musical human body and music genre
This article is about the music music genre. For other uses, see Blues ( disambiguation )
Blues is an black american music writing style [ 3 ] and musical form which originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s [ 2 ] by African-Americans from roots in african-american work songs and spirituals. Blues incorporated spirituals, exercise songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, and rhymed simpleton narrative ballads. The blues form, omnipresent in jazz, rhythm method of birth control and blues and rock candy and paradiddle, is characterized by the call-and-response convention, the blues scale and specific harmonize progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. blasphemous notes ( or “ concern notes ” ), normally thirds, fifths or sevenths flattened in sales talk are besides an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking freshwater bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm method of birth control and form a repetitive effect known as the furrow.

Blues as a writing style is besides characterized by its lyrics, freshwater bass lines, and instrumentation. early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first gear decades of the twentieth hundred that the most common current social organization became standard : the AAB pattern, consisting of a line spill the beans over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the survive bars. early blues frequently took the shape of a loose narrative, often relating the racial discrimination and other challenges experienced by African-Americans. many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the practice of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa. The origins of the blues are besides closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. The first appearance of the blues is frequently dated to after the ending of bondage and, former, the development of juke joints. It is associated with the newly acquired exemption of the early slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the click of the twentieth hundred. The first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from alone vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a across-the-board assortment of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include state blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, ampere well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive open of blues music to a broad hearing, specially white listeners. In the 1960s and 1970s, a loanblend kind called blues rock developed, which blended blues styles with rock music .

etymology [edit ]

The term Blues may have come from “ amobarbital sodium devils ”, meaning black bile and sadness ; an early use of the condition in this sense is in George Colman ‘s one-act farce Blue Devils ( 1798 ). [ 4 ] The phrase blue devils may besides have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the “ intense ocular hallucinations that can accompany austere alcohol secession ”. [ 5 ] As prison term went on, the give voice lost the reference to devils, and it came to mean a state of agitation or depression. [ 5 ] By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drink alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. [ 5 ] Though the use of the phrase in african-american music may be older, it has been attested to in photographic print since 1912, when Hart Wand ‘s “ Dallas Blues “ became the foremost copyrighted blues composition. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a gloomy mood. [ 8 ] In 1827, it was in the sense of a deplorable state of mind that John James Audubon wrote to his wife that he “ had the blues ”. [ 9 ] The phrase “ the blues ” was written by Charlotte Forten, then aged 25, in her diary on December 14, 1862. She was a free-born black charwoman from Pennsylvania who was working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, and wrote that she “ came dwelling with the blues ” because she felt lone and pitied herself. She overcame her depression and late noted a total of songs, such as “ Poor Rosy ”, that were popular among the slaves. Although she admitted being ineffective to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs “ ca n’t be sung without a full moon heart and a disruptive spirit ”, conditions that have inspired countless blues songs. [ 10 ]

Lyrics [edit ]

The lyrics of early traditional blues verses probably much consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was alone in the beginning decades of the twentieth century that the most coarse current structure became standard : the alleged “ AAB ” blueprint, consisting of a channel whistle over the four first bars, its repetition over the future four, and then a longer conclude occupation over the death bars. [ 11 ] Two of the first published blues songs, “ Dallas Blues “ ( 1912 ) and “ Saint Louis Blues “ ( 1914 ), were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure. W.C. Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times. [ 12 ] The lines are frequently sung following a model close to rhythmic lecture than to a melody. early blues frequently took the form of a lax narrative. african-american singers voiced their “ personal woes in a earth of harsh world : a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk music, [ and ] hard times ”. [ 13 ] This somber has led to the hypnotism of an Igbo lineage for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholy music and mentality on life when they were enslaved. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] The lyrics often relate troubles experienced within african american english company. For example Blind Lemon Jefferson ‘s “ Rising High Water Blues ” ( 1927 ) tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 :

Backwater rising, southern peoples ca n’t make no time
I said, backwater rising, southern peoples ca n’t make no prison term
And I ca n’t get no hear from that Memphis girlfriend of mine

Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could besides be humorous and raunchy : [ 16 ]

Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me,
Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me,
It may be sending you baby, but it ‘s worrying the sin out of me. [ 17 ]

Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance expressive style. [ 18 ] Tampa Red and Georgia Tom ‘s “ It ‘s Tight Like That “ ( 1928 ) [ 19 ] is a crafty pun with the double entail of being “ compressed “ with person, coupled with a more lewd physical familiarity. Blues songs with sexually denotative lyrics were known as dirty blues. The lyric message became slenderly simpler in postwar blues, which tended to focus on kinship woes or sexual worries. lyrical themes that frequently appeared in prewar blues, such as economic depression, farm, devils, gambling, magic trick, floods and drought, were less common in postwar blues. [ 20 ] The writer Ed Morales claimed that Yoruba mythology played a region in early blues, citing Robert Johnson ‘s “ Cross Road Blues “ as a “ thinly veiled reference book to Eleggua, the orisha in charge of the crossroads ”. [ 21 ] however, the christian influence was far more obvious. [ 22 ] The repertoires of many seminal blues artists, such as Charley Patton and Skip James, included religious songs or spirituals. [ 23 ] Reverend Gary Davis [ 24 ] and Blind Willie Johnson [ 25 ] are examples of artists much categorized as blues musicians for their music, although their lyrics clearly belong to spirituals .

