Woodwind musical instrument

The recorder is a family of woodwind musical instruments in the group known as internal duct flutes : flutes with a whistle mouthpiece, besides known as fipple flutes. A recorder can be distinguished from early duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes : three for the upper hand and four for the lower. It is the most big duct flute in the western classical custom. [ 1 ] Recorders are made in diverse sizes with names and compasses approximately corresponding to diverse vocal ranges. The sizes most normally in use today are the soprano ( besides known as descant, lowest note C5 ), alto ( alos known as soprano, lowest note F4 ), tenor ( lowest eminence C4 ), and bass ( lowest note F3 ). Recorders were traditionally constructed from wood or ivory. Modern professional instruments are about constantly of wood, much box ; scholar and scholastic recorders are normally of molded plastic. The recorders ‘ internal and external proportions vary, but the bear is broadly change by reversal conic ( i.e. tapering towards the foot ) to cylindrical, and all fipple flute fingering systems make across-the-board use of bifurcate fingerings.

The registrar is first documented in Europe in the Middle Ages, and continued to enjoy wide popularity in the Renaissance and Baroque periods, but was little used in the Classical and Romantic periods. It was revived in the twentieth hundred as part of the historically informed performance movement, and became a popular amateur and educational legal document. Composers who have written for the recorder include Monteverdi, Lully, Purcell, Handel, Vivaldi, Telemann, Bach, Hindemith, and Berio. [ 2 ] There are many professional recorder players who demonstrate the full solo range of the instrument, and a large community of amateurs. [ 3 ] The sound of the recorder is often described as clear and dulcet, [ 2 ] and has historically been associated with birds and shepherds. It is luminary for its quick response and its comparable ability to produce a wide variety of articulations. This ability, coupled with its open finger holes, allow it to produce a wide kind of spirit colors and special effects. acoustically, its tone is relatively pure and, when the border is positioned in the center of the airjet, odd harmonics predominate in its legal ( when the edge is decidedly off-center, an even distribution of harmonics occurs ). [ 4 ] [ 2 ]

Table of Contents

name [edit ]

The musical instrument has been known by its modern english identify at least since the fourteenth century. David Lasocki reports the earliest consumption of “ recorder ” in the family accounts of the Earl of Derby ( late King Henry IV ) in 1388, which register i. fistula nomine Recordour ( one pipe called ‘Recordour ‘ ). [ 5 ] By the fifteenth hundred, the identify had appeared in english literature. The earliest references are in John Lydgate ‘s Temple of Glas ( c. 1430 ) : These lytylle herdegromys Floutyn al the longe day..In here smale recorderys, In floutys. ( ‘These little shepherds fluting all day retentive … on these modest recorders, on flutes. ‘ ) [ 6 ] and in Lydgate ‘s fall of Princes ( c. 1431–1438 ) : Pan, god off Kynde, with his pipes seuene, / Off recorderis fond first the melodies. ( ‘Pan, idol of Nature, with his pipes seven, / of recorders found first the melodies. ‘ ) [ 7 ] [ 8 ]

etymology [edit ]

The musical instrument mention recorder derives from the Latin recordārī ( to call to mind, remember, remember ), by room of Middle French recorder ( before 1349 ; to remember, to learn by heart, repeat, refer, recite, play music ) [ 9 ] [ 10 ] and its derivative MFr recordeur ( c. 1395 ; one who retells, a minstrel ). [ 11 ] [ 12 ] The affiliation between the diverse, apparently disparate, meanings of recorder can be attributed to the role of the medieval jongleur in learning poems by heart and belated reciting them, sometimes with melodious complement. [ 10 ] The English verb record ( from Middle French recorder, early thirteenth hundred ) entail ‘to learn by heart, to commit to memory, to go over in one ‘s mind, to recite ‘ but it was not used in English to refer to playing music until the sixteenth hundred, when it gained the meaning ‘silently practicing a tune ‘ or ‘sing or translate in birdcall ‘ ( both about entirely referring to songbirds ), long after the registrar had been named. [ 9 ] Thus, the recorder can not have been named after the reasoned of birds. The list of the instrument is besides uniquely english : in Middle French there is no equivalent noun sense of recorder referring to a musical instrument. [ 13 ] Partridge indicates that the use of the instrument by jongleurs led to its association with the verb : recorder the minstrel ‘s action, a recorder the minstrel ‘s tool. [ 5 ] [ 14 ] The argue we know this legal document as the recorder and not one of the other instruments played by the jongleurs is uncertain .

