country in East Asia
“ People ‘s Republic of China ” redirects here. For the Republic of China, see Taiwan
China ( taiwanese : 中国 ; pinyin : Zhōngguó ), officially the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ; chinese : 中华人民共和国 ; pinyin : Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ), is a area in East Asia. It is the world ‘s most populous state, with a population of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographic time zones and borders 14 countries, the second most of any country in the universe after Russia. Covering an sphere of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers ( 3,700,000 sq secret intelligence service ), it is the global ‘s third base or one-fourth largest country. [ one ] The country consists of 23 provinces, [ joule ] five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two special administrative Regions ( Hong Kong and Macau ). The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and fiscal kernel is Shanghai.

China emerged as one of the worldly concern ‘s first civilizations in the prolific basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China was one of the populace ‘s foremost economic powers for most of the two millennium from the 1st until the nineteenth hundred. For millennium, China ‘s political system was based on absolute ancestral monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in the twenty-first century BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the third hundred BCE, the Qin reunited effect China and established the first chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty ( 206 BCE – 220 CE ) saw some of the most advance technology at that fourth dimension, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and chattel type in the Tang dynasty ( 618–907 ) and Northern Song Dynasty ( 960–1127 ) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread wide in Asia, as the new Silk Road brought traders to ampere far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa. The Qing dynasty, China ‘s stopping point dynasty, which formed the territorial basis for advanced China, suffered heavy losses to alien imperialism in the nineteenth century. The chinese monarchy collapsed in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when the Republic of China ( ROC ) replaced the Qing dynasty. Japan invaded China in 1937, starting the second Sino-Japanese War and temporarily halting the civil war between the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ) and the Kuomintang. The capitulation and ejection of japanese forces from China in 1945 left a power vacuum in the country, which led to renewed fighting between the CCP and the Kuomintang. The civil war ended in 1949 with the class of chinese territory ; the CCP established the People ‘s Republic of China on the mainland while the Kuomintang-led ROC politics retreated to the island of Taiwan. [ kelvin ] Both claim to be the sole legitimate government of China, although the United Nations has recognized the PRC as the sole representation since 1971. China conducted a series of economic reforms since 1978, and entered into the World Trade Organization in 2001. China is presently governed as a unitary one-party socialistic democracy by the CCP. China is a permanent extremity of the United Nations Security Council and a initiation member of several multilateral and regional cooperation organizations such as the asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the New Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and the RCEP, and is a extremity of the BRICS, the G8+5, the G20, the APEC, and the East Asia Summit. It ranks among the lowest in external measurements of civil liberties, government transparency, exemption of the press, freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. The chinese authorities have been criticized by political dissidents and human rights activists for widespread human rights abuses, including political repression, batch censoring, mass surveillance of their citizens and crimson suppression of protests. China is the universe ‘s largest economy by GDP at purchasing baron parity bit, the second-largest economy by noun phrase GDP, and the second-wealthiest country. The country is one of the fastest growing major economies and is the world ‘s largest manufacturer and exporter. China is a recognized nuclear-weapon state of matter with the worldly concern ‘s largest standing army by military personnel and second-largest defense mechanism budget .


China (today’s Mangi (inland of Xanton), and Cataio (inland of China and Chequan, and including the capital Cambalu, Xandu, and a ( today ‘s Guangdong ), ( inland of ), and ( inland ofand, and including the capital, and a marble bridge ) are all shown as distinguish regions on this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius The give voice “ China ” has been used in English since the sixteenth century ; however, it was not a word used by the taiwanese themselves during this time period. Its origin has been traced through Portuguese, Malay, and Persian back to the Sanskrit news Chīna, used in ancient India. [ 19 ] “ China ” appears in Richard Eden ‘s 1555 translation [ fifty ] of the 1516 diary of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. [ megabyte ] [ 19 ] Barbosa ‘s use was derived from irani Chīn ( چین ), which was in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna ( चीन ). [ 24 ] Cīna was first used in early on Hindu bible, including the Mahābhārata ( fifth hundred BCE ) and the Laws of Manu ( second century BCE ). [ 25 ] In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the discussion China is derived ultimately from the diagnose of the Qin dynasty ( 221–206 BCE ). [ 26 ] [ 25 ] Although usage in indian sources precedes this dynasty, this derivation is still given in assorted sources. [ 27 ] The origin of the Sanskrit discussion is a matter of argue, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. [ 19 ] option suggestions include the names for Yelang and the Jing or Chu state. [ 25 ] [ 28 ] The official name of the modern state is the “ People ‘s Republic of China ” ( simplified Chinese : 中华人民共和国 ; traditional chinese : 中華人民共和國 ; pinyin : Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ). The shorter form is “ China ” Zhōngguó ( 中国 ; 中國 ) from zhōng ( “ central ” ) and guó ( “ country ” ), [ n ] a condition which developed under the western Zhou dynasty in reference book to its royal domain. [ o ] [ phosphorus ] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi ( contemporary Luoyang ) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China ‘s Central Plain before being used as an episodic synonym for the express under the Qing. [ 30 ] It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived “ barbarians ”. [ 30 ] The name Zhongguo is besides translated as “ Middle Kingdom ” in English. [ 33 ] China ( PRC ) is sometimes referred to as the Mainland when distinguishing the ROC from the PRC. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ]



archaeological attest suggests that early hominids inhabited China 2.25 million years ago. [ 38 ] The hominian fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, [ 39 ] were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing ; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago. [ 40 ] The fossilized tooth of Homo sapiens ( dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago ) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan. [ 41 ] chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, [ 42 ] at Damaidi around 6000 BCE, [ 43 ] Dadiwan from 5800 to 5400 BCE, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols ( 7th millennium BCE ) constituted the earliest chinese writing system. [ 42 ]

early on dynastic rule

According to taiwanese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. [ 44 ] The Xia dynasty marked the begin of China ‘s political system based on familial monarchies, or dynasties, which lasted for a millennium. [ 45 ] The Xia dynasty was considered fabulous by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. [ 46 ] It remains ill-defined whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period. [ 47 ] The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporaneous records. [ 48 ] The Shang ruled the apparent of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the eleventh century BCE. [ 49 ] Their oracle cram handwriting ( from c. 1500 BCE ) [ 50 ] [ 51 ] represents the oldest phase of chinese write so far found [ 52 ] and is a direct ancestor of modern chinese characters. [ 53 ] The Shang was conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralize authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Some principalities finally emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer in full obeyed the Zhou king, and continually waged war with each other during the 300-year spring and Autumn time period. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries BCE, there were only seven knock-down states left. [ 54 ]

imperial China

The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms, reunited China and established the prevailing decree of autocracy. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. He enacted Qin ‘s legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of taiwanese characters, measurements, road widths ( i.e., cart axles ‘ length ), and currency. His dynasty besides conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam. [ 55 ] The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor ‘s end, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to far-flung rebellion. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned, [ q ] the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] The Han expanded the empire ‘s district well, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northerly Vietnam from Nanyue. Han interest in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the country route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier way over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient worldly concern. [ 59 ] Despite the Han ‘s initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin doctrine of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin ‘s legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors. [ 60 ] Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the second century BC After the end of the Han dynasty, a time period of discord known as Three Kingdoms followed, [ 61 ] whose central figures were late immortalized in one of the Four Classics of chinese literature. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally disable emperor butterfly ; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors ‘ apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into chinese culture. In the confederacy, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song. The diverse successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas last reunited by the Sui in 581. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture, economy and imperial examination arrangement, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. however, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a fail war in northerly Korea provoked widespread agitation. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, chinese economy, engineering, and acculturation entered a fortunate old age. [ 64 ] The Tang Empire retained control of the western Regions and the Silk Road, [ 65 ] which brought traders to a far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa, [ 66 ] and made the capital Chang’an a cosmopolitan urban center. however, it was devastated and weakened by the An Lushan Rebellion in the eighth century. [ 67 ] In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local anesthetic military governors became indocile. The Song dynasty ended the breakaway situation in 960, leading to a balance of might between the Song and Khitan Liao. The song was the first politics in world history to issue paper money and the first chinese polity to establish a permanent standing dark blue which was supported by the develop shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade. [ 68 ] The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, largely because of the expansion of rice polish in central and southerly China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. The Song dynasty besides saw a revival of Confucianism, in answer to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, [ 69 ] and a boom of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] however, the military helplessness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars. The remnants of the Song retreated to southerly China. [ 72 ] The Mongol conquest of China began in 1205 with the gradual conquest of western Xia by Genghis Khan, [ 73 ] who besides invaded Jin territories. [ 74 ] In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty, which conquered the survive leftover of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens ; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. [ 75 ] A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang led a rebellion that overthrew the yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor. Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another gold long time, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and golden economy amid a booming of art and culture. It was during this period that admiral Zheng He led the Ming prize voyages throughout the indian Ocean, reaching adenine army for the liberation of rwanda as East Africa. [ 76 ] In the early years of the Ming dynasty, China ‘s capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. With the bud of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming far critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations. [ 77 ] The scholar-official class became a supporting power of diligence and department of commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against japanese invasions of Korea ( 1592–1598 ) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted department of the treasury. [ 78 ] In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant maverick forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty cosmopolitan Wu Sangui, overthrew Li ‘s ephemeral Shun dynasty and subsequently seized see of Beijing, which became the raw capital of the Qing dynasty. [ citation needed ] The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the stopping point imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming ( 1618–1683 ) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically. [ 79 ] After the southern Ming ended, the far conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire. [ 80 ] The centralized autocracy was strengthened to suppress anti-Qing opinion with the policy of valuing agribusiness and restraining commerce, the Haijin ( “ ocean prohibition ” ), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing sociable and technical stagnation. [ 81 ] [ 82 ]

