For other uses, see Pantheon mausoleum in Paris for the most spot french people
The Panthéon ( french : [ pɑ̃.te.ɔ̃ ], from the Classical Greek password πάνθειον, pántheion, ‘ [ temple ] to all the gods ‘ ) [ 1 ] is a repository in the fifth arrondissement of Paris, France. It stands in the latin one-fourth, atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the kernel of the Place du Panthéon, which was named after it. The building was built between 1758 and 1790, from designs by Jacques-Germain Soufflot, at the behest of King Louis XV of France ; the king intended it as a church service dedicated to Saint Genevieve, Paris ‘ patron ideal, whose relics were to be housed in the church service. Neither Soufflot nor Louis XV lived to see the church completed. By the time the structure was finished, the french Revolution had started ; the National Constituent Assembly voted in 1791 to transform the Church of Saint Genevieve into a mausoleum for the remains of distinguish french citizens, modelled on the Pantheon in Rome which had been used in this way since the sixteenth century. The first panthéonisé was Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, although his remains were removed from the build a few years later. The Panthéon was doubly restored to church usage in the path of the 19th century—although Soufflot ‘s remains were transferred inside it in 1829—until the french Third Republic finally decreed the build ‘s exclusive use as a mausoleum in 1881. The placement of Victor Hugo ‘s remains in the crypt in 1885 was its first burial in over fifty dollar bill years.

The consecutive changes in the Panthéon ‘s purpose resulted in modifications of the pedimental sculptures and the cap of the dome by a cross or a flag ; some of the originally existing windows were blocked up with freemasonry in order to give the interior a benighted and more funereal air, [ 2 ] which compromised somewhat Soufflot ‘s initial undertake at combining the lightness and luminosity of the Gothic cathedral with classical principles. [ 3 ] The computer architecture of the Panthéon is an early model of Neoclassicism, surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante ‘s Tempietto. In 1851, Léon Foucault conducted a demonstration of diurnal movement at the Panthéon by suspending a pendulum from the ceiling, a copy of which is still visible today. As of December 2021 the remains of 81 people ( 75 men and six women ) had been transferred to the Panthéon. [ 4 ] More than half of all the panthéonisations were made under Napoleon ‘s rule during the First French Empire .

history [edit ]

Site and earlier buildings [edit ]

The site of the Panthéon had great significance in Paris history, and was occupied by a series of monuments. It was on Mount Lucotitius, a acme on the Left Bank where the forum of the Roman town of Lutetia was located. It was besides the original burial locate of Saint Genevieve, who had led the immunity to the Huns when they threatened Paris in 451. In 508, Clovis, King of the Franks, constructed a church there, where he and his wife were late buried in 511 and 545. The church, originally dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, was rededicated to Saint Genevieve, who became the patron saint of Paris. It was at the centre of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, a center of religious eruditeness in the Middle Ages. Her relics were kept in the church service, and were brought out for earnest processions when dangers threatened the city. [ 5 ]

construction [edit ]

King Louis XV vowed in 1744 that if he recovered from his illness he would replace the decay church of the Abbey of St Genevieve with a grand building worthy of the patron canonize of Paris. He did recover, but ten years passed before the reconstruction and expansion of the church was begun. In 1755 The Director of the King ‘s public works, Abel-François Poisson, marquis de Marigny, chose Jacques-Germain Soufflot to design the church. Soufflot ( 1713–1780 ) had studied classical architecture in Rome over 1731–38. Most of his early work was done in Lyon. Saint Genevieve became his life ‘s make ; it was not finished until after his death. [ 6 ] His beginning design was completed in 1755, and was clearly influenced by the work of Bramante he had studied in Italy. It took form of a greek cross, with four naves of equal duration, and monumental attic over the crossing in the center, and a authoritative portico with corinthian columns and a peristyle with a triangular pediment on the main facade. [ 7 ] The design was modified five times over the keep up years, with the summation of a narthex, a choir, and two towers. The design was not finalised until 1777. [ 8 ] The foundations were laid in 1758, but due to economic problems work proceeded lento. In 1780, Soufflot died and was replaced by his student Jean-Baptiste Rondelet. The re-modelled Abbey of St. Genevieve was finally completed in 1790, shortly after the begin of the french Revolution. The build is 110 metres farseeing by 84 metres broad, and 83 metres high, with the crypt below of the same size. The ceiling was supported by isolate columns, which supported an range of barrel vaults and cross arches. The massive attic was supported by pendentives rested upon four massive pillars. Critics of the plan contended that the pillars could not support such a large dome. Soufflot strengthened the stone structure with a system of cast-iron rods, a harbinger of modern reinforced buildings. The bars had deteriorated by the twenty-first century, and a major restoration visualize to replace them is being carried out between 2010 and 2020. [ 9 ] The attic is actually three domes, fitting within each other. The first, lowest dome, has a coffered ceiling with rosettes, and is clear in the center. Looking through this dome, the second dome is visible, decorated with the fresco The Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve by Antoine Gros. The outermost dome, visible from the external, is built of rock bound together with iron cramps and covered with moderate sheathing, rather than of carpentry structure, as was the park french practice of the period. Concealed buttresses inside the walls give extra support to the dome. [ 10 ]