form [edit ]

The blues form is a cyclic musical mannequin in which a repeating progression of chords mirrors the call and response outline normally found in african and african-american music. During the first decades of the twentieth century blues music was not intelligibly defined in terms of a finical harmonize progression. [ 26 ] With the popularity of early performers, such as Bessie Smith, use of the twelve-bar blues spread across the music diligence during the 1920s and 30s. [ 27 ] other chord progressions, such as 8-bar forms, are hush considered blues ; examples include “ How Long Blues “, “ trouble in Mind “, and Big Bill Broonzy ‘s “ Key to the Highway “. There are besides 16-bar blues, such as Ray Charles ‘s implemental “ sweet 16 Bars ” and Herbie Hancock ‘s “ Watermelon Man “. idiosyncratic numbers of bars are occasionally used, such as the 9-bar progression in “ Sitting on Top of the World “, by Walter Vinson .

Chords played over a 12-bar scheme: Chords for a blues in C:
I I or IV I I7
IV IV I I7
V V or IV I I or V
C C C C
F F C C
G G C C

The basic 12-bar lyric model of a blues composition is reflected by a standard harmonic progress of 12 bars in a 4/4 time signature. The blues chords associated to a twelve-bar blues are typically a arrange of three different chords played over a 12-bar outline. They are labeled by Roman numbers referring to the degrees of the progression. For case, for a blues in the key of C, C is the tonic chord ( I ) and F is the subdominant ( IV ). The last chord is the prevailing ( V ) reversal, marking the transition to the beginning of the following progression. The lyrics broadly end on the last beat of the tenth bar or the first pulsate of the 11th bar, and the final examination two bars are given to the musician as a interruption ; the harmony of this two-bar break, the reversion, can be highly complex, sometimes consisting of single notes that defy analysis in terms of chords. much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic one-seventh ( 7th ) mannequin. The practice of the harmonic seventh interval is characteristic of blues and is popularly called the “ blues seven ”. [ 28 ] Blues seven chords add to the harmonic harmonize a note with a frequency in a 7:4 proportion to the fundamental bill. At a 7:4 ratio, it is not close to any interval on the conventional westerly diatonic scale. [ 29 ] For convenience or by necessity it is much approximated by a minor one-seventh time interval or a prevailing seventh chord .
In melody, blues is distinguished by the practice of the flatten third, fifth and one-seventh of the consociate major scale. [ 30 ] Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like cycle and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a rut. Characteristic of the blues since its african-american origins, the shuffles played a central function in swing music. [ 31 ] The simplest shuffles, which were the clearest signature of the R & B wave that started in the mid-1940s, [ 32 ] were a three-note flick on the bass strings of the guitar. When this riff was played over the bass and the drums, the rut “ feel ” was created. Shuffle rhythm is often vocalized as “ dow, district attorney dow, district attorney dow, district attorney ” or “ dump, district attorney dump, district attorney dump, district attorney ” : [ 33 ] it consists of uneven, or “ swing ”, eighth notes. On a guitar this may be played as a childlike steady bass or it may add to that bit-by-bit quarter note motion from the fifth to the one-sixth of the chord and back .

history [edit ]

Origins [edit ]

