s 1978 debut album, Outlandos d’Amour, laid down the template for the basic structure of a lot of rock/reggae songwriting : a reggae-infused verse containing upstrokes on guitar or keyboards and a more aggressive, on-the-beat punk/rock attack during the chorus. The end of the 1970s featured a ska revival in the UK. By the end of the ’70s, a revival motion had begun in England, with such bands as the Specials, Madness, the ( English ) Beat, and the Selecter. The Specials ‘ drawing card and keyboardist, Jerry Dammers, founded the 2 tonicity record label, which released albums from the aforementioned racially integrated groups and was implemental in creating a new social and cultural awareness. The 2 Tone movement referenced reggae ‘s godfathers, popular styles ( including the genre ‘s faster and more dance-oriented precursors, ska and rocksteady ), and previous modes of full-dress ( such as black suits and porkpie hats ) but updated the sound with a faster tempo, more guitar, and more position. [ 79 ] UB40 perform in Birmingham, 2010 Birmingham based reggae/ toss off music band UB40 were independent contributors to the british reggae scenery throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The achieve external success with hits such as “ Red Red Wine “, “ Kingston Town “ and “ ( I Ca n’t Help ) Falling in Love with You. ” other UK based artists that had international impact include Aswad, Misty in Roots, Steel Pulse, Janet Kay, Tippa Irie, Smiley Culture and more recently Bitty McLean. There have been a number of european artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe, whose music and vocal styles are about identical to contemporary Jamaican music. The best examples might be Alborosie ( Italy ) and Gentleman ( Germany ). Both Gentleman and Alborosie have had a significant graph shock in Jamaica, unlike many european artists. They have both recorded and released music in Jamaica for Jamaican labels and producers and are democratic artists, likely to appear on many riddims. Alborosie has lived in Jamaica since the late 1990s and has recorded at Bob Marley ‘s celebrated Tuff Gong Studios. Since the early 1990s, respective italian reggae bands have emerged, including Africa Unite, Gaudi, Reggae National Tickets, Sud Sound System, Pitura Freska and B.R. Stylers. Another italian celebrated reggae singer was Rino Gaetano. Reggae appeared on the Yugoslav popular music scene in the belated 1970s, through sporadic songs by popular rock acts Haustor, Šarlo Akrobata, Aerodrom, Laboratorija Zvuka, Piloti and Du Du A. In the mid-1980s appeared Del Arno Band, much considered the first gear very reggae band in Yugoslavia. The first homegrown polish reggae bands started in the 1980s with groups like Izrael. Singer and songwriter Alexander Barykin was considered as the church father of russian reggae. [ 80 ] In Sweden, Uppsala Reggae Festival attracts attendees from across Northern Europe, and features Swedish reggae bands such as Rootvälta and Svenska Akademien vitamin a well as many democratic jamaican artists. Summerjam, Europe ‘s biggest reggae festival, takes place in Cologne, Germany and sees crowds of 25,000 or more. Rototom Sunsplash, a week-long festival which used to take place in Osoppo, Italy, until 2009, is now held in Benicassim, Spain and gathers up to 150,000 visitors every class. In Iceland reggae set Hjálmar is well established having released six CDs in Iceland. They were the first reggae band in Iceland, but few Icelandic artists had written songs in the reggae manner before their read up at the Icelandic music scenery. The Icelandic reggae view is expanding and growing at a fast rate. RVK Soundsystem is the first Icelandic sound system, counting 5 DJ ‘s. They hold reggae nights in Reykjavík every calendar month at clubs Hemmi og Valdi and more recently in Faktorý as the herd has grown so much. In Germany, the three successful Reggae JSnrfti thousand Jam alfresco festivals were all-important parts of the rebirth of Caribbean music in Germany but at that year ( 1990 ) war broke out between the two chief german promoters who had cooperated so well during the former seasons. With a lot of infighting and personal quarrels, each of them pursued his own preparations for a big summer festival. The leave was that two alfresco events look target on the same day. The Reggae Sammer Jam ’90 was staged as common, but this year for merely one day. The consequence took place at the Lorelei Rock amphitheater with artists like Mad Professor ‘s Ariwa Posse with Macka B and Kofi, Mutabaruka, the Mighty Diamonds, the Twinkle Brothers, Manu Dibango and Fela Kuti. The other, ex-partner of the onceunited promoters succeeded in bringing the master Sunsplash software to Germany for the first clock time. Close to the Main River in the little village of Gemaunden deep down in rural south-central Germany, they staged a two-day festival that drew the bigger crowd. About 10,000 people came from all over the country arsenic good as from neighboring states like enchantment and, for the first time, East Germany to see the lineup of top reggae artists. [ 81 ]