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The Revolution – The “ Temple of the nation ” [edit ]

The Church of Saint Genevieve was about complete, with merely the inside decoration unfinished, when the french Revolution began in 1789. In 1790, the Marquis de Vilette proposed that it be made a temple devoted to liberty, on the model of the Pantheon in Rome. “ Let us install statues of our capital men and lay their ashes to rest in its underground recesses. ” [ 11 ] The idea was formally adopted in April, 1791, after the death of the outstanding revolutionist figure, The Comte de Mirabeau, the President of the National Constituent Assembly on April 2, 1791. On April 4, 1791, the Assembly decreed “ that this religious church become a temple of the nation, that the grave of a great serviceman become the altar of liberty. ” They besides approved a new textbook over the entrance : “ A grateful state honors its capital men. ” On the same day the announcement was approved, the funeral of Mirabeau was held in the church. [ 11 ] The ashes of Voltaire were placed in the Panthéon in a lavish ceremony on 11 July 1791, followed by the remains of several revolutionaries, including Jean-Paul Marat, replacing Mirabeau and of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In the rapid shifts of exponent of the Revolutionary period, two of the first men honored in Pantheon, Mirabeau and Marat, were declared enemies of the Revolution, and their remains were removed. last, the newfangled government of the french Convention decree in February, 1795 that no one should be placed in the Pantheon who had not been dead at least ten years. [ 12 ] soon after the church was transformed into a mausoleum, the Assembly approved architectural changes to make the inside dark and more earnest. The architect Quatremère de Quincy bricked up the lower windows and frosted the glass of the upper windows to reduce the light, and removed most of the decoration from the exterior. The architectural lanterns and bells were removed the facade. All of the religious friezes and statues were destroyed in 1791 ; it was replaced by statuary and murals on patriotic themes. [ 12 ]

temple to church service and back to temple ( 1806–1830 ) [edit ]

Napoleon Bonaparte, when he became First Consul in 1801, signed a Concordat with the Pope, agreeing to restore erstwhile church service properties, including the Panthéon. The Panthéon was under the jurisdiction of the canons of the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. Celebrations of authoritative events, such as the victory of Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, were held there. however, the crypt of the church kept its official function as the resting place for illustrious Frenchmen. A new entrance immediately to the crypt was created via the easterly porch ( 1809–1811 ). The artist Antoine-Jean Gros was commissioned to decorate the interior of the cupola. It combined the worldly and religious aspects of the church ; it showed the Genevieve being conducted to heaven by angels, in the bearing of great leaders of France, from Clovis I and Charlemagne to Napoleon and the Empress Josephine. During the reign of Napoleon, the remains of forty-one illustrious Frenchmen were placed in the crypt. They were by and large military officers, senators and other high officials of the Empire, but besides included the explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville and the cougar Joseph-Marie Vien, the teacher of Napoleon ‘s official painter, Jacques-Louis David. [ 13 ] During the Bourbon Restoration which followed the descend of Napoleon, in 1816 Louis XVIII of France restored the entire Panthéon, including the crypt, to the Catholic Church. The church was besides at survive formally consecrated in the presence of the King, a ceremony which had been omitted during the Revolution. The sculpture on the pediment by Jean Guillaume Moitte, called The Fatherland crowning the heroic and civic virtues was replaced by a religious-themed work by David d’Angers. The reliquary of Saint Genevieve had been destroyed during the Revolution, but a few relics were found and restored to the church ( They are now in the neighbor church of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont ). In 1822 François Gérard was commissioned to decorate the pendentives of the dome with fresh works representing Justice, Death, the Nation, and Fame. Jean-Antoine Gros was commissioned to redo his fresco on the inner dome, replacing Napoleon with Louis XVIII, a well as figures of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The new translation of the cupola was inaugurated in 1824 by Charles X. As to the crypt where the tombs were located, it was locked and closed to visitors. [ 14 ]