fall of the Qing dynasty

In the mid-19th century, the Qing dynasty experienced western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for extraneous nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the british [ 83 ] under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the inaugural of the inadequate Treaties. The first Sino-Japanese War ( 1894–1895 ) resulted in Qing China ‘s loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, adenine well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan. [ 84 ] The Qing dynasty besides began experiencing inner agitation in which tens of millions of people died, particularly in the White Lotus Rebellion, the fail Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southerly China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt ( 1862–1877 ) in the northwest. The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s. [ citation needed ] In the nineteenth hundred, the great chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879, in which between 9 and 13 million people died. [ 85 ] The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform design in 1898 to establish a advanced built-in monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The doomed anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 promote weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. [ 86 ] Puyi, the last emperor of China, abdicated in 1912. [ 87 ]

administration of the Republic and World War II

On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang ( the KMT or Nationalist Party ) was proclaimed probationary president. [ 88 ] On 12 February 1912, regent Empress Dowager Longyu sealed the imperial abdication decree on behalf of 4 year old Puyi, the last emperor of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. [ 89 ] In March 1912, the presidency was given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. In the face of democratic condemnation and resistance from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic in 1916. [ 90 ] After Yuan Shikai ‘s death in 1916, China was politically break up. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but about powerless ; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the nation under its own control with a series of deft military and political maneuverings, known jointly as the Northern Expedition. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] The Kuomintang moved the nation ‘s capital to Nanjing and implemented “ political care ”, an intercede stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen ‘s San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic department of state. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] The political division in China made it unmanageable for Chiang to conflict the communist -led People ‘s Liberation Army ( PLA ), against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the chinese Civil War. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, specially after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi’an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan. [ 97 ] The moment Sino-Japanese War ( 1937–1945 ), a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy confederation between the Kuomintang and the Communists. japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population ; in all, american samoa many as 20 million chinese civilians died. [ 98 ] An calculate 40,000 to 300,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the japanese occupation. [ 99 ] During the war, China, along with the UK, the United States, and the Soviet Union, were referred to as “ trust territory of the potent ” [ 100 ] and were recognized as the Allied “ Big Four “ in the Declaration by United Nations. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] Along with the early three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was subsequently considered one of the chief victors in the war. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was handed over to chinese control. however, the validity of this handover is controversial, in that whether Taiwan ‘s reign was legally transferred and whether China is a legitimate recipient role, due to complex issues that arose from the cover of Japan ‘s surrender, resulting in the unsolved political status of Taiwan, which is a flash point of likely war between China and Taiwan. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continue misgiving between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China. [ 105 ]

Civil War and the People ‘s Republic

Before the universe of the People ‘s Republic, the CCP had declared several areas of the state as the Chinese Soviet Republic ( Jiangxi Soviet ), a predecessor state to the PRC, in November 1931 in Ruijin, Jiangxi. The Jiangxi Soviet was wiped out by the KMT armies in 1934 and was relocated to Yan’an in Shaanxi where the Long March concluded in 1935. [ 106 ] [ failed verification ] It would be the base of the communists before major fight in the chinese Civil War ended in 1949. Afterwards, the CCP gain control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore to Taiwan, reducing its territory to alone Taiwan, Hainan, and their besiege islands. On 1 October 1949, CCP Chairman Mao Zedong formally proclaimed the establishment of the People ‘s Republic of China at the new nation ‘s establish ceremony and inaugural military parade in Tiananmen Square, Beijing. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] In 1950, the People ‘s Liberation Army captured Hainan from the ROC [ 109 ] and incorporated Tibet. [ 110 ] however, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s. [ 111 ] The government consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords. [ 112 ] China developed an mugwump industrial system and its own nuclear weapons. [ 113 ] The chinese population increased from 550 million in 1950 to 900 million in 1974. [ 114 ] however, the Great Leap Forward, an exalted massive reform project, resulted in an calculate 15 to 35 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, by and large from starvation. [ 115 ] [ 116 ] In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a ten of political recrimination and social turbulence that lasted until Mao ‘s end in 1976. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent extremity of the Security Council. [ 117 ] This UN action besides created the trouble of the political status of Taiwan and the Two Chinas consequence. See Cross-Strait relations and “ Taiwan, China “ .

Reforms and contemporary history

The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests was ended by a military-led slaughter which brought condemnations and sanctions against the chinese politics from versatile foreign countries. After Mao ‘s death, the Gang of Four was cursorily arrested by Hua Guofeng and held responsible for the excesses of the cultural Revolution. Elder Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms. The CCP loosened governmental control over citizens ‘ personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households. This marked China ‘s conversion from a plan economy to a interracial economy with an increasingly open-market environment. [ 118 ] China adopted its stream constitution on 4 December 1982. In 1989, the suppression of scholar protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnations and sanctions against the chinese government from diverse extraneous countries. [ 119 ] Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the state in the 1990s. Under their government, China ‘s economic operation pulled an estimated [ by whom? ] 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2 %. [ 120 ] [ better source needed ] British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau returned to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, as the Hong Kong and Macau particular administrative regions under the rationale of One state, two systems. The country joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its gamey rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao ‘s leadership in the 2000s. however, the increase besides hard impacted the country ‘s resources and environment, [ 121 ] [ 122 ] and caused major social displacement. [ 123 ] [ 124 ] chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping has ruled since 2012 and has pursued large-scale efforts to reform China ‘s economy [ 125 ] [ 126 ] ( which has suffered from geomorphologic instabilities and slowing growth ), [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ] and has besides reformed the one-child policy and penal organization, [ 130 ] adenine well as instituting a huge anti corruptness crackdown. [ 131 ] In 2013, China initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a ball-shaped infrastructure investment project. [ 132 ] The ball-shaped COVID-19 pandemic originated in Wuhan and was first base identified from an outbreak in December 2019. [ 133 ] The chinese government reply has included a zero-COVID strategy, making it one of few countries to pursue this border on. [ 134 ] The state ‘s economy continued to broaden convalescence from the recession during the pandemic, with stable job creation and record international deal growth, although retail consumption was however slower than predicted. [ 135 ] [ 136 ] On 1 July 2021, the People ‘s Republic of China celebrated the hundredth anniversary of the constitution of the CCP ( first gear of the Two Centenaries ) with a huge gather in Tiananmen Square and cultural aesthetic performance in Beijing National Stadium in Beijing. [ 137 ]

SEE ALSO  ฝึกอ่านภาษาอังกฤษ ฝึกอังกฤษจากเนื้อเรื่องสั้นๆ พร้อมคําแปล และคำอ่าน - ภาษาอังกฤษออนไลน์


China ‘s landscape is huge and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to the subtropical forests in the wet south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan batch ranges branch China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the dumbly populate easterly seaside. China ‘s coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometer ( 9,000 secret intelligence service ) long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe Route – the ancestor of the tellurian Silk Road ( mho ). [ citation needed ] The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. The geographic center of China is marked by the Center of the Country Monument at. China ‘s landscapes vary significantly across its huge territory. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populate alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian tableland in the north, broad grasslands predominate. southern China is dominated by hills and gloomy mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the delta of China ‘s two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west ride major batch ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High tableland sport among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The populace ‘s highest point, Mount Everest ( 8,848 megabyte ), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. [ 138 ] The country ‘s lowest decimal point, and the world ‘s third-lowest, is the dry lake sleep together of Ayding Lake ( −154 megabyte ) in the Turpan Depression. [ 139 ]


China ‘s climate is chiefly dominated by dry seasons and besotted monsoons, which lead to pronounce temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northerly winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry ; in summer, southerly winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are strong and damp. [ 141 ] A major environmental offspring in China is the retain expansion of its deserts, peculiarly the Gobi Desert. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in debris storms plaguing northerly China each form, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Japan and Korea. China ‘s environmental watchdog, SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km2 ( 1,500 sq michigan ) per year to desertification. [ 144 ] Water timbre, erosion, and befoulment control have become important issues in China ‘s relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to body of water shortages for hundreds of millions of people. [ 145 ] According to academics, in order to limit climate change in China to 1.5 °C ( 2.7 °F ) electricity generation from coal in China without carbon paper capture must be phased out by 2045. [ 146 ] official government statistics about chinese agrarian productiveness are considered undependable, ascribable to hyperbole of production at subsidiary company government levels. [ 147 ] [ 148 ] much of China has a climate identical suitable for farming and the state has been the world ‘s largest manufacturer of rice, wheat, tomatoes, eggplant, grapes, watermelon, spinach, and many other crops. [ 149 ]