Africa [edit ]
Reggae in Africa was much boosted by the inflict of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe on Independence Day 18 April 1980. nigerian reggae had developed in the 1970s with artists such as Majek Fashek proving democratic. In South Africa, reggae music has played a centripetal character amongst cultural groups in Cape Town. During the years of Apartheid, the music bonded people from all demographic groups. Lucky Dube recorded 25 albums, fusing reggae with Mbaqanga. The Marcus Garvey Rasta camp in Phillipi is regarded by many to be the reggae and Rastafari center of Cape Town. Reggae bands play regularly at community centres such as the Zolani concentrate in Nyanga. In Uganda musician Papa Cidy is very popular. Arthur Lutta is besides a Ugandan gospel reggae drummer known for his reggae style drumming. In Ethiopia, Dub Colossus and Invisible System emerged in 2008 sharing core members, and have received across-the-board acclaim. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] In Mali, Askia Modibo fuses reggae with malian music. In Malawi, Black Missionaries produced nine albums. In Ivory Coast a country where reggae music is highly popular, Tiken Jah Fakoly fuses reggae with traditional music. Alpha Blondy from Ivory Coast sings reggae with religious lyrics. In Sudan, beats, drums and bass guitar from reggae music has been adopted into their music as reggae is a very popular among the generations from young to old, some spiritual ( religious ) groups grow their dreadlocks and have some reggae beats in their chants .
Asia and the Pacific [edit ]
In the Philippines, respective bands and sound systems play reggae and dancehall music. Their music is called Pinoy reggae. japanese reggae emerged in the early 1980s. Reggae is becoming more prevailing in Thailand vitamin a well. Reggae music is quite democratic in Sri Lanka. aside from the reggae music and Rastafari influences seen always more on Thailand ‘s islands and beaches, a true reggae sub-culture is taking root in Thailand ‘s cities and towns. many Thai artists, such as Job 2 Do, keep the tradition of reggae music and ideals alive in Thailand. By the end of the 1980s, the local music setting in Hawaii was dominated by Jawaiian music, a local shape of reggae. celebrated indian singer Kailash Kher and music producer Clinton Cerejo created Kalapi, a rare fusion piece of Reggae and indian music for Coke Studio India. [ 85 ] early than this high-profile slice, Reggae is confined to a minor, emerging scenery in India. [ 86 ] Thaikkudam Bridge, a neo-Indian dance band based in Kerala, India is known for inducing Reggae into indian regional blues. [ 87 ]
Australia and New Zealand [edit ]
Reggae in Australia originated in the 1980s. australian reggae groups include Sticky Fingers, Blue King Brown and Astronomy Class. New Zealand reggae was heavily inspired by Bob Marley ‘s 1979 enlistment of the nation, and early reggae groups such as Herbs. [ 88 ] The genre has seen many bands like Fat Freddy ‘s Drop, Salmonella Dub, the Black Seeds and Katchafire emerging in more recent times, often involving fusion with electronica. [ 89 ] In 2017 [ 90 ] The first-ever chart dedicated to reggae and dancehall music established in Australia by radio receiver donor DJ Ragz, [ 91 ] music manufacturer DJ Wade [ 92 ] and Dancehall Reggae Australia. [ 93 ]
Cod reggae [edit ]
The term cod reggae is popularly used to describe reggae done by non-Caribbean ( much whiten ) people, often in a derogative manner because of perceive inauthenticity. Boy George has been described as one of the “ greats ” in pod reggae. [ 94 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
bibliography [edit ]
far interpretation [edit ]
- Bradley, Lloyd (1996). Reggae on CD: The Essential Collection. London: Kyle-Cathie. 368 p. ISBN 1-85636-577-8. The ISBN is from the back cover; the ISBN on the verso of the t.p. is incomplete.