Under Louis Philippe I, the Second Republic and Napoleon III ( 1830–1871 ) [edit ]

The french Revolution of 1830 placed Louis Philippe I on the throne. He expressed sympathy for Revolutionary values, and on 26 August 1830, the church once again became the Pantheon. however, the crypt remained closed to the populace, and no new remains were added. The only change made was to the independent pediment, which had been remade with a beaming cross ; it was remade again by D’Angers with a patriotic work called The Nation Distributing Crowns Handed to Her by Liberty, to Great Men, Civil and Military, While History Inscribes Their Names. Louis Philippe was overthrown in 1848 and replaced by the elect government of the Second French Republic, which valued revolutionist themes. The raw government designated the Pantheon “ The Temple of Humanity ”, and proposed to decorate it with sixty new murals honouring human advance in all fields. In 1851 the Foucault Pendulum of astronomer Léon Foucault was hung beneath the dome to illustrate the rotation of the ground. however, on complaints from the Church, it was removed in December of the same year. Louis Napoléon, nephew of the Emperor, was elected President of France in December 1848, and in 1852 staged a coup-d’état and made himself Emperor. once again the Pantheon was returned to the church, with the style of “ National Basilica ”. The remaining relics of Saint Genevieve were restored to the church, and two groups of sculpt commemorating events in the animation of the Saint were added. The crypt remained close up .

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The Third Republic ( 1871–1939 ) [edit ]

The Basilica suffered damage from german shelling during the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. During the brief predominate of the Paris Commune in May 1871, it suffered more damage during fighting between the Commune soldiers and the french Army. During the early years of the Third Republic, under bourgeois governments, it functioned as a church, but the inside walls were largely unsheathed. Beginning in 1874, The interior was redecorated with new murals and modeled groups linking french history and the history of the church, by luminary artists including Puvis de Chavannes and Alexandre Cabanel, and the artist Antoine-Auguste-Ernest Hébert, who made a mosaic under the vault of the apsidal chapel called Christ Showing the Angel of France the Destiny of Her People. [ 15 ] Funeral of Victor Hugo on 1 June 1885

In 1881, a decree was passed to transform the Church of Saint Genevieve into a mausoleum again. Victor Hugo was the first to be placed in the crypt afterwards. The subsequent governments approved the introduction of literary figures, including the writer Émile Zola ( 1908 ), and, after World War I, leaders of the french socialist movement, including Léon Gambetta ( 1920 ) and Jean Jaurès ( 1924 ). The Third Republic governments besides decreed that the build should be decorated with sculpt representing “ the aureate ages and great men of France. ” The chief works remaining from this period include the modeled group called The National Assembly, commemorating the french Revolution ; a statue of Mirabeau, the first man interred in the Pantheon, by Jean-Antoine Ingabert ; ( 1889–1920 ) ; and two patriotic murals in the apse Victory Leading the Armies of the Republic to Towards Glory by Édouard Detaille, and Glory Entering the Temple, Followed by Poets, Philosophers, Scientists and Warriors, by Marie-Désiré-Hector d’Espouy ( 1906 ). [ 15 ] The Panthéon at night The ephemeral Fourth Republic ( 1948–1958 ) following World War II pantheonized two physicists, Paul Langevin and Jean Perrin ; a drawing card of the abolitionist movement, Victor Schœlcher ; early leader of barren France and colonial administrator Félix Éboué ; and Louis Braille, inventor of the Braille write system, in 1952. Under the Fifth Republic of President Charles de Gaulle, the first person to be buried in the Panthéon was the Resistance drawing card Jean Moulin. Modern figures buried in holocene years include Nobel Peace Prize winner René Cassin ( 1987 ) known for drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ; Jean Monnet who was a moving military unit in the creation of the ECSC, the harbinger of the EU, was interred in the hundredth anniversary of his parentage ; Nobel laureates physicists and chemists Marie Curie and Pierre Curie ( 1995 ) ; the writer and culture minister André Malraux ( 1996 ) ; and the lawyer, politician Simone Veil ( 2018 ). [ 16 ] In 2021, Josephine Baker was inducted into the Pantheon, becoming the first gear Black woman to receive that honor. [ 17 ]