China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, [ 150 ] lying in two of the world ‘s major biogeographic region : the Palearctic and the Indomalayan. By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse state in the world, after Brazil and Colombia. [ 151 ] The area signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the conventionality on 5 January 1993. [ 152 ] It late produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the conventionality on 21 September 2010. [ 153 ] China is dwelling to at least 551 species of mammals ( the third-highest such act in the global ), [ 154 ] 1,221 species of birds ( eighth ), [ 155 ] 424 species of reptiles ( seventh ) [ 156 ] and 333 species of amphibians ( seventh ). [ 157 ] Wildlife in China shares habitat with, and bears acute accent pressure from, the universe ‘s largest population of humans. At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due chiefly to human activeness such as habitat end, befoulment and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional chinese medicine. [ 158 ] Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percentage of China ‘s sum land area. [ 159 ] [ better source needed ] Most wild animals have been eliminated from the core agricultural regions of east and central China, but they have fared better in the mountainous south and west. [ 160 ] [ 161 ] The Baiji was confirmed extinct on 12 December 2006. [ 162 ] China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, [ 163 ] and is home to a assortment of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the area, supporting animal species such as elk and asian black digest, along with over 120 shuttlecock species. [ 164 ] The understory of damp conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo. In higher montane stands of juniper and yew, the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. subtropical forests, which are loom in cardinal and southerly China, support a high density of plant species including numerous rare endemics. Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China. [ 164 ] China has over 10,000 recorded species of fungi, [ 165 ] and of them, closely 6,000 are higher fungus. [ 166 ]


In the early 2000s, China has suffered from environmental deterioration and contamination due to its rapid yard of industrialization. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are reasonably rigorous, they are ailing enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development. [ 169 ] China is the state with the second gear highest death bell because of air contamination, after India. There are approximately 1 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient publicize contamination. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] Although China ranks as the highest carbon dioxide emitting country in the populace, [ 172 ] it only emits 8 tons of CO2 per caput, importantly lower than develop countries such as the United States ( 16.1 ), Australia ( 16.8 ) and South Korea ( 13.6 ). [ 173 ] In recent years, China has clamped down on contamination. In March 2014, CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping “ declared war ” on contamination during the opening of the National People ‘s Congress. [ 174 ] After across-the-board debate lasting closely two years, the fantan approved a newfangled environmental law in April. The raw police empowers environmental enforcement agencies with great punitive office and bombastic fines for offenders, defines areas which require extra security, and gives freelancer environmental groups more ability to operate in the country. [ citation needed ] In 2020, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping announced that China aims to peak emissions before 2030 and go carbon-neutral by 2060 in accord with the Paris climate accord. [ 175 ] According to Climate Action Tracker, if accomplished it would lower the expect surface in ball-shaped temperature by 0.2 – 0.3 degrees – “ the biggest unmarried decrease ever estimated by the Climate Action Tracker ”. [ 176 ] In September 2021 Xi Jinping announced that China will not build “ coal-fired power projects abroad ”. The decision can be “ pivotal ” in reducing emissions. The Belt and Road Initiative did not include finance such projects already in the first half of 2021. [ 177 ] The area besides had significant water contamination problems : 8.2 % of China ‘s rivers had been polluted by industrial and agrarian neutralize in 2019. [ 178 ] [ 179 ] China had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.14/10, ranking it 53rd globally out of 172 countries. [ 180 ] In 2020, a brush law was passed by the chinese politics to protect the ecology of the Yangtze River. The new laws include strengthening ecological auspices rules for hydropower projects along the river, banning chemical plants within 1 kilometer of the river, relocating polluting industries, hard restricting sand mining american samoa well as a complete fish ban on all the natural waterways of the river, including all its major tributaries and lakes. [ 181 ] China is besides the universe ‘s run investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $ 52 billion invested in 2011 alone ; [ 182 ] [ 183 ] [ 184 ] it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects. [ 185 ] [ 186 ] [ 187 ] By 2015, over 24 % of China ‘s department of energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric power : a full install capability of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric might producer in the world. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] China besides has the largest office capacity of install solar photovoltaics system and wind power system in the world. [ 190 ] [ 191 ] Greenhouse gas emissions by China are the world ‘s largest, [ 173 ] as is renewable energy in China. [ 192 ] Despite its emphasis on renewables, China remains deeply connected to global anoint markets. Russia ‘s individual largest buyer, China takes in 20 % of russian oil exports, averaging 1.6 million barrels of crude oi fifty per day in 2021. [ 193 ] [ 194 ]

political geography

Map showing the territorial claims of the PRC. The People ‘s Republic of China is the second-largest nation in the world by domain area after Russia. [ r ] [ mho ] China ‘s full sphere is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 km2 ( 3,700,000 sq michigan ). [ 195 ] [ better source needed ] Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 km2 ( 3,696,100 sq security service ) according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, [ 196 ] to 9,596,961 km2 ( 3,705,407 sq security service ) according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, [ 5 ] and the CIA World Factbook. [ 8 ] China has the longest combined country margin in the world, measuring 22,117 kilometer ( 13,743 michigan ) and its coastline covers approximately 14,500 km ( 9,000 nautical mile ) from the sass of the Yalu River ( Amnok River ) to the Gulf of Tonkin. [ 8 ] China borders 14 nations and extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar ( Burma ) in Southeast Asia ; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Pakistan [ t ] in South Asia ; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia ; and Russia, Mongolia, and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia. additionally, China shares nautical boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. [ citation needed ]


The chinese constitution states that the People ‘s Republic of China “ is a socialist state governed by a people ‘s democratic dictatorship that is led by the work class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants, ” and that the state institutions “ shall practice the principle of democratic centralism. ” [ 197 ] The PRC is one of the world ‘s only socialist states governed by a communist party. The taiwanese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but besides as authoritarian [ 198 ] and corporatist, [ 199 ] with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against release access to the Internet, exemption of the press, exemption of forum, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion. [ 200 ] Although the Chinese Communist Party describes China as a “ socialist advisory democracy ”, [ 201 ] the country is normally described as an authoritarian surveillance state and a dictatorship. [ 202 ] [ 203 ] [ 204 ] [ 205 ] [ 206 ] [ 207 ] Its stream political, ideological and economic arrangement has been termed by its leaders as a “ advisory democracy “ “ people ‘s democratic dictatorship “, “ socialism with taiwanese characteristics “ ( which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances ) and the “ socialistic marketplace economy “ respectively. [ 208 ] [ 209 ]

chinese Communist Party

The Chinese Communist Party is the establish and ruling political party of the People ‘s Republic of China. Since 2018, the independent body of the taiwanese constitution declares that “ the shaping feature of socialism with chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ). ” [ 210 ] The 2018 amendments constitutionalized the de facto one-party state condition of China, [ 210 ] wherein the CCP General Secretary ( party drawing card ) holds ultimate power and assurance over country and politics and serves as the informal Paramount leader. [ 211 ] The current General Secretary is eleven Jinping, who took office on 15 November 2012, and was re-elected on 25 October 2017. [ 212 ] The electoral system is pyramidal. local People ‘s Congresses are directly elected, and higher levels of People ‘s Congresses up to the National People ‘s Congress ( NPC ) are indirectly elected by the People ‘s Congress of the level immediately below. [ 197 ] Another eight political parties, have representatives in the NPC and the taiwanese People ‘s Political Consultative Conference ( CPPCC ). [ 213 ] China supports the Leninist rationale of “ democratic centralism “, [ 197 ] but critics describe the elective National People ‘s Congress as a “ arctic stamp “ body. [ 214 ] Since both the CCP and the People ‘s Liberation Army ( PLA ) promote according to longevity, it is potential to discern clear-cut generations of chinese leadership. [ 215 ] In official discussion, each group of leadership is identified with a distinct extension of the political orientation of the party. Historians have studied respective periods in the development of the government of the People ‘s Republic of China by reference to these “ generations ” .