The first publication of blues sheet music may have been “ I Got the Blues ”, published by New Orleans musician Antonio Maggio in 1908 and described as “ the earliest published composition known to link the condition of having the blues to the musical form that would become popularly known as ‘the blues. ‘ ” [ 34 ] Hart Wand ‘s “ Dallas Blues “ was published in 1912 ; W.C. Handy ‘s “ The Memphis Blues “ followed in the lapp year. The inaugural recording by an african american singer was Mamie Smith ‘s 1920 rendition of Perry Bradford ‘s “ Crazy Blues “. But the origins of the blues were some decades earlier, credibly around 1890. [ 35 ] This music is ailing documented, partially because of racial discrimination in U.S. society, including academic circles, [ 36 ] and partially because of the broken rate of literacy among rural african Americans at the meter. [ 37 ] Reports of blues music in southern Texas and the Deep South were written at the dawn of the twentieth hundred. Charles Peabody mentioned the appearance of blues music at Clarksdale, Mississippi, and Gate Thomas reported alike songs in southern Texas around 1901–1902. These observations coincide more or less with the recollections of Jelly Roll Morton, who said he first heard blues music in New Orleans in 1902 ; Ma Rainey, who remembered first hearing the blues in the same year in Missouri ; and W.C. Handy, who first heard the blues in Tutwiler, Mississippi, in 1903. The first across-the-board research in the field was performed by Howard W. Odum, who published an anthology of folk songs from Lafayette County, Mississippi, and Newton County, Georgia, between 1905 and 1908. [ 38 ] The first noncommercial recordings of blues music, termed proto-blues by Paul Oliver, were made by Odum for research purposes at the identical beginning of the twentieth century. They are nowadays lost. [ 39 ] early recordings that are calm available were made in 1924 by Lawrence Gellert. Later, respective recordings were made by Robert W. Gordon, who became point of the Archive of American Folk Songs of the Library of Congress. Gordon ‘s successor at the library was John Lomax. In the 1930s, Lomax and his son Alan made a big phone number of non-commercial blues recordings that testify to the huge kind of proto-blues styles, such as plain hollers and ring shouts. [ 40 ] A record of blues music as it existed before 1920 can besides be found in the recordings of artists such as Lead Belly [ 41 ] and Henry Thomas. [ 42 ] All these sources show the being of many different structures distinct from twelve-, eight-, or sixteen-bar. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] The social and economic reasons for the appearance of the blues are not in full known. [ 45 ] The first appearance of the blues is normally dated after the Emancipation Act of 1863, [ 36 ] between 1860s and 1890s, [ 2 ] a menstruation that coincides with post- emancipation and late, the establishment of juke joints as places where blacks went to listen to music, dancing, or gamble after a unvoiced sidereal day ‘s work. This period corresponds to the transition from bondage to sharecropping, small-scale agricultural production, and the expansion of railroads in the southern United States. several scholars characterize the development of blues music in the early on 1900s as a motivate from group performance to individualized performance. They argue that the growth of the blues is associated with the newly acquired exemption of the enslave people. [ 47 ] According to Lawrence Levine, “ there was a target relationship between the national ideological vehemence upon the individual, the popularity of Booker T. Washington ‘s teachings, and the rise of the blues. ” Levine stated that “ psychologically, socially, and economically, African-Americans were being acculturated in a way that would have been impossible during slavery, and it is hardly storm that their worldly music reflected this equally much as their religious music did. ” [ 47 ] There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the writing style took its form from the idiosyncrasies of person performers. [ 48 ] however, there are some characteristics that were present long before the creation of the modern blues. Call-and-response shouts were an early form of blues-like music ; they were a “ functional expression … vogue without escort or harmony and unbounded by the formality of any particular melodious structure ”. [ 49 ] A kind of this pre-blues was heard in slave surround shouts and field hollers, expanded into “ simple solo songs laden with emotional content ”. [ 50 ] Blues has evolved from the alone vocal music and oral traditions of slaves imported from West Africa and rural blacks into a wide variety show of styles and subgenres, with regional variations across the United States. Although blues ( as it is now known ) can be seen as a musical style based on both European harmonic structure and the african call-and-response custom that transformed into an interplay of voice and guitar, [ 51 ] [ 52 ] the blues form itself bears no resemblance to the melodious styles of the West african griots. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] additionally, there are theories that the four-beats-per-measure structure of the blues might have its origins in the native american tradition of prisoner of war wow drumming. [ 55 ] No specific African melodious form can be identified as the single direct ancestor of the blues. [ 56 ] however the call-and-response format can be traced back to the music of Africa. That gloomy notes predate their use in blues and have an african beginning is attested to by “ A Negro Love Song ”, by the English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, from his African Suite for Piano, written in 1898, which contains bluing third and seventh notes. [ 57 ] The Diddley bow ( a homemade one-stringed instrument found in parts of the American South in the early twentieth century ) and the banjo are African-derived instruments that may have helped in the transfer of african performance techniques into the early blues implemental vocabulary. [ 58 ] The banjo seems to be directly imported from west african music. It is similar to the melodious instrument that griots and other Africans such as the Igbo [ 59 ] played ( called halam or akonting by african peoples such as the Wolof, Fula and Mandinka ). [ 60 ] however, in the 1920s, when nation blues began to be recorded, the use of the banjo in blues music was quite borderline and circumscribed to individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and subsequently Gus Cannon. [ 61 ] Blues music besides adopted elements from the “ ethiopian air ”, folk singer shows and Negro spirituals, including implemental and harmonic accompaniment. [ 62 ] The expressive style besides was closely related to ragtime, which developed at about the like fourth dimension, though the blues better preserved “ the original melodic patterns of african music ”. [ 63 ] The musical forms and styles that are now considered the blues deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as modern nation music arose in the like regions of the southern United States during the nineteenth hundred. Recorded blues and country music can be found as far back as the 1920s, when the record industry created the marketing categories “ race music “ and “ hillbilly music “ to sell music by blacks for blacks and by whites for whites, respectively. At the time, there was no clear musical division between “ blues ” and “ area ”, except for the ethnicity of the performer, and tied that was sometimes documented incorrectly by record companies. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] Though musicologists can now attempt to define the blues narrowly in terms of certain harmonize structures and lyric forms thought to have originated in West Africa, audiences primitively heard the music in a far more general way : it was plainly the music of the rural south, notably the Mississippi Delta. Black and white musicians shared the same repertoire and idea of themselves as “ songsters “ preferably than blues musicians. The notion of blues as a separate genre arise during the black migration from the countryside to urban areas in the 1920s and the coincident development of the recording industry. Blues became a code password for a record designed to sell to black listeners. [ 66 ] The origins of the blues are close related to the religious music of Afro-American community, the spirituals. The origins of spirituals go back much further than the blues, normally dating back to the middle of the eighteenth century, when the slaves were Christianized and began to sing and play Christian hymn, in especial those of Isaac Watts, which were very popular. [ 67 ] Before the blues gained its ball definition in terms of chord progressions, it was defined as the layman counterpart of spirituals. It was the funky music played by rural blacks. [ 22 ] Depending on the religious community a musician belong to, it was more or less considered a sin to play this funky music : blues was the satan ‘s music. Musicians were therefore segregated into two categories : gospel singers and blues singers, guitar preachers and songsters. however, when rural black music began to be recorded in the 1920s, both categories of musicians used alike techniques : call-and-response patterns, aristocratic notes, and skid guitars. Gospel music was however using musical forms that were compatible with christian hymn and therefore less marked by the blues form than its layman counterpart. [ 22 ]