Flute and recorder [edit ]

The presentation of the Baroque recorder to England by a group of french professionals in 1673 popularized the french name for the instrument, flute douce, or merely flute, a name previously ( and subsequently ) reserved for the cross instrument. Until about 1695, the names recorder and flute overlapped, but from 1673 to the belated 1720s in England, the discussion flute constantly meant recorder. [ 5 ] In the 1720s, as the cross flute overtook the recorder in popularity, English adopted the convention already introduce in early european languages of qualifying the news flute, calling the registrar variously the “ park flute ”, “ common English-flute ”, or merely “ english flute ” while the cross instrument was distinguished as the “ german flute ” or simply “ flute ”. [ 15 ] Until at least 1765, some writers still used flute to mean registrar. [ 5 ]

other languages [edit ]

Until the mid eighteenth century, musical scores written in italian refer to the legal document as flauto, whereas the cross legal document was called flauto traverso. This eminence, like the English interchange from recorder to flute, has caused confusion among advanced editors, writers and performers. indeed, in most european languages, the first term for the recorder was the son for flute alone. In the present day, cognates of the give voice flute, when used without qualifiers, remain ambiguous and may refer to either the fipple flute, the modern concert flute, or early non-western flutes. Starting in the 1530s, these languages began to add qualifiers to specify this particular flute. [ 5 ]

terminology [edit ]

Since the fifteenth hundred, a variety of sizes of fipple flute have been documented, but a reproducible terminology and note for the different sizes was not formulated until the twentieth century .

mod recorders [edit ]

Ranges of the modern recorder family
In C Written Sounding In F Written Sounding
garklein or sopranissimo
or piccolo in C6 (c‴)

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       \clef sopranino in F5 (f″) 
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soprano or descant in C5 (c″)


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tenor in C4 (c′) 
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   bass or basset in F3 (f) 
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(great) bass or quart-bass in C3 (c) 
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   contrabass or great bass
or sub-bass in F2 (F)

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sub-great bass or contra-great bass
or contrabass in C2 (C)

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   sub-contrabass or double contrabass
(octocontrabass) in F1 (FF)

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today, registrar sizes are named after the different vocal music ranges. This is not, however, a reflection of sounding gear, and serves chiefly to denote the pitch relationships between the unlike instruments. Groups of recorders played together are referred to as “ consorts ”. Recorders are besides often referred to by their lowest sounding note : “ registrar in F ” refers to a registrar with last note F, in any octave. The table in this section shows the standard names of modern recorders in F and C and their respective ranges. Music composed after the mod revival of the recorder most frequently uses soprano, alto, tenor, and bass recorders, although sopranino and capital bass are besides fairly common. [ 16 ] Consorts of recorders are much referred to using the terminology of electric organ registers : 8′ ( 8 foot ) pitch referring to a harmonize sounding as written, 4′ pitch a harmonize sounding an octave above written, and 16′ a consort sounding an octave below written. The combination of these consorts is besides possible. [ 17 ] As a rule of flick, the tessitura of a baroque registrar lies approximately one octave above the tessitura of the human voice type after which it is named. For example, the tessitura of a soprano articulation is roughly C4–C6, while the tessitura of a soprano fipple flute is C5–C7. modern variations include standard british terminology, due to Arnold Dolmetsch, which refers to the recorder in C5 ( soprano ) as the descant and the recorder in F4 ( countertenor ) as the triple. As conventions and instruments vary, specially for larger and more uncommon instruments, it is frequently practical to state the recorder ‘s lowest note along with its list to avoid confusion .

notation [edit ]

Modern recorder parts are notated in the cardinal they sound in. Parts for alto, tenor and bass fiddle recorders are notated at pitch, while parts for sopranino, soprano, bass, and great bass are typically notated an octave below their sound slope. As a solution, soprano and tenor recorders are notated identically ; alto and sopranino are notated identically ; and freshwater bass and bass fiddle recorders are notated identically. Octave clef may be used to indicate the sound pitch, but use is inconsistent. rare sizes and notations include the garklein, which may be notated two octaves below its sound flip, and the sub-contrabass, which may be notated an octave above its sound lurch. [ clarification needed ]

historical recorders [edit ]