China is a one-party country led by the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ). The National People ‘s Congress in 2018 altered the nation ‘s fundamental law to remove the two-term limit on holding the Presidency of China, permitting the current drawing card, Xi Jinping, to remain president of the united states of China ( and General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party ) for an outright time, earning criticism for creating authoritarian administration. [ 216 ] [ 217 ] The President is the nominal head of state, elected by the National People ‘s Congress. The Premier is the capitulum of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four frailty premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinping, who is besides the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making him China ‘s overriding drawing card. The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang, who is besides a senior member of the CCP Politburo Standing Committee, China ‘s de facto top decision-making body. [ 218 ] [ 219 ] In 2017, Xi called on the communist party to further tighten its bag on the area, to uphold the integrity of the party leadership, and achieve the “ taiwanese Dream of national rejuvenation ”. [ 208 ] [ 220 ] Political concerns in China include the growing gap between full-bodied and inadequate and government corruption. [ 221 ] Nonetheless, the level of populace support for the government and its management of the state is gamey, with 80–95 % of chinese citizens expressing satisfaction with the central government, according to a 2011 survey. [ 222 ] A 2020 sketch from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research besides found that 75 % of Chinese were satisfied with the government on data dissemination amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, while 67 % were satisfy with its delivery of daily necessities. [ 223 ] [ 224 ]

administrative divisions

The People ‘s Republic of China is formally divided into 23 provinces, [ 225 ] five autonomous regions ( each with a destine minority group ), and four municipalities —collectively referred to as “ mainland China “ —as well as the special administrative regions ( SARs ) of Hong Kong and Macau. Geographically, all 31 peasant divisions of mainland China can be grouped into six regions : North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China, and Northwest China. [ 226 ] China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, [ 225 ] although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China ( ROC ), which rejects the PRC ‘s claim. conversely, the ROC constitution claims sovereignty over all divisions governed by the PRC. [ 227 ]

extraneous relations

diplomatic relations of China The PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162. In 2019, China had the largest diplomatic network in the world. [ 228 ] [ 229 ] Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few early countries ; it is frankincense the largest and most populous state with limited recognition, with a population of more than 1.4 billion. [ 230 ] In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole congressman of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. [ 231 ] China was besides a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and silent considers itself an preach for developing countries. [ 232 ] Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group ‘s third base official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011. [ 233 ] Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a condition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other nation acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the politics of the Republic of China. [ citation needed ] Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, [ 234 ] specially in the matter of arming sales. [ 235 ] much of current chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai ‘s Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is besides driven by the concept of “ harmony without uniformity ”, which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. [ 236 ] This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or inhibitory by western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea and Iran. [ 237 ] China has a close economic and military kinship with Russia, [ 238 ] and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council. [ 239 ] [ 240 ] [ 241 ]

Trade relations

China became the universe ‘s largest deal state in 2013, as measured by the sum of imports and exports, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the world ‘s biggest commodity importer. comprising roughly 45 % of nautical ‘s dry-bulk market. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] By 2016, China was the largest trade partner of 124 other countries. [ 244 ] China is the largest deal partner for the ASEAN nations, with a total barter value of $ 345.8 billion in 2015 account for 15.2 % of ASEAN ‘s entire trade. [ 245 ] ASEAN is besides China ‘s largest trade collaborator. [ 246 ] In 2020, China became the largest trading collaborator of the European Union for goods, with the full prize of goods trade reaching about $ 700 billion. [ 247 ] China, along with ASEAN, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand, is a extremity of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the world ‘s largest free-trade sphere covering 30 % of the universe ‘s population and economic output. [ 248 ] China became a extremity of the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) in 2001. In 2004, it proposed an wholly raw East Asia Summit ( EAS ) framework as a forum for regional security issues. [ 249 ] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. [ 250 ] China has had a long and complex trade relationship with the United States. In 2000, the United States Congress approved “ permanent wave normal trade relations ” ( PNTR ) with China, allowing chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most early countries. [ 251 ] China has a meaning craft excess with the United States, its most important export market. [ 252 ] In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade wind advantage. [ 253 ] [ 254 ] [ 255 ] [ needs update ] Since the turn of the century, China has followed a policy of engaging with african nations for trade wind and bilateral co-operation ; [ 256 ] [ 257 ] [ 258 ] in 2019, Sino-African craft totalled $ 208 billion, having grown 20 times over two decades. [ 259 ] According to Madison Condon “ China finances more infrastructure projects in Africa than the World Bank and provides billions of dollars in low-interest loans to the continent ‘s issue economies. ” [ 260 ] China maintains across-the-board and highly diversified trade links with the European Union. [ 247 ] China has furthermore strengthened its craft ties with major south american economies, [ 261 ] and is the largest trade spouse of Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina, and several others. [ 262 ] China ‘s Belt and Road Initiative has expanded importantly over the concluding six years and, as of April 2020, includes 138 countries and 30 international organizations. In accession to intensifying foreign policy relations, the stress here is peculiarly on construct efficient enchant routes. The focus is peculiarly on the nautical Silk Road with its connections to East Africa and Europe and there are chinese investments or relate declarations of purpose at numerous ports such as Gwadar, Kuantan, Hambantota, Piraeus and Trieste. however many of these loans made under the Belt and Road plan are unsustainable and China has faced a total of calls for debt easing from debtor nations. [ 263 ] [ 264 ]

territorial disputes


Map depicting territorial disputes between the PRC and neighbor states. For a larger map, see here always since its constitution after the chinese Civil War, the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China ( ROC ), a separate political entity today normally known as Taiwan, as a depart of its district. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a share of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province. These claims are controversial because of the complicate Cross-Strait relations, with the PRC treating the One-China Principle as one of its most important diplomatic principles. [ 265 ] [ better source needed ]

Land boundary line disputes

China has resolved its land borders with 12 out of 14 neighbor countries, having pursued substantial compromises in most of them. [ 266 ] [ 267 ] [ 268 ] As of 2022, China presently has a disputed kingdom frame with India ( Sino-Indian margin dispute ) and Bhutan .

Maritime edge disputes

China is additionally involved in maritime disputes with multiple countries over the possession of several humble islands in the East and South China Seas, such as Socotra Rock, the Senkaku Islands and the entirety of South China Sea Islands, [ 269 ] [ 270 ] along with the EEZ disputes over East China Sea .

Sociopolitical issues and homo rights

China uses a massive espionage network of cameras, facial recognition software, sensors, surveillance of personal technology, and a social accredit system as a think of of social control of persons living in the country. [ 271 ] The taiwanese democracy movement, social activists, and some members of the Chinese Communist Party believe in the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political exemption is still tightly restricted. The united states constitution of the People ‘s Republic of China states that the “ fundamental rights ” of citizens include exemption of manner of speaking, freedom of the weight-lift, the right to a carnival test, exemption of religion, cosmopolitan right to vote, and property rights. however, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal pursuance by the department of state. [ 272 ] [ 273 ] Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censoring of political address and information, most notably on the Internet, [ 274 ] [ 275 ] are routinely used to prevent corporate military action. [ 276 ] By 2020, China plans to give all its citizens a personal “ social credit ” score based on how they behave. [ 277 ] [ needs update ] The social credit organization, first piloted in 2014, is considered a shape of multitude surveillance which uses big data analysis technology. [ 278 ] [ 279 ] A numeral of extraneous governments, foreign wardrobe agencies, and NGOs have criticized China ‘s homo rights record, alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without test, forced abortions, [ 280 ] forced confessions, agony, restrictions of fundamental rights, [ 200 ] [ 281 ] and excessive use of the death penalty. [ 282 ] [ 283 ] The politics suppresses popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a electric potential threat to “ social stability ”, as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. [ 284 ] The taiwanese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and homo rights abuses in Tibet [ 286 ] [ 287 ] and Xinjiang, [ 288 ] including violent patrol crackdowns and religious inhibition throughout the taiwanese nation. [ 289 ] [ 290 ] At least one million members of China ‘s Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in mass detention camps, termed “ vocational education and aim Centers ”, aimed at changing the political intend of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs. [ 291 ] According to the U.S. Department of State, actions including political indoctrination, distortion, physical and psychological maltreatment, forced sterilization, intimate mistreat, and forced department of labor are coarse in these facilities. [ 292 ] The state has besides sought to control offshore coverage of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreign-based reporters by detaining their class members. [ 293 ] According to a 2020 report, China ‘s treatment of Uyghurs meets UN definition of genocide, [ 294 ] and several groups called for a UN probe. [ 295 ] On 19 January 2021, the United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, announced that the United States Department of State had determined that “ genocide and crimes against humanity ” had been perpetrated by China against the Uyghurs. [ 296 ] global studies from Pew Research Center in 2014 and 2017 ranked the taiwanese government ‘s restrictions on religion as among the highest in the world, despite broken to moderate rankings for religious-related social hostilities in the area. [ 297 ] [ 298 ] The Global Slavery Index estimated that in 2016 more than 3.8 million people were living in “ conditions of modern slavery “, or 0.25 % of the population, including victims of homo traffic, forced department of labor, forced marriage, child labor, and state-imposed pull department of labor. The state-imposed force system was formally abolished in 2013, but it is not clear to which extent its versatile practices have stopped. [ 299 ] The Chinese penal system includes labor prison factories, detention centers, and re-education camps, jointly known as laogai ( “ reform through department of labor ” ). The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave parturiency prisons and camps in China. [ 300 ] In 2019, a analyze called for the mass retraction of more than 400 scientific papers on organ transplant, because of fears the organs were obtained unethically from chinese prisoners. While the government says 10,000 transplants occur each year, a report by the Falun Gong -linked IETAC alleged that between 60,000 and 100,000 organs are transplanted each year and claimed that this gap was being made up by run prisoners of conscience. [ 301 ]

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With closely 2.2 million active troops, the People ‘s Liberation Army ( PLA ) is the largest standing military storm in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission ( CMC ). [ 302 ] China has the second-biggest military allow storm, only behind North Korea. [ citation needed ] The PLA consists of the Ground Force ( PLAGF ), the Navy ( PLAN ), the Air Force ( PLAAF ), the Rocket Force ( PLARF ) and the Strategic Support Force ( PLASSF ). According to the chinese government, military budget for 2017 totalled US $ 151.5 billion, constituting the world ‘s second-largest military budget, although the military expenditures-GDP proportion with 1.3 % of GDP is below worldly concern modal. [ 303 ] however, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense title that China hides its real charge of military spend, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. [ 303 ] [ 304 ] China boasts the global ‘s third-most herculean military, [ 305 ] with the world ‘s third-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons. [ 306 ]