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Pre-war blues [edit ]

The american sheet music print industry produced a big consider of ragtime music. By 1912, the sheet music industry had published three democratic blues-like compositions, precipitating the Tin Pan Alley borrowing of blues elements : “ Baby Seals ‘ Blues ”, by “ Baby ” Franklin Seals ( arranged by Artie Matthews ) ; “ Dallas Blues ”, by Hart Wand ; and “ The Memphis Blues “, by W.C. Handy. [ 68 ] Handy was a formally train musician, composer and organizer who helped to popularize the blues by transcribing and orchestrating blues in an about symphonic style, with bands and singers. He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the “ Father of the Blues ” ; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and sleep together, a fusion facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm method of birth control that had long been a depart of ragtime ; [ 21 ] [ 69 ] Handy ‘s touch work was the “ Saint Louis Blues “. In the 1920s, the blues became a major element of african American and American popular music, besides reaching white audiences via Handy ‘s arrangements and the authoritative female blues performers. These female performers became possibly the first base african american “ superstars ”, and their recording sales demonstrated “ a huge appetite for records made by and for black people. ” [ 70 ] The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters. Blues performances were organized by the Theater Owners Bookers Association in cabaret such as the Cotton Club and juke joints such as the bars along Beale Street in Memphis. several record companies, such as the american Record Corporation, Okeh Records, and Paramount Records, began to record african-american music. As the commemorate industry grew, nation blues performers like Bo Carter, Jimmie Rodgers, Blind Lemon Jefferson, Lonnie Johnson, Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the african American community. Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the inaugural to record the slither guitar manner, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the pint-size neck of a bottle. [ 71 ] The slither guitar became an authoritative region of the Delta blues. [ 72 ] The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polish city or urban blues. state blues performers much improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar. regional styles of area blues varied wide in the early twentieth century. The ( Mississippi ) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar. The little-recorded Robert Johnson [ 73 ] combined elements of urban and rural blues. In addition to Robert Johnson, influential performers of this style included his predecessors Charley Patton and Son House. Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern “ delicate and lyric ” Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar proficiency. Georgia besides had an early on slither tradition, [ 74 ] with Curley Weaver, Tampa Red, “ Barbecue Bob ” Hicks and James “ Kokomo ” Arnold as representatives of this style. [ 75 ] The alert Memphis blues vogue, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee, was influenced by imprison bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon ‘s Jug Stompers. Performers such as Frank Stokes, Sleepy John Estes, Robert Wilkins, Joe McCoy, Casey Bill Weldon and Memphis Minnie used a variety of strange instruments such as washboard, toy, kazoo or mandolin. Memphis Minnie was celebrated for her ace guitar expressive style. Pianist Memphis Slim began his career in Memphis, but his discrete style was placid and had some golf stroke elements. many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues campaign. [ 76 ] [ 77 ]

Urban blues [edit ]

City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate, as a performer was no long within their local, immediate community, and had to adapt to a larger, more varied audience ‘s aesthetic. [ 78 ] Classic female urban and vaudeville blues singers were popular in the 1920s, among them “ the large three ” — Gertrude “ Ma ” Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Lucille Bogan. Mamie Smith, more a vaudeville performer than a blues artist, was the first african American to record a blues song in 1920 ; her second record, “ crazy Blues ”, sold 75,000 copies in its first calendar month. [ 79 ] Ma Rainey, the “ Mother of Blues ”, and Bessie Smith each “ [ whistle ] around center tones, possibly in order to project her voice more easily to the binding of a room ”. Smith would “ sing a song in an strange samara, and her art in deflection and stretching notes with her beautiful, mighty alto to accommodate her own interpretation was unexcelled ”. [ 80 ] In 1920 the vaudeville singer Lucille Hegamin became the second black womanhood to record blues when she recorded “ The Jazz Me Blues ”, [ 81 ] and Victoria Spivey, sometimes called queen Victoria or Za Zu Girl, had a recording career that began in 1926 and spanned forty years. These recordings were typically labeled “ race records “ to distinguish them from records sold to white audiences. however, the recordings of some of the classic female blues singers were purchased by flannel buyers ampere well. [ 82 ] These blueswomen ‘s contributions to the writing style included “ increased extemporization on melodious lines, unusual give voice which altered the vehemence and impingement of the lyrics, and vocal dramatics using shouts, groans, moans, and wails. The blues women frankincense effected changes in early types of popular singing that had spin-offs in jazz, Broadway musicals, flashlight songs of the 1930s and 1940s, gospel, rhythm and blues, and finally rock candy and roll. ” [ 83 ] Urban male performers included popular bootleg musicians of the era, such as Tampa Red, Big Bill Broonzy and Leroy Carr. An important label of this era was the Chicago-based Bluebird Records. Before World War II, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as “ the Guitar Wizard ”. Carr accompanied himself on the piano with Scrapper Blackwell on guitar, a format that continued well into the 1950s with artists such as Charles Brown and even Nat “ King ” Cole. [ 72 ]