The earliest know document mentioning “ a shriek called Recordour ” dates from 1388. [ 18 ] Historically, recorders were used to play vocal music and parts written for early instruments, or for a general legal document. As a result, it was frequently the performers ‘ responsibility to read parts not specifically intended for the instrument and to choose appropriate instruments. When such consorts consisted only of recorders, the deliver relationships between the parts were typically preserved, but when recorders were combined with other instruments, octave discrepancies were often ignored. [ 19 ] recorder consorts in the sixteenth century were tuned in fifths and lone occasionally employed tune by octaves as seen in the advanced C, F recorder consort. This means that consorts could be composed of instruments nominally in B♭, F, C, G, D, A and even E, although typically only three or four distinct sizes were used simultaneously. To use modern terminology, these recorders were treated as transposing instruments : consorts would be read identically to a consort made up of F3, C4, and G4 instruments. This is made possible by the fact that adjacent sizes are separated by fifths, with few exceptions. These parts would be written using chiavi naturali, allowing the parts to roughly fit in the range of a single staff, and besides in the range of the recorders of the period. ( see Renaissance structure ) Transpositions ( “ registers ” ), such as C3–G3–D4, G3–D4–A4, or B♭2–F3–C4, all read as F3–C4–G4 instruments, were possible as described by Praetorius in his Syntagma Musicum. Three sizes of instruments could be used to play four-part music by doubling the middle size, e.g. F3–C4–C4–G4, or play six-part music by doubling the upper size and tripling the middle size, e.g. F3–C4–C4–C4–G4–G4. [ 20 ] Modern terminology for such recorders refers to the instruments ‘ relationship to the other members of consort, rather than their absolute pitch, which may vary. The instruments from lowest to highest are called “ great bass ”, “ bass ”, “ basset ”, “ tenor ”, “ alto ”, and “ soprano ”. electric potential size include : capital sea bass in F2 ; bass in B♭2 or C3 ; basset in F3 or G3 ; tenor in C4 or D4 ; alto in F4, G4 or A4 ; and soprano in C5 or D5. [ 21 ] The countertenor in F4 is the standard registrar of the Baroque, although there is a small repertoire written for other sizes. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] In 17th-century England, smaller recorders were named for their relationship to the alto and notated as transposing instruments with respect to it : third base flute ( A4 ), fifth flute ( soprano ; C5 ), one-sixth flute ( D5 ), and octave flute ( sopranino ; F5 ). [ 24 ] [ 25 ] The term flute du quart, or one-fourth flute ( B♭4 ), was used by Charles Dieupart, although curiously he treated it as a transposing legal document in relation to the soprano quite than the alto. In teutonic countries, the equivalent of the like term, Quartflöte, was applied both to the tenor in C4, the time interval being measured down from the alto in F4, and to a recorder in C5 ( soprano ), the interval of a fourthly obviously being measured up from an alto in G4. [ 5 ] Recorder parts in the Baroque were typically notated using the soprano clef, although they may besides be notated in french violin clef ( G clef on the penetrate line of the staff ). In modern use, recorders not in C or F are alternatively referred to using the diagnose of the closest instrumental role in C or F, followed by the lowest note. For case, a registrar with depleted note G4 may be known as a G-alto or alto in G, a fipple flute with broken note D5 ( besides “ sixth flute ” ) as a D-soprano or soprano in D, and a recorder in G3 as a G-bass or G-basset. This use is not wholly consistent. notably, the baroque registrar in D4 is not normally referred to as a D-tenor nor a D-alto ; it is most normally referred to using the historical diagnose “ voice flute “ .

structure [edit ]

Materials [edit ]

Recorders have historically been constructed from hardwoods and ivory, sometimes with metallic keys. Since the modern revival of the recorder, plastics have been used in the mass fabricate of recorders, american samoa well as by a few individual makers. [ 26 ] today, a wide variety of hardwoods are used to make recorder bodies. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ] [ 32 ] relatively fewer varieties of wood are used to make fipple flute blocks, which are much made of red cedar, chosen because of its decompose electric resistance, ability to absorb water, and low expansion when besotted. A holocene invention is the use of synthetic ceramics in the manufacture of recorder blocks. [ 33 ]

Larger recorders [edit ]

Some recorders have tone holes besides far apart for a player ‘s hands to reach, or excessively large to cover with the pads of the fingers. In either case, more ergonomically placed keys can be used to cover the tone holes. Keys besides allow the design of longer instruments with larger timbre holes. Keys are most coarse in recorders larger than the alto. Instruments larger than the tenor need at least one key so the player can cover all eight holes. Keys are sometimes besides used on smaller recorders to allow for comfortable handwriting stretch, and acoustically better fix placement and size. [ 34 ] When playing a larger recorder, a player may not be able to simultaneously reach the keys or shade holes with the fingers and reach the windway with the mouth. In this case, a bocal may be used to allow the musician to blow into the recorder while maintaining a comfortable hand position. [ 35 ] Alternatively, some recorders have a bend bear that positions the windway closer to the keys or finger holes so the player can comfortably reach both. Instruments with a single bend are known as “ knick ” or bent-neck recorders. [ 36 ]

modern developments [edit ]