A proportional representation of chinese exports, 2019 Since 2010, China has had the populace ‘s second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, [ 308 ] totaling approximately US $ 15.66 trillion ( 101.6 trillion Yuan ) as of 2020. [ 309 ] [ 310 ] In terms of purchasing exponent parity ( PPP GDP ), China ‘s economy has been the largest in the world since 2014, according to the World Bank. [ 311 ] China is besides the populace ‘s fastest-growing major economy. [ 312 ] According to the World Bank, China ‘s GDP grew from $ 150 billion in 1978 to $ 14.28 trillion by 2019. [ 313 ] China ‘s economic emergence has been systematically above 6 percentage since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978. [ 314 ] China is besides the world ‘s largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. [ 315 ] Between 2010 and 2019, China ‘s contribution to ball-shaped GDP growth has been 25 % to 39 %. [ 316 ] [ 317 ] China had one of the largest economies in the earth for most of the by two thousand years, [ 318 ] during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. [ 319 ] [ 320 ] Since economic reforms began in 1978, China has developed into a highly diversified economy and one of the most consequential players in international trade. major sectors of competitive forte include manufacture, retail, mine, sword, textiles, automobiles, energy genesis, green department of energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate of the realm, e-commerce, and tourism. China has three out of the ten-spot largest stock exchanges in the world [ 321 ] — Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen —that together have a market capitalization of over $ 15.9 trillion, as of October 2020. [ 322 ] China has four ( Shanghai, Hong Kong, Beijing, and Shenzhen ) out of the worldly concern ‘s top ten most competitive fiscal centers, which is more than any nation in the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index. [ 323 ] By 2035, China ‘s four cities ( Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou and Shenzhen ) are projected to be among the global top ten largest cities by nominal GDP according to a report by Oxford Economics. [ 324 ] China has been the world ‘s No. 1 manufacturer since 2010, after overtaking the US, which had been No. 1 for the former hundred years. [ 325 ] [ 326 ] China has besides been No. 2 in high-tech manufacture since 2012, according to US National Science Foundation. [ 327 ] China is the moment largest retail grocery store in the global, future to the United States. [ 328 ] China leads the world in e-commerce, accounting for 40 % of the ball-shaped market partake in 2016 [ 329 ] and more than 50 % of the global marketplace share in 2019. [ 330 ] China is the world ‘s drawing card in electric vehicles, manufacture and buying half of all the circuit board electric cars ( BEV and PHEV ) in the universe in 2018. [ 331 ] China is besides the leading manufacturer of batteries for electric vehicles vitamin a well as respective key raw materials for batteries. [ 332 ] China had 174 GW of install solar capacitance by the end of 2018, which amounts to more than 40 % of the ball-shaped solar capacity. [ 333 ] [ 334 ] Foreign and some chinese sources have claimed that official chinese government statistics overstate China ‘s economic increase. [ 335 ] [ 336 ] [ 337 ] [ 338 ] however, respective western academics and institutions have stated that China ‘s economic growth is higher than indicated by official figures. [ 339 ] [ 340 ] [ 341 ] [ 342 ] [ 343 ] [ 344 ] China has a large informal economy, which arose as a leave of the nation ‘s economic unfold. The informal economy is a source of employment and income for workers, but it is unrecognized and suffers from lower productiveness. [ 345 ]

wealth in China

As of 2020, China was second in the global, after the US, in sum act of billionaires and sum number of millionaires, with 698 taiwanese billionaires and 4.4 million millionaires. [ 346 ] [ 347 ] In 2019, China overtook the US as the home to the highest number of people who have a net personal wealth of at least $ 110,000, according to the ball-shaped wealth report card by Credit Suisse. [ 348 ] [ 349 ] According to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020, China is family to five of the world ‘s top ten-spot cities ( Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 10th spots, respectively ) by the highest total of billionaires, which is more than any other nation. [ 350 ] China had 85 female billionaires as of January 2021, two-thirds of the ball-shaped entire, and minted 24 new female billionaires in 2020. [ 351 ] however, it ranks behind over 60 countries ( out of around 180 ) in per head economic output, making it an upper-middle income state. [ 352 ] Additionally, its growth is highly spotty. Its major cities and coastal areas are far more golden compared to rural and interior regions. [ 353 ] China brought more people out of extreme poverty than any early country in history [ 354 ] —between 1978 and 2018, China reduced extreme poverty by 800 million. China reduced the extreme point poverty rate—per international criterion, it refers to an income of less than $ 1.90/day—from 88 % in 1981 to 1.85 % by 2013. [ 355 ] According to the World Bank, the issue of Chinese in extreme poverty fell from 756 million to 25 million between 1990 and 2013. [ 356 ] The fortune of people in China live below the external poverty line of $ 1.90 per day ( 2011 PPP ) fell to 0.3 % in 2018 from 66.3 % in 1990. Using the lower-middle income poverty line of $ 3.20 per day, the helping fell to 2.9 % in 2018 from 90.0 % in 1990. Using the upper-middle income poverty occupation of $ 5.50 per day, the part fell to 17.0 % from 98.3 % in 1990. [ 357 ]

economic growth

China ‘s nominal GDP tendency from 1952 to 2015 From its establish in 1949 until late 1978, the People ‘s Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Following Mao ‘s death in 1976 and the attendant end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the raw taiwanese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mix economy under one-party rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while extraneous trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of especial Economic Zones ( SEZs ). ineffective state-owned enterprises ( SOEs ) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed instantaneously, resulting in massive job losses. [ citation needed ] contemporary China is chiefly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, [ 358 ] and is one of the leading examples of express capitalism. [ 359 ] [ 360 ] The state however dominates in strategic “ column ” sectors such as energy production and fleshy industries, but individual enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million secret businesses recorded in 2008. [ 361 ] [ 362 ] [ better source needed ] [ 363 ] [ 364 ] In 2018, secret enterprises in China accounted for 60 % of GDP, 80 % of urban employment and 90 % of new jobs. [ 365 ] In the early 2010s, China ‘s economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening external demand for taiwanese exports and fragility in the global economy. [ 366 ] [ 367 ] [ 368 ] China ‘s GDP was slenderly larger than Germany ‘s in 2007 ; however, by 2017, China ‘s $ 12.2 trillion-economy became larger than those of Germany, UK, France and Italy combined. [ 369 ] In 2018, the IMF reiterated its calculate that China will overtake the US in terms of nominal GDP by 2030. [ 370 ] Economists besides expect China ‘s middle class to expand to 600 million people by 2025. [ 371 ] In 2020, China was the lone major economy in the global to grow, recording a 2.3 % emergence due to its success in taming the coronavirus within its borders. [ 372 ]

China in the global economy

Share of world GDP (PPP)[373]
Year Share
1980 2.32%
1990 4.11%
2000 7.40%
2010 13.89%
2018 18.72%

China is a penis of the WTO and is the world ‘s largest trade baron, with a total international trade value of US $ 4.62 trillion in 2018. [ 374 ] Its foreign exchange reserves reached US $ 3.1 trillion as of 2019, [ 375 ] making its reserves by far the world ‘s largest. [ 376 ] [ 377 ] In 2012, China was the world ‘s largest recipient role of in extraneous address investing ( FDI ), attracting $ 253 billion. [ 378 ] In 2014, China ‘s extraneous rally remittances were $ US64 billion making it the moment largest recipient of remittances in the world. [ 379 ] China besides invests abroad, with a sum outward FDI of $ 62.4 billion in 2012, [ 378 ] and a count of major takeovers of alien firms by chinese companies. [ 380 ] China is a major owner of US populace debt, holding trillions of dollars worth of U.S. Treasury bonds. [ 381 ] [ 382 ] China ‘s undervalue commute pace has caused friction with early major economies, [ 254 ] and it has besides been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods. [ 383 ] [ 384 ]

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2018[385]

Following the 2007–08 fiscal crisis, chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its addiction on the U.S. dollar as a resultant role of perceive weaknesses of the external monetary system. [ 386 ] To achieve those ends, China took a series of actions to further the internationalization of the Renminbi. In 2008, China established blur sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB fluidity. [ 387 ] [ 388 ] This was followed with bilateral agreements to settle trades directly in renminbi with Russia, [ 389 ] Japan, [ 390 ] Australia, [ 391 ] Singapore, [ 392 ] the United Kingdom, [ 393 ] and Canada. [ 394 ] As a resultant role of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currentness in the world, an emerging international reserve currency, [ 395 ] and a component of the IMF ‘s limited draw rights ; however, partially due to capital controls that make the renminbi fall short-circuit of being a fully convertible currentness, it remains far behind the Euro, Dollar and japanese Yen in international trade volumes. [ 396 ]

course and income inequality

China has had the worldly concern ‘s largest middle class population since 2015, [ 397 ] and the middle class grew to a size of 400 million by 2018. [ 398 ] In 2020, a report by the Brookings Institution forecast that China ‘s middle-class will reach 1.2 billion by 2027 ( about 4 times the entire U.S. population today ), making up one fourth of the world full. [ 399 ] Wages in China have grown a draw in the last 40 years—real ( inflation-adjusted ) wages grew septuple from 1978 to 2007. [ 400 ] By 2018, median wages in chinese cities such as Shanghai were about the same as or higher than the wages in easterly european countries. [ 401 ] China has the universe ‘s highest total of billionaires, with closely 878 as of October 2020, increasing at the rate of roughly five per workweek. [ 402 ] [ 403 ] [ 404 ] China has a high level of economic inequality, [ 405 ] which has increased in the past few decades. [ 406 ] In 2018 China ‘s Gini coefficient was 0.467, according to the World Bank. [ 12 ]

science and engineering


Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE Earliest known written rule for gunpowder, from theof 1044 CE China was a earth leader in skill and engineering until the Ming dynasty. [ 407 ] Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, print, the compass, and gunpowder ( the Four Great Inventions ), became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and former Europe. chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. [ 408 ] [ 409 ] By the seventeenth century, the Western hemisphere surpassed China in scientific and technical promotion. [ 410 ] The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars. [ 411 ] After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the nineteenth century, chinese reformers began promoting modern skill and engineering as contribution of the Self-Strengthening Movement. After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central plan. [ 412 ] After Mao ‘s death in 1976, science and engineering was promoted as one of the Four Modernizations, [ 413 ] and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed. [ 414 ]