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( assistant· information

) A typical boogie bass line Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues. While the style is much associated with solo piano, boogie was besides used to accompany singers and, as a solo part, in bands and little combos. Boogie-Woogie style was characterized by a regular bass figure, an ostinato or flick and shifts of level in the left hand, elaborating each harmonize and trills and decorations in the right hand. Boogie-woogie was pioneered by the Chicago-based Jimmy Yancey and the Boogie-Woogie Trio ( Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis ). [ 84 ] Chicago boogie performers included Clarence “ Pine Top ” Smith and Earl Hines, who “ linked the propellant left rhythm of the ragtime pianists with melodic figures alike to those of Armstrong ‘s trumpet in the right bridge player ”. [ 78 ] The smooth Louisiana expressive style of Professor Longhair and, more recently, Dr. John blends classical cycle and blues with blues styles. Another exploitation in this period was big band blues. The “ territory bands “ operating out of Kansas City, the Bennie Moten orchestra, Jay McShann, and the Count Basie Orchestra were besides concentrating on the blues, with 12-bar blues instrumentals such as Basie ‘s “ One O’Clock Jump “ and “ Jumpin ‘ at the Woodside “ and boisterous “ blues shouting “ by Jimmy Rushing on songs such as “ Going to Chicago ” and “ Sent for You yesterday “. A well-known bad band blues tune is Glenn Miller ‘s “ In the Mood “. In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed. Jump blues grew up from the boogie woogie wave and was strongly influenced by boastfully band music. It uses sax or other boldness instruments and the guitar in the rhythm segment to create a flashy, up-tempo sound with bombastic vocals. Jump blues tunes by Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner, based in Kansas City, Missouri, influenced the development of by and by styles such as rock and peal and rhythm method of birth control and blues. [ 85 ] Dallas-born T-Bone Walker, who is often associated with the California blues style, [ 86 ] performed a successful transition from the early urban blues à lanthanum Lonnie Johnson and Leroy Carr to the rise blues stylus and dominated the blues-jazz scenery at Los Angeles during the 1940s. [ 87 ]

1950s [edit ]

The transition from nation blues to urban blues that began in the 1920s was driven by the consecutive waves of economic crisis and booms that led many rural blacks to move to urban areas, in a drift known as the Great Migration. The farseeing boom following World War II induced another massive migration of the african-american population, the Second Great Migration, which was accompanied by a significant increase of the real income of the urban blacks. The new migrants constituted a modern market for the music diligence. The term race record, initially used by the music industry for african-american music, was replaced by the term rhythm and blues. This quickly evolving market was mirrored by Billboard magazine ‘s Rhythm & Blues chart. This market strategy reinforced trends in urban blues music such as the use of electric instruments and amplification and the generalization of the blues beat, the blues shuffle, which became omnipresent in rhythm and blues ( R & B ). This commercial flow had important consequences for blues music, which, together with jazz and gospel music, became a component of R & B. [ 88 ] After World War II, newfangled styles of electric blues became democratic in cities such as Chicago, [ 89 ] Memphis, [ 90 ] Detroit [ 91 ] [ 92 ] and St. Louis. Electric blues used electric guitars, doubly bass ( gradually replaced by sea bass guitar ), drums, and harmonica ( or “ blues harp ” ) played through a microphone and a PA organization or an overdrive guitar amplifier. Chicago became a center for electric blues from 1948 on, when Muddy Waters recorded his inaugural success, “ I Ca n’t Be Satisfied ”. [ 93 ] Chicago blues is influenced to a large extent by Delta blues, because many performers had migrated from the Mississippi region. Howlin ‘ Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon and Jimmy Reed were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration. Their expressive style is characterized by the manipulation of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica, and a rhythm section of bass and drums. [ 94 ] The saxophonist J. T. Brown played in bands led by Elmore James and by J. B. Lenoir, but the sax was used as a back instrument for rhythmical support more than as a moderate instrument. short Walter, Sonny Boy Williamson ( Rice Miller ) and Sonny Terry are well known harmonica ( called “ harp “ by blues musicians ) players of the early Chicago blues view. early harp players such as big Walter Horton were besides influential. Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative practice of slide electric guitar. Howlin ‘ Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their bass, “ grating ” voices. The bassist and fecund songwriter and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues view. He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period, such as “ Hoochie Coochie Man “, “ I Just Want to Make Love to You “ ( both penned for Muddy Waters ) and, “ Wang Dang Doodle “ and “ Back Door Man “ for Howlin ‘ Wolf. Most artists of the Chicago blues manner recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels. Smaller blues labels of this earned run average included Vee-Jay Records and J.O.B. Records. During the early on 1950s, the dominating Chicago labels were challenged by Sam Phillips ‘ Sun Records ship’s company in Memphis, which recorded B. B. King and Howlin ‘ wolf before he moved to Chicago in 1960. [ 95 ] After Phillips discovered Elvis Presley in 1954, the Sun label turned to the quickly expanding white audience and started recording by and large rock ‘n ‘ roll. [ 96 ] In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream american popular music. While popular musicians like Bo Diddley [ 91 ] and Chuck Berry, [ 97 ] both recording for Chess, were influenced by the Chicago blues, their enthusiastic play styles departed from the melancholy aspects of blues. Chicago blues besides influenced Louisiana ‘s zydeco music, [ 98 ] with Clifton Chenier [ 99 ] using blues accents. Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards. In England, electric blues took root there during a a lot acclaimed Muddy Waters tour in 1958. Waters, unsuspecting of his audience ‘s tendency towards skiffle, an acoustic, softer trade name of blues, turned up his adenosine monophosphate and started to play his Chicago post of electric blues. Although the hearing was largely jolted by the performance, the performance influenced local anesthetic musicians such as Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies to emulate this brassy dash, inspiring the british Invasion of the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds. [ 100 ] In the late 1950s, a new blues style emerged on Chicago ‘s West side pioneered by Magic Sam, Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records. [ 101 ] The “ West Side sound ” had impregnable rhythmical patronize from a rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums and as perfected by Guy, Freddie King, Magic Slim and Luther Allison was dominated by overstate electric spark advance guitar. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] Expressive guitar solo were a identify feature of this music. other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker had influences not directly related to the Chicago dash. John Lee Hooker ‘s blues is more “ personal ”, based on Hooker ‘s deep rocky voice accompanied by a single electric guitar. Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his “ bang-up ” vogue is sometimes called “ guitar boogie ”. His first hit, “ Boogie Chillen “, reached numeral 1 on the R & B charts in 1949. [ 104 ] By the belated 1950s, the deluge blues genre developed near Baton Rouge, with performers such as Lightnin ‘ Slim, [ 105 ] Slim Harpo, [ 106 ] Sam Myers and Jerry McCain around the producer J. D. “ Jay ” Miller and the Excello label. powerfully influenced by Jimmy Reed, swamp blues has a slower pace and a simple function of the harmonica than the Chicago blues expressive style performers such as small Walter or Muddy Waters. Songs from this genre include “ Scratch my Back ”, “ She ‘s tough ” and “ I ‘m a King Bee “. Alan Lomax ‘s recordings of Mississippi Fred McDowell would finally bring him wider attention on both the blues and folk circuit, with McDowell ‘s droning stylus influencing North Mississippi hill nation blues musicians. [ 107 ]