architecture and art [edit ]

dome [edit ]

The final examination plan of the dome was accepted in 1777, and it was completed in 1790. It was designed to rival those of St. Peter ‘s Basilica in Rome and St Paul ‘s Cathedral in London. Unlike the attic of Les Invalides in Paris, which has a wooden framework, the attic is constructed wholly of stone. It is actually three domes, one within the early, with the painted ceiling, visible from below, on the second dome. The dome is 83.0 metres ( 272 foot ) high, compared with the tallest dome in the global, St. Peter ‘s Basilica at 136.57 metres ( 448.1 foot ) .

The attic is capped by a cross. however, a statue of Saint Genevieve was initially supposed to sit at the top of the dome. A cross was put temporarily in 1790. After the transformation into a mausoleum in 1791, it was planned that the cross would be replaced by a statue representing Fame. The project was however abandoned. between 1830 and 1851, a ease up was put rather. The hybrid returned after Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte restored the build to church function. The cross was replaced with a crimson flag during the Paris Commune in 1871. A thwart returned subsequently .

Looking up from the crossing of the transept below the dome, the painting by Jean-Antoine Gros, the Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve ( 1811–1834 ), is visible through the opening in the lowest cupola. The triangle in the focus on symbolizes the Trinity, surrounded by a halo of light. The Hebrew characters spell the appoint of God. The merely character seen in wide is Saint Genevieve herself, seated on a rocky promontory. The groups around the paint, made during the Restoration of the Monarchy, represent Kings of France who played an important character in protecting the church. To the left of Saint Genevieve is a group including Clovis, the first King to convert to Christianity. The irregular group is centred around Charlemagne, who created the first universities. The third group is centred around Louis IX of France, or Saint Louis, with the Crown of Thorns which he brought back from the Holy Land to place in the church of Sainte-Chapelle. The last group is centred around Louis XVIII, the survive King of the Restoration, and his niece, looking up into the cloud at the martyr Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. The angels in the setting are carrying the Chartre, the document by which Louis XVIII re-established the church after the french Revolution. [ 18 ] The four pendentives, or arches, which support the dome are decorated with paintings from the lapp period by François Gérard depicting Glory, Death, The Nation and Justice ( 1821–37 ) .

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Facade, peristyle and entrance [edit ]

The facade and peristyle on the east slope, modeled after a greek synagogue, features corinthian columns and pedimental sculpt by David d’Angers, completed in 1837. The sculpt on this pediment, replacing an early pediment with religious themes, represents “ The Nation stagger crowns handed to her by Liberty to great men, civil and military, while history inscribes their names ”. To the leave are figures of identify scientists, philosophers, and statesmen, including Rousseau, Voltaire, Lafayette, and Bichat. To the right is Napoleon Bonaparte, along with soldiers from each military service and students in uniform from the École Polytechnique. [ 19 ] Below is the inscription : “ To the great men, from a grateful nation ” ( “ Aux grands hommes la patrie reconnaissante ” ). This was added in 1791, when the Panthéon was created. It was removed during the Restoration of the monarchy, then put back in 1830 .

Below the peristyle are five sculpt bas-reliefs ; the two reliefs over the main doors, commissioned during the Revolution, represent the two main purposes of the building : “ public department of education ” ( left ) and “ patriotic devotion ” ( good ). The facade originally had large windows, but they were replaced when the church became a mausoleum, to make the department of the interior dark and more somber .