Modern era

[415]Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world’s largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific inquiry [ 416 ] and is quickly catching up with the US in R & D spend. [ 417 ] [ 418 ] In 2017, China spent $ 279 billion on scientific research and development. [ 419 ] According to the OECD, China spent 2.11 % of its GDP on inquiry and development ( R & D ) in 2016. [ 420 ] Science and engineering are seen as full of life for achieving China ‘s economic and political goals, and are held as a beginning of national pride to a degree sometimes described as “ techno-nationalism ”. [ 421 ] According to the World Intellectual Property Indicators, China received 1.54 million patent applications in 2018, representing about half of patent applications worldwide, more than double the US. [ 422 ] In 2019, China was No. 1 in international patents application. [ 423 ] China was ranked 12th, 3rd in Asia & Oceania region and 2nd for countries with a population of over 100 million in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, it has increased its ranking well since 2013, where it was ranked thirty-fifth. [ 424 ] [ 425 ] [ 426 ] [ 427 ] China ranks foremost globally in the authoritative indicators, including patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and creative goods exports and it besides has 2 ( Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing in the 2nd and 3rd spots respectively ) of the ball-shaped top 5 skill and engineering clusters, which is more than any other nation. [ 424 ] Chinese technical school companies Huawei and ZTE were the top 2 filers of international patents in 2017. [ 428 ] [ 429 ] Chinese-born academicians have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and Fields Medal once respectively, though most of them conducted their prize-winning research in western nations. [ u ] [ improper synthesis? ] China is developing its education system with an emphasis on skill, engineering, technology and mathematics ( STEM ) ; in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 PhD engineers, and angstrom many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any early state. [ 436 ] China besides became the world ‘s largest publisher of scientific papers in 2016. [ 437 ] Chinese engineering companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal calculate, [ 438 ] [ 439 ] [ 440 ] and chinese supercomputers are systematically ranked among the earth ‘s most mighty. [ 441 ] [ 442 ] China has been the earth ‘s largest market for industrial robots since 2013 and will account for 45 % of newly installed robots from 2019 to 2021. [ 443 ] The taiwanese outer space platform is one of the world ‘s most active. In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do then independently. [ 444 ] In 2003, China became the third state to independently send humans into outer space, with Yang Liwei ‘s spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5 ; as of 2021, thirteen chinese nationals have journeyed into outer space, including two women. In 2011, China ‘s foremost quad post faculty, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first footprint in a project to assemble a big crewed station by the early 2020s. [ 445 ] In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang’e 3 lander and Yutu rover onto the lunar airfoil. [ 446 ] In 2016, the beginning quantum science satellite was launched in partnership with Austria dedicated to testing the fundamentals of quantum communication in distance. [ 447 ] [ 448 ] In 2019, China became the beginning area to land a probe— Chang’e 4 —on the Far side of the Moon. [ 449 ] In 2020, the inaugural experimental 6G test satellite was launched [ 450 ] [ 451 ] and Chang’e 5 successfully returned lunar month samples to the Earth, making China the third state to do indeed independently after the United States and the Soviet Union. [ 452 ] In 2021, China became the second nation in history to independently land a wanderer ( Zhurong ) on Mars, joining the United States. [ 453 ]


After a decades-long infrastructural smash, [ 454 ] China has produced numerous world-leading infrastructural projects : China has the world ‘s largest bullet string network, [ 455 ] the most supertall skyscrapers in the universe, [ 456 ] the global ‘s largest power plant ( the Three Gorges Dam ), [ 457 ] the largest energy generation capability in the global, [ 458 ] a ball-shaped satellite navigation system with the largest number of satellites in the worldly concern, [ 459 ] and has initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a large global infrastructure building first step with fund on the order of $ 50–100 billion per year. [ 460 ] The Belt and Road Initiative could be one of the largest development plans in modern history. [ 461 ]


China is the largest telecommunication market in the earth and presently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1.5 billion subscribers, as of 2018. [ 462 ] It besides has the earth ‘s largest count of internet and broadband users, with over 800 million Internet users as of 2018 —equivalent to around 60 % of its population—and about all of them being mobile equally well. [ 463 ] By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users, accounting for 40 % of earth ‘s total. [ 464 ] China is making rapid advances in 5G —by late 2018, China had started large-scale and commercial 5G trials. [ 465 ] China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom, are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China Telecom alone served more than 145 million broadband subscribers and 300 million mobile users ; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers ; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018. [ 466 ] [ 467 ] Combined, the three operators had over 3.4 million 4G base-stations in China. [ 468 ] respective chinese telecommunication companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the chinese military. [ 469 ] China has developed its own satellite seafaring system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012 [ 470 ] a well as global services by the end of 2018. [ 471 ] [ 472 ] Upon the completion of the 35th Beidou satellite, which was launched into eye socket on 23 June 2020, Beidou followed GPS and GLONASS as the third base completed ball-shaped navigation satellite in the global. [ 473 ]


Since the recently 1990s, China ‘s home road network has been importantly expanded through the universe of a network of national highways and expressways. In 2018, China ‘s highways had reached a entire duration of 142,500 km ( 88,500 mile ), making it the longest highway system in the world. [ 474 ] China has the earth ‘s largest marketplace for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both car sales and production. A side-effect of the rapid emergence of China ‘s road net has been a significant rise in dealings accidents, [ 475 ] though the number of fatalities in traffic accidents fell by 20 % from 2007 to 2017. [ 476 ] In urban areas, bicycles remain a park mood of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – as of 2012, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China. [ 477 ] China ‘s railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the earth, handling a quarter of the world ‘s rail traffic book on lone 6 percentage of the universe ‘s tracks in 2006. [ 478 ] [ better source needed ] As of 2017, the country had 127,000 km ( 78,914 michigan ) of railways, the second gear longest network in the earth. [ 479 ] The railways strain to meet enormous need peculiarly during the chinese New Year holiday, when the world ‘s largest annual human migration takes topographic point. [ 480 ] China ‘s high-speed rail ( HSR ) system started structure in the early 2000s. By the end of 2020, high amphetamine rail in China had reached 37,900 kilometers ( 23,550 miles ) of dedicated lines alone, making it the longest HSR net in the global. [ 481 ] [ 482 ] Services on the Beijing–Shanghai, Beijing–Tianjin, and Chengdu–Chongqing Lines reach up to 350 km/h ( 217 miles per hour ), making them the fastest conventional gamey speed railroad track services in the populace. With an annual ridership of over 2.29 billion passengers in 2019 it is the world ‘s busiest. [ 483 ] [ better source needed ] The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the unmarried longest HSR line in the earth, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest dragoon bridges in the worldly concern. [ 484 ] The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 kilometers per hour ( 268 miles per hour ), is the fastest commercial caravan service in the populace. [ 485 ] Since 2000, the increase of rapid transit systems in chinese cities has accelerated. [ 486 ] As of January 2021, 44 chinese cities have urban aggregate transit systems in operation [ 487 ] and 39 more have metro systems approved. [ 488 ] As of 2020, China boasts the five longest metro systems in the worldly concern with the networks in Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Shenzhen being the largest. There were approximately 229 airports in 2017, with around 240 planned by 2020. China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are unfold to foreign transportation. [ citation needed ] In 2017, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao and Tianjin ranked in the top 10 in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage. [ 489 ] On 13 April 2022, a new freight railroad track road for freight trains from the city of Xi’an was launched, it will pass through Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and reach the german city of Mannheim. The length of the path is 11.3 thousand kilometer. [ 490 ]

Water supply and sanitation

Water provide and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, equally well as water system scarcity, contamination, and befoulment. [ 491 ] According to data presented by the joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36 % of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation. [ 492 ] The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water deficit in the north. [ 493 ]