1960s and 1970s [edit ]

By the beginning of the 1960s, genres influenced by african american english music such as rock and paradiddle and soul were separate of mainstream popular music. White performers such as the Rolling Stones and the Beatles had brought african-american music to new audiences, both within the U.S. and overseas. however, the blues wave that brought artists such as Muddy Waters to the foreground had stopped. Bluesmen such as adult Bill Broonzy and Willie Dixon started looking for modern markets in Europe. Dick Waterman and the blues festivals he organized in Europe played a major character in propagating blues music abroad. In the UK, bands emulate U.S. blues legends, and UK blues rock-based bands had an influential role throughout the 1960s. [ 108 ] Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York–born Taj Mahal. John Lee Hooker blended his blues style with rock elements and playing with younger white musicians, creating a melodious style that can be heard on the 1971 album Endless Boogie. B. B. King ‘s cantabile and ace guitar proficiency earned him the eponymous entitle “ king of the blues ”. King introduced a sophisticated style of guitar soloing based on fluid string flex and shimmering vibrato that influenced many late electric blues guitarists. [ 109 ] In contrast to the Chicago dash, King ‘s band used firm brass support from a sax, trumpet, and trombone, rather of using slither guitar or harmonica. Tennessee -born Bobby “ Blue ” Bland, like B. B. King, besides straddled the blues and R & B genres. During this period, Freddie King and Albert King frequently played with rock and person musicians ( Eric Clapton and Booker T & the MGs ) and had a major determine on those styles of music. The music of the civil rights movement [ 110 ] and Free Speech Movement in the U.S. prompted a revival of interest in american english roots music and early african american music. As well festivals such as the Newport Folk Festival [ 111 ] brought traditional blues to a new audience, which helped to revive interest in prewar acoustic blues and performers such as Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, Skip James, and Reverend Gary Davis. [ 110 ] many compilations of authoritative prewar blues were republished by the Yazoo Records. J. B. Lenoir from the Chicago blues movement in the 1950s recorded several LPs using acoustic guitar, sometimes accompanied by Willie Dixon on the acoustic bass or drums. His songs, in the first place distributed only in Europe, [ 112 ] commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this time period. His album Alabama Blues contained a birdcall with the following lyric :

I never will go back to Alabama, that is not the place for me ( 2× )
You know they killed my sister and my brother
and the solid world let them peoples go down there free

White audiences ‘ interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band featuring guitarist Michael Bloomfield and singer/songwriter Nick Gravenites, and the british blues movement. The dash of british blues developed in the UK, when bands such as the Animals, Fleetwood Mac, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, the supergroup Cream and the irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classical blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions. In 1963, LeRoi Jones, later known as Amiri Baraka, was the first base to write a script on the social history of the blues in Blues People: The Negro Music in White America. The british and blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a numeral of american blues rock fusion performers, including the Doors, Canned Heat, the early Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, Johnny Winter, The J. Geils Band, Ry Cooder, and the Allman Brothers Band. One blues rock candy performer, Jimi Hendrix, was a rarity in his battlefield at the time : a black man who played psychedelic rock. Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative habit of aberration and sound recording feedback in his music. [ 113 ] Through these artists and others, blues music influenced the development of rock music. In the early 1970s, the Texas rock-blues style emerged, which used guitars in both solo and cycle roles. In contrast with the West Side blues, the Texas style is powerfully influenced by the british rock-blues motion. major artists of the Texas style are Johnny Winter, Stevie Ray Vaughan, the fabulous Thunderbirds ( led by harmonica actor and singer-songwriter Kim Wilson ), and ZZ Top. These artists all began their musical careers in the 1970s but they did not achieve international achiever until the following ten. [ 114 ]