Narthex and naves [edit ]

The primary decoration of the western Nave is a serial of paintings, beginning in the Narthex, depicting the lives of Saint Denis, the patron saint of Paris, and longer series on the biography of Saint Genevieve, by Puvis de Chavannes, Alexandre Cabanel, Jules Eugène Lenepveu and other celebrated history painters of the nineteenth century. The paintings of the Southern nave and Northern Nave continue this series on the Christian heroes of France, including scenes from the lives of Charlemagne, Clovis, Louis IX of France and Joan of Arc. From 1906 to 1922 the Panthéon was the site of Auguste Rodin ‘s celebrated sculpt The Thinker .

Foucault pendulum [edit ]

In 1851, physicist Léon Foucault demonstrated the rotation of the earth by constructing a 67-metre ( 220 foot ) pendulum beneath the central dome. The original celestial sphere from the pendulum was temporarily displayed at the Panthéon in the 1990s ( starting in 1995 ) during renovations at the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original pendulum was late returned to the Musée des Arts et Métiers, and a copy is now displayed at the Panthéon. [ 20 ] It has been listed since 1920 as a monument historique by the french Ministry of Culture. [ 21 ]

burial in the crypt [edit ]

burial in the crypt of the Panthéon is sternly restricted and is allowed merely by a parliamentary act for “ National Heroes ”. like high honours exist in Les Invalides for historical military leaders such as Napoléon, Turenne and Vauban. Among those buried in its necropolis are Voltaire, Rousseau, Victor Hugo, Émile Zola, Jean Moulin, Louis Braille, Jean Jaurès and Soufflot, its architect. In 1907 Marcellin Berthelot was buried with his wife Mme Sophie Berthelot. Marie Curie was interred in 1995, the first gear womanhood interred on deservingness. Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz and Germaine Tillion, heroines of the french resistance, were interred in 2015. [ 22 ] Simone Veil was interred in 2018, and her husband Antoine Veil was bury alongside her so that they would not be separated. [ 23 ] The widely repeated fib that the remains of Voltaire were stolen by religious fanatics in 1814 and thrown into a garbage pile is false. such rumours resulted in the coffin being opened in 1897, which confirmed that his remains were still stage. [ 24 ] On 30 November 2002, in an elaborate but earnest emanation, six republican Guards carried the coffin of Alexandre Dumas ( 1802–1870 ), the generator of The Three Musketeers and other celebrated novels, to the Panthéon. Draped in a blue-velvet fabric inscribed with the Musketeers ‘ motto “ Un pour tous, tous pour un “ ( “ One for all, all for one ” ), the remains had been transported from their original burial locate in the Cimetière de Villers-Cotterêts in Aisne, France. In his speech, President Jacques Chirac stated that an injustice was being corrected with the proper honor of one of France ‘s greatest authors. In January 2007, President Jacques Chirac unveiled a brass in the Panthéon to more than 2,600 people recognised as Righteous Among the Nations by the Yad Vashem memorial in Israel for saving the lives of Jews who would otherwise have been deported to concentration camps. The tribute in the Panthéon underlines the fact that around three-quarters of the state ‘s jewish population survived the war, often thanks to ordinary people who provided aid at the risk of their own liveliness. This brass says :

sou louisiana chape de haine et de nuit tombée sur la France dans les années d’Occupation, des lumières, par milliers, refusèrent de s’éteindre. Nommés “ Justes parmi les nations “ ou restés anonymes, des femmes et des hommes, de toutes origines et de toutes conditions, ont sauvé des juifs des persécutions antisémites et des camp d’extermination. Bravant les risques encourus, illinois ont incarné l’honneur de la France, ses valeurs de department of justice, de tolérance et d’humanité . Under the cloak of hate and darkness that spread over France during the years of [ Nazi ] occupation, thousands of lights refused to be extinguished. Named as “ Righteous among the Nations “ or remaining anonymous, women and men, of all backgrounds and sociable classes, saved Jews from anti-semitic persecution and the extinction camps. Braving the risks involved, they embodied the honor of France, and its values of judge, tolerance and humanness .

People interred or commemorated [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

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