Some newer designs of recorder are nowadays being produced. Recorders with a square cross-section may be produced more stingily and in larger sizes than comparable recorders manufactured by turning. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] Another area is the exploitation of instruments with a greater dynamic range and more brawny bottomland notes. These modern designs make it easier to be heard in concerto. last, recorders with a down extension of a semitone are becoming available ; such instruments can play a full three octaves in tune. [ 39 ] fipple flute with german fingering. note that the 4th finger-hole is larger than the 5th .

german finger [edit ]

In the early twentieth century, Peter Harlan developed a recorder with apparently simple feel, called german fingering. A registrar designed for german finger has a hole five that is smaller than hole four, whereas baroque and neo-baroque recorders have a hole four that is smaller than trap five. The immediate dispute in feel is for F ( soprano ) or B♭ ( alto ), which on a neo-baroque instrument must be fingered 0 123 4–67. With german fingering, this becomes a childlike 0 123 4 – – –. unfortunately, however, this makes many other chromatic notes excessively out of tune to be useable. [ 40 ] german finger became democratic in Europe, particularly Germany, in the 1930s, but quickly became disused in the 1950s as people began to treat the fipple flute more badly, and the limitations of german fingering became more wide appreciated. [ 41 ] Recorders with german fingering are today manufactured entirely for educational purposes .

pitch [edit ]

modern recorders are most normally pitched at A=440 Hz, but among dangerous amateurs and professionals, other pitch standards are much found. For the performance of baroque music, A=415 Hz is the de facto standard, [ 42 ] while pre-Baroque music is frequently performed at A=440 Hz or A=466 Hz. [ 43 ] These lurch standards are intended to reflect the broad variation in lurch standards throughout the history of the registrar. In versatile regions, context, and time periods, pitch standards have varied from A=~392 Hz to A=~520 Hz. The pitches A=415 Hz and A=466 Hz, a semitone lower and a semitone higher than A=440 Hz respectively, were chosen because they may be used with harpsichords or chamber organs that transpose up or down a semitone from A=440. [ 44 ] These pitch standards allow recorder players to collaborate with other instrumentalists at a deliver other than A=440 Hz. Some recorder makers produce instruments at pitches other than the three standard pitches above, and recorders with exchangeable bodies at different pitches. [ 45 ] [ 46 ]

Acoustics [edit ]

cross-section of the head of a registrar. A ) parry B ) windway C ) labium

basic healthy production [edit ]

The fipple flute produces phone in the manner of a whistle or an organ flue pipe pipe. In normal play, the player blows into the windway ( B ), a constrict impart in the head joint, which directs a stream of air across a gap called the window, at a sharp edge called the labium ( C ). The tune stream alternately travels above and below the labium, exciting standing waves in the behave of the recorder, and producing voice waves that emanate away from the window. feedback from the resonance of the tube regulates the gear of the phone. In recorders, as in all woodwind instruments, the air travel column inside the instrument behaves like a vibrating string, to use a musical analogy, and has multiple modes of vibration. These waves produced inside the instrument are not travelling waves, like those the auricle perceives as voice, but quite stationary standing waves consisting of areas of high press and low atmospheric pressure inside the metro, called nodes. The perceived pitch is the lowest, and typically loudest, mode of vibration in the air column. The other pitches are harmonics, or overtones. Players typically report registrar pitches by the number of nodes in the air column. Notes with a single node are in the first register, notes with two nodes in the second register, etc. As the number of nodes in the tube increases, the total of notes a player can produce in a given cross-file decreases because of the physical restraint of the spacing of the nodes in the hold. On a Baroque fipple flute, the first gear, moment, and third base registers span about a major ninth, a major one-sixth, and a minor third base respectively .

Harmonic profile [edit ]

The recorder sound, for the most part, lacks high harmonics and odd harmonics predominate in its reasoned with the tied harmonics being about entirely absent, although the harmonic profile of the recorder sound varies from recorder to recorder, and from fingering to fingering. [ 4 ] [ 2 ] As a result of the miss of senior high school harmonics, writers since Praetorius have remarked that it is difficult for the homo ear to perceive correctly the sounding octave of the recorder .

Air [edit ]

As in organ flue pipe pipes, the sounding pitch of duct type whistles is affected by the speed of the air stream as it impinges upon the labium. The flip broadly increases with speed of the slipstream, up to a point. [ 47 ] Air amphetamine can besides be used to influence the numeral of pressure nodes in a procedure called over botch. At higher airstream velocities, lower modes of shaking of the tune column become unstable, resulting in a change of cross-file. The air stream is affected by the formative of the surfaces in the head of the recorder ( the “ voicing ” ), and the way the player blows air out into the windway. Recorder voicing is determined by physical parameters such as