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1980s to the confront [edit ]

Father of Italian Blues“, and is among the few European blues artists who still enjoy international success.[115] italian singer Zucchero is credited as the “ ”, and is among the few european blues artists who still enjoy international success. Since the 1980s there has been a revival of sake in the blues among a certain separate of the african-american population, particularly around Jackson, Mississippi and other deep South regions. Often termed “ soul blues “ or “ southern soul “, the music at the heart of this drift was given raw life by the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label : [ 116 ] Z. Z. Hill ‘s Down Home Blues ( 1982 ) and Little Milton ‘s The Blues is Alright ( 1984 ). contemporary african-american performers who work in this style of the blues include Bobby Rush, Denise LaSalle, Sir Charles Jones, Bettye LaVette, Marvin Sease, Peggy Scott-Adams, Mel Waiters, Clarence Carter, Dr. “ Feelgood ” Potts, O.B. Buchana, Ms. Jody, Shirley Brown, and dozens of others .
During the 1980s blues besides continued in both traditional and raw forms. In 1986 the album Strong Persuader announced Robert Cray as a major blues artist. The first Stevie Ray Vaughan recording Texas Flood was released in 1983, and the Texas-based guitarist exploded onto the external stage. John Lee Hooker ‘s popularity was revived with the album The Healer in 1989. Eric Clapton, known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream, made a rejoinder in the 1990s with his album Unplugged, in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar. however, beginning in the 1990s, digital multitrack commemorate and other technological advances and new selling strategies including video recording nip production increased costs, challenging the spontaneity and improvisation that are an significant component of blues music. [ 117 ] In the 1980s and 1990s, blues publications such as Living Blues and Blues Revue were launched, major cities began forming blues societies, outdoor blues festivals became more common, and [ 118 ] more nightclubs and venues for blues emerged. [ 119 ] In the 1990s, the largely ignored hill state blues gained minor recognition in both blues and option rock ‘n’ roll music circles with northerly Mississippi artists R. L. Burnside and Junior Kimbrough. [ 107 ] Blues performers explored a range of musical genres, as can be seen, for case, from the broad align of nominees of the annually Blues Music Awards, previously named W.C. Handy Awards [ 120 ] or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album. The Billboard Blues Album graph provides an overview of current blues hits. contemporary blues music is nurtured by several blues labels such as : alligator Records, Ruf Records, Severn Records, Chess Records ( MCA ), Delmark Records, NorthernBlues Music, Fat Possum Records and Vanguard Records ( Artemis Records ). Some labels are celebrated for rediscovering and remastering blues rarities, including Arhoolie Records, Smithsonian Folkways Recordings ( successor of Folkways Records ), and Yazoo Records ( Shanachie Records ). [ 121 ]

musical impingement [edit ]

Blues musical styles, forms ( 12-bar blues ), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock candy and bankroll, sleep together, and popular music. [ 122 ] Prominent sleep together, folk music or rock performers, such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, and Bob Dylan have performed significant blues recordings. The blues plate is frequently used in democratic songs like Harold Arlen ‘s “ Blues in the Night ”, blues ballads like “ Since I Fell for You ” and “ Please Send Me Someone to Love ”, and even in orchestral works such as George Gershwin ‘s “ Rhapsody in Blue “ and “ Concerto in F ”. Gershwin ‘s second “ Prelude ” for solo piano is an matter to exemplar of a classical blues, maintaining the form with academic sternness. The blues scale is omnipresent in modern popular music and informs many modal frames, specially the ladder of thirds used in rock music ( for model, in “ A Hard Day ‘s Night “ ). Blues forms are used in the composition to the televised Batman, adolescent paragon Fabian Forte ‘s hit, “ Turn Me Loose ”, country music star topology Jimmie Rodgers ‘ music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman ‘s hit “ Give Me One Reason ” .

“ Blues whistle is about emotion. Its charm on popular sing has been so far-flung that, at least among males, singing and emoting have become about identical—it is a matter of projection rather than hitting the notes. ” [ 123 ]