A 2009 population concentration function of the People ‘s Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are a lot more densely populated than the western inner. The home census of 2010 recorded the population of the People ‘s Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. About 16.60 % of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14 % were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26 % were over 60 years old. [ 494 ] The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46 %. [ 495 ] China used to make up much of the world ‘s poor people ; immediately it makes up much of the global ‘s in-between class. [ 496 ] Although a middle-income state by westerly standards, China ‘s rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions —800 million, to be more precise [ 497 ] —of its people out of poverty since 1978. By 2013, less than 2 % of the taiwanese population lived below the international poverty channel of US $ 1.9 per day, down from 88 % in 1981. [ 355 ] From 2009 to 2018, the unemployment rate in China has averaged about 4 %. [ 498 ] Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child specify during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an even stricter restrict of one child per family. Beginning in the mid-1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the rigorous limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, peculiarly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a “ 1.5 ” -child policy from the mid-1980s to 2015 ( heathen minorities were besides exempt from one child limits ). The following major loosen of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. [ 499 ] In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in prefer of a two-child policy. [ 500 ] According to data from the 2020 census, China ‘s total birthrate rate is 1.3, but some experts believe that after adjusting for the transient effects of the easiness of restrictions, the area ‘s actual sum fertility rate is deoxyadenosine monophosphate broken as 1.1. [ 501 ] According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little consequence on population growth [ 502 ] or the size of the entire population. [ 503 ] however, these scholars have been challenged. Their own counterfactual model of fertility refuse without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a number which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the doomed descendants of births averted during the era of richness restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the big bulge of that reduction. [ 504 ] The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the arouse ratio at birth. [ 505 ] [ 506 ] According to the 2010 census, the sexual activity ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls, [ 507 ] which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls. [ 508 ] The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percentage of the total population. [ 507 ] however, China ‘s sexual activity ratio is more poise than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percentage of the total population. [ 507 ]

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cultural groups

Ethnolinguistic map of China China legally recognizes 56 discrete cultural groups, who raw comprise the Zhonghua Minzu. The largest of these nationalities are the ethnic Chinese or “ Han ”, who constitute more than 90 % of the entire population. [ 509 ] The Han Chinese – the global ‘s largest single cultural group [ 510 ] – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang. [ 511 ] Ethnic minorities account for less than 10 % of the population of China, according to the 2010 census. [ 509 ] Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74 %, while the population of the 55 home minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92 %. [ 509 ] The 2010 census recorded a entire of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea ( 120,750 ), the United States ( 71,493 ) and Japan ( 66,159 ). [ 512 ]


There are equally many as 292 live languages in China. [ 513 ] The languages most normally spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the sino-tibetan linguistic process family, which contains Mandarin ( spoken by 70 % of the population ), [ 514 ] and other varieties of taiwanese language : Yue ( including Cantonese and Taishanese ), Wu ( including Shanghainese and Suzhounese ), Min ( including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew ), Xiang, Gan and Hakka. Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. other cultural minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family. Across northeastern and northwestern China, local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and respective Turkic languages : Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an indo-european lyric. min aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, talk austronesian languages. [ 515 ] Standard Mandarin, a kind of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national speech of China and is used as a tongue franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds. [ 516 ] [ 517 ] Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Zhuang and assorted early languages are besides regionally recognized throughout the nation. [ 518 ] chinese characters have been used as the written handwriting for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually opaque chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In 1956, the politics introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an rudiment based on an indic script. Uyghur is most normally written in Persian rudiment -based Uyghur Arabic rudiment. The mongol script used in China and the Manchu handwriting are both derived from the Old Uyghur rudiment. Zhuang uses both an official Latin rudiment script and a traditional chinese character script. [ citation needed ]


China has urbanized importantly in late decades. The percentage of the area ‘s population living in urban areas increased from 20 % in 1980 to over 60 % in 2019. [ 519 ] [ 520 ] [ 521 ] It is estimated that China ‘s urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the populace population. [ 520 ] [ 521 ] China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, [ 522 ] including the 17 megacities as of 2021 [ 523 ] [ 524 ] ( cities with a population of over 10 million ) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Xi’an, Suzhou, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Linyi, Shijiazhuang, Dongguan, Qingdao and Changsha. [ 525 ] Among them, the sum permanent population of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing and Chengdu is above 20 million. [ 526 ] Shanghai is China ‘s most populous urban sphere [ 527 ] [ 528 ] while Chongqing is its largest city proper, the only city in China with the largest permanent population of over 30 million. [ 529 ] By 2025, it is estimated that the state will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants. [ 520 ] The figures in the mesa below are from the 2017 census, [ 530 ] and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits ; a different rate exists when considering the total municipal populations ( which includes suburban and rural populations ). The large “ float populations “ of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult ; [ 531 ] the figures below include merely long-run residents. [ citation needed ]

  1. ^[533] population of Hong Kong as of 2018 estimate .
  2. ^Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan’an, Beibei, Changshou, Jiangjin, Hechuan, Yongchuan, Nanchuan, Qijiang, Dazu, Bishan, Tongliang, [534] Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are up to 15,076,600. The datum of Chongqing in the tilt is the datum of “ Metropolitan Developed Economic Area ”, which contains two parts : “ City Proper ” and “ Metropolitan Area ”. The “ City proper ” are dwell of 9 districts : Yuzhong Yubei, & Banan, has the urban population of 5,646,300 as of 2018. And the “ Metropolitan Area ” are consist of 12 districts : Fuling Tongnan, & Rongchang, has the urban population of 5,841,700.Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are up to 15,076,600 .


Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary coil school, which together final for nine years. [ 537 ] In 2019, about 89.5 percentage of students continued their education at a three-year aged secondary school. [ 538 ] The Gaokao, China ‘s national university capture examination, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher department of education institutions. In 2010, 27 percentage of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education. [ 539 ] [ better source needed ] This phone number increased significantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary school registration of 58.42 percentage in 2020. [ 540 ] Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and third degree. [ 541 ] More than 10 million chinese students graduated from vocational colleges nationally every class. [ 542 ] China has the largest education system in the world, with about 282 million students and 17.32 million full-time teachers in over 530,000 schools. [ 543 ] In February 2006, the government pledged to provide wholly free nine-year department of education, including textbooks and fees. [ 544 ] Annual education investment went from less than US $ 50 billion in 2003 to more than US $ 817 billion in 2020. [ 545 ] [ 546 ] however, there remains an inequality in education spend. In 2010, the annual education outgo per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totalled ¥3,204. [ 547 ] free compulsory education in China consists of elementary school and junior secondary educate between the ages of 6 and 15. In 2020, the commencement registration ratio at compulsory education level reached 95.2 percentage, exceeding median levels recorded in high-income countries, [ 543 ] and around 91.2 % of chinese have received secondary department of education. [ 541 ] China ‘s literacy rate has grown dramatically, from only 20 % in 1949 and 65.5 % in 1979. [ 548 ] to 96 % of the population over old age 15 in 2018. [ 549 ] In the same year, China ( Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang ) was ranked the highest in the global in the Programme for International Student Assessment ranking for all three categories of Mathematics, Science and Reading. [ 550 ] China ranks foremost in the all-time decoration consider at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 168 goal medals since its foremost participation in 1985. [ 551 ] China besides ranks inaugural in the all-time decoration count at the International Physics Olympiad, the International Chemistry Olympiad, and the International Olympiad in Informatics. [ 552 ] [ 553 ] [ 554 ] China had over 3,000 universities, with over 40 million students enrolled in mainland China. [ 555 ] [ 556 ] As of 2021, China had the world ‘s second-highest number of top universities. [ 557 ] [ 558 ] [ 559 ] Currently, China trails lone the United States in terms of representation on lists of clear 200 universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities ( ARWU ). [ 560 ] China is home to the two best universities ( Tsinghua University and Peking University ) in the whole Asia – Oceania region and emerging countries according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. [ 561 ] [ 562 ] [ 563 ] Both are members of the C9 League, an alliance of elect chinese universities offering comprehensive and lead education. [ 564 ]


The National Health and Family Planning Commission, in concert with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the taiwanese population. [ 565 ] An vehemence on public health and preventive medicine has characterized chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, arsenic well as process and preventing respective diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were closely eradicated by the campaign. [ citation needed ] After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the chinese public improved quickly because of better nutrition, although many of the dislodge public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People ‘s Communes. Healthcare in China became largely privatized, and experienced a significant resurrect in quality. In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare planning enterprise worth US $ 124 billion. [ 566 ] By 2011, the political campaign resulted in 95 % of China ‘s population having basic health insurance coverage. [ 567 ] In 2011, China was estimated to be the global ‘s third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of forge medications. [ 568 ] As of 2017, the average life anticipation at parentage in China is 76 years, [ 569 ] and the baby mortality rate is 7 per thousand. [ 570 ] Both have improved significantly since the 1950s. [ volt ] Rates of acrobatics, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1 % in 1990 to 9.9 % in 2010. [ 573 ] Despite meaning improvements in health and the construction of gain medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution, [ 574 ] hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, [ 575 ] and an increase in fleshiness among urban youths. [ 576 ] [ 577 ] China ‘s big population and dumbly populate cities have led to unplayful disease outbreaks in late years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained. [ 578 ] In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China. [ 579 ] The COVID-19 pandemic was first gear identified in Wuhan in December 2019. [ 580 ] [ 581 ] Further studies are being carried out around the world on a possible origin for the virus. [ 582 ] [ 583 ] The chinese government has been criticized for its handling of the epidemic and accused of concealing the extent of the outbreak before it became an external pandemic. [ 584 ]


The government of the People ‘s Republic of China officially espouses submit atheism, [ 589 ] and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end. [ 590 ] Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs. [ 591 ] Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China ‘s constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be submit to country persecution. [ 281 ] [ 592 ] Over the millennium, chinese refinement has been influenced by respective religious movements. The “ three teachings “, including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism ( taiwanese Buddhism ), historically have a significant function in shaping taiwanese culture, [ 593 ] [ 594 ] enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harks back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty. taiwanese popular or tribe religion, which is framed by the three teachings and other traditions, [ 595 ] consists in allegiance to the shen ( 神 ), a character that signifies the “ energies of coevals “, who can be deities of the environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of politeness, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history. [ 596 ] Among the most democratic cults are those of Mazu ( goddess of the seas ), [ 597 ] Huangdi ( one of the two divine patriarch of the Chinese slipstream ), [ 597 ] [ 598 ] Guandi ( deity of war and business ), Caishen ( idol of prosperity and profusion ), Pangu and many others. China is home to many of the world ‘s tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the spring Temple Buddha in Henan. [ citation needed ] clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of “ religion ” and the unorganized, diffusing nature of Chinese religious traditions. Scholars note that in China there is no clearly boundary between three teachings religions and local family religious rehearse. [ 593 ] A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61 % of taiwanese people self-identified as “ convinced atheist ”, [ 599 ] though it is worthwhile to note that chinese religions or some of their strands are definable as non-theistic and humanist religions, since they do not believe that cleric creativity is completely transcendent, but it is built-in in the worldly concern and in particular in the homo being. [ 600 ] According to a 2014 survey, approximately 74 % are either non-religious or rehearse chinese family impression, 16 % are Buddhists, 2 % are Christians, 1 % are Muslims, and 8 % stand by to other religions including Taoists and folk salvationism. [ 601 ] [ 602 ] In addition to Han people ‘s local religious practices, there are besides assorted ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. The respective folk religions today comprise 2–3 % of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-identification is common within the intellectual class. meaning faiths specifically connected to certain cultural groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and other peoples in Northwest China. [ citation needed ] The 2010 population census reported the total number of Muslims in the state as 23.14 million. [ 603 ] A 2021 poll from Ipsos and the Policy Institute at King ‘s College London found that 35 % of chinese people said there was tension between unlike religious groups, which was the second base lowest share of the 28 countries surveyed. [ 604 ] [ 605 ]


Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles. Since ancient times, chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. For much of the area ‘s dynastic earned run average, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty. [ 607 ] The literary vehemence of the exams affected the general perception of cultural polish in China, such as the impression that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or play. taiwanese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national position. [ 608 ] Examinations and a acculturation of deservingness remain greatly valued in China today. [ 609 ] The first leaders of the People ‘s Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial ordain but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformer ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and acculturation of obedience to the submit. Some observers see the time period following the constitution of the PRC in 1949 as a good continuation of traditional taiwanese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party ‘s rule has damaged the foundations of chinese culture, particularly through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as “ regressive and harmful ” or “ vestiges of feudalism “. many important aspects of traditional taiwanese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera, [ 610 ] were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the clock time. Access to alien media remains heavily restricted. [ 611 ] today, the chinese politics has accepted numerous elements of traditional chinese culture as being built-in to chinese company. With the rise of taiwanese patriotism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, versatile forms of traditional chinese artwork, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, [ 612 ] [ 613 ] and family and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide. [ 614 ] A poll in October 2020 [ 615 ] of respondents in Spain, [ 616 ] Slovakia, [ 617 ] Latvia, [ 618 ] Serbia, [ 619 ] and Russia [ 620 ] found that majorities in those countries considered China to be “ culturally attractive ” .

tourism in China

China received 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010, [ 621 ] and in 2012 was the third-most-visited area in the world. [ 622 ] It besides experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism ; an estimated 740 million taiwanese holidaymakers traveled within the country in October 2012. [ 623 ] China hosts the world ‘s second-largest number of World Heritage Sites ( 56 ) after Italy, and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world ( first gear in the Asia-Pacific ). It is forecast by Euromonitor International that China will become the world ‘s most popular finish for tourists by 2030. [ 624 ]


taiwanese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty. [ 625 ] Concepts covered within the chinese classic text present a across-the-board range of thoughts and subjects including calendar, military, astrology, herbology, geography and many others. [ 626 ] Some of the most important early on text include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored course of study in dynastic earned run average. [ 627 ] Inherited from the Classic of Poetry, classical Chinese poetry developed to its floruit during the Tang dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the fork ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and naturalism respectively. [ 628 ] Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall oscilloscope of the historiographical custom in China is termed the twenty-four Histories, which set a huge stage for chinese fictions along with chinese mythology and folklore. [ 629 ] Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, taiwanese classical fabrication rose to a boom of the historic, town and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber. [ 630 ] Along with the wuxia fictions of Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng, [ 631 ] it remains an enduring source of popular culture in the East asian cultural sphere. [ 632 ] In the wake up of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens. Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in advanced literature. [ 633 ] Various literary genres, such as misty poetry, scar literature, young pornographic fiction and the xungen literature, which is influenced by magic trick realism, [ 634 ] emerged following the cultural Revolution. Mo Yan, a xungen literature generator, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012. [ 635 ]


Map showing major regional cuisines of China chinese cuisine is highly divers, drawing on several millennium of culinary history and geographic diverseness, in which the most influential are known as the “ Eight Major Cuisines ”, including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines. [ 636 ] All of them are featured by the precise skills of formation, heating, and flavoring. [ 637 ] [ better source needed ] Chinese cuisine is besides known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, [ 638 ] a well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional chinese medicine. [ 639 ] [ better source needed ] Generally, China ‘s staple food is rice in the confederacy, wheat-based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the coarse people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with kernel reserved for extra occasions. The bean products, such as bean curd and soy milk, remain as a popular beginning of protein. [ 640 ] Pork is immediately the most popular kernel in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the nation ‘s total kernel consumption. [ 641 ] While pork barrel dominates the kernel market, there is besides the vegetarian Buddhist cuisine and the pork-free chinese Islamic cuisine. southern cuisine, due to the area ‘s proximity to the ocean and meek climate, has a wide assortment of seafood and vegetables ; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northerly China. numerous offshoots of taiwanese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the chinese diaspora. [ citation needed ]


taiwanese music covers a highly diverse range of music from traditional music to advanced music. chinese music dates back before the pre-imperial times. traditional chinese musical instruments were traditionally grouped into eight categories known as bayin ( 八音 ). traditional chinese opera is a form of musical theater in China originating thousands of years and has regional style forms such as Beijing opera and yue opera. [ 642 ] chinese dad ( C-Pop ) includes mandopop and cantopop. chinese rap, chinese hep hop and Hong Kong hip hop have become democratic in contemporary times. [ 643 ]


Cinema was first introduced to China in 1896 and the beginning Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was released in 1905. [ 644 ] China has the largest phone number of movie screens in the earth since 2016, [ 645 ] China became the largest cinema market in the world in 2020. [ 646 ] [ 647 ] The lead 3 highest-grossing films in China presently are Wolf Warrior 2 ( 2017 ) , Ne Zha ( 2019 ), and The Wandering Earth ( 2019 ). [ 648 ]


Hanfu is the historical clothe of the Han people in China. The qipao or cheongsam is a democratic taiwanese female dress. [ 649 ] The hanfu campaign has been democratic in contemporary times and seeks to revitalize Hanfu clothe. [ 650 ]


China has one of the oldest frolic cultures in the world. There is evidence that archery ( shèjiàn ) was practiced during the western Zhou dynasty. Swordplay ( jiànshù ) and cuju, a mutant loosely related to association football [ 651 ] date back to China ‘s early dynasties as well. [ 652 ] Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago. physical fitness is wide emphasized in chinese culture, with good morning exercises such as qigong and t’ai chi ch’uan wide practiced, [ 653 ] and commercial gymnasium and secret fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the state. [ 654 ] Basketball is presently the most democratic spectator sport in China. [ 655 ] The Chinese Basketball Association and the american National Basketball Association have a huge follow among the people, with native or ethnic chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high respect. [ 656 ] China ‘s professional football league, now known as chinese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football market in Asia. [ 657 ] other popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. Board games such as go ( known as wéiqí in Chinese ), xiangqi, mah-jongg, and more recently chess, are besides played at a master flush. [ 658 ] In accession, China is base to a huge total of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012. [ 477 ] Many more traditional sports, such as draco boat race, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse rush are besides democratic. [ 659 ] China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has entirely participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 48 amber medals – the highest phone number of gold medals of any participating state that year. [ 660 ] China besides won the most medals of any state at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals. [ 661 ] [ 662 ] In 2011, Shenzhen in Guangdong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade. China hosted the 2013 East asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing ; the foremost nation to host both even and Youth Olympics. Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province collaboratively hosted the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, making Beijing the inaugural double olympic city in the populace by holding both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. [ 663 ] [ 664 ]

See besides



far read

For a more comprehensive list, see Bibliography of Chinese history


General information


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