— Robert Christgau, 1972
early nation bluesmen such as Skip James, Charley Patton, Georgia Tom Dorsey played area and urban blues and had influences from spiritual sing. Dorsey helped to popularize Gospel music. [ 124 ] Gospel music developed in the 1930s, with the Golden Gate Quartet. In the 1950s, soul music by Sam Cooke, Ray Charles and James Brown used religious doctrine and blues music elements. In the 1960s and 1970s, gospel and blues were merged in soul blues music. Funk music of the 1970s was influenced by soul ; funk can be seen as an antecedent of hip-hop and contemporary R & B. R & B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues. Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England chorale traditions, and in finical of Isaac Watts ‘s hymn, assorted with african rhythms and call-and-response forms. Spirituals or religious chants in the African-American community are much better documented than the “ dope ” blues. spiritual tattle developed because african-american communities could gather for batch or idolize gatherings, which were called camp meetings. Edward P. Comentale has noted how the blues was frequently used as a medium for art or self-expression, express : “ As heard from Delta shacks to Chicago tenements to Harlem cabarets, the blues proved—despite its offended origins—a signally compromising medium and a new sphere for the determine of identity and community. ” [ 125 ] Before World War II, the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clearly. normally, jazz had harmonic structures stemming from brass bands, whereas blues had blues forms such as the 12-bar blues. however, the jump blues of the 1940s mix both styles. After WWII, blues had a solid charm on wind. Bebop classics, such as Charlie Parker ‘s “ now ‘s the Time ”, used the blues form with the pentatonic scale and blue notes. Bebop marked a major careen in the character of wind, from a popular stylus of music for dancing to a “ high-art ”, less-accessible, cerebral “ musician ‘s music ”. The hearing for both blues and jazz separate, and the margin between blues and jazz became more specify. [ 126 ] [ 127 ] The blues ‘ 12-bar structure and the blues scale was a major determine on rock and roll music. Rock and coil has been called “ blues with a backbeat “ ; Carl Perkins called rockabilly “ blues with a country pulsate ”. Rockabillies were besides said to be 12-bar blues played with a bluegrass beat. “ Hound Dog “, with its unmodified 12-bar structure ( in both harmony and lyrics ) and a melody centered on flatted third base of the tonic ( and flatted seventh of the subdominant ), is a blues song transformed into a rock and bun song. Jerry Lee Lewis ‘s dash of rock candy and roll was heavy influenced by the blues and its derivative boogie. His style of music was not precisely rockabilly but it has been frequently called substantial rock and roll ( this is a label he shares with several african american rock ‘n’ roll and paradiddle performers ). [ 128 ] [ 129 ] many early rock ‘n’ roll and paradiddle songs are based on blues : “ That ‘s All Right Mama “, “ Johnny B. Goode “, “ Blue Suede Shoes “, “ whole Lotta Shakin ‘ Goin On “, “ Shake, Rattle, and Roll “, and “ Long Tall Sally “. The early african American rock musicians retained the sexual themes and insinuation of blues music : “ Got a gallon named Sue, knows barely what to do ” ( “ Tutti Frutti “, Little Richard ) or “ See the girl with the loss dress on, She can do the Birdland all nox long ” ( “ What ‘d I Say “, Ray Charles ). The 12-bar blues structure can be found even in knickknack pop songs, such as Bob Dylan ‘s “ obviously five Believers “ and Esther and Abi Ofarim ‘s “ Cinderella Rockefella “. early country music was infused with the blues. [ 130 ] Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican, Bob Wills, Bill Monroe and Hank Williams have all described themselves as blues singers and their music has a blues feel that is different, at first glance at least, from the late country-pop of artists like Eddy Arnold. Yet, if one looks back far, Arnold besides started out singing bluesy songs like ‘I ‘ll Hold You in My Heart ‘. A bunch of the 1970s-era “ outlaw ” country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings besides borrowed from the blues. When Jerry Lee Lewis returned to state music after the decline of 1950s dash rock and roll out, he sang with a blues feel and much included blues standards on his albums .

In popular culture [edit ]

Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues. The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 moviemarked a revival of interest in acoustic blues. Like jazz, rock and scroll, heavy metal music, hep hop music, reggae, nation music, Latin music, flinch, and crop up music, blues has been accused of being the “ monster ‘s music ” and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. [ 131 ] In the early twentieth hundred, the blues was considered disreputable, particularly as white audiences began listening to the blues during the 1920s. [ 69 ] In the early on twentieth century, W.C. Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-black Americans. During the blues revival of the 1960s and 1970s, acoustic blues artist Taj Mahal and Texas bluesman Lightnin ‘ Hopkins wrote and performed music that figured prominently in the critically acclaimed film Sounder ( 1972 ). The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nominating speech. [ 132 ] Almost 30 years late, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo writing, claw-hammer style, in the 2001 movie release Songcatcher, which focused on the narrative of the preservation of the roots music of Appalachia. possibly the most visible example of the blues manner of music in the late twentieth hundred came in 1980, when Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi released the film The Blues Brothers. The film drew many of the biggest surviving influencers of the rhythm method of birth control and blues genre in concert, such as Ray Charles, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, and John Lee Hooker. The dance band formed besides began a successful tour under the Blues Brothers pavilion. 1998 brought a sequel, Blues Brothers 2000 that, while not holding as capital a critical and fiscal success, featured a much larger number of blues artists, such as B.B. King, Bo Diddley, Erykah Badu, Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Charlie Musselwhite, Blues Traveler, Jimmie Vaughan, and Jeff Baxter. In 2003, Martin Scorsese made meaning efforts to promote the blues to a larger audience. He asked respective celebrated directors such as Clint Eastwood and Wim Wenders to participate in a series of documentary films for PBS called The Blues. [ 133 ] He besides participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs. Blues guitarist and singer Keb ‘ Mo ‘ performed his blues interpretation of “ America, the Beautiful “ in 2006 to close out the concluding season of the television receiver series The West Wing. The blues was highlighted in season 2012, episode 1 of In Performance at the White House, entitled “ Red, White and Blues ”. Hosted by Barack and Michelle Obama, the usher featured performances by B.B. King, Buddy Guy, Gary Clark Jr., Jeff Beck, Derek Trucks, Keb Mo, and others. [ 134 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

further read [edit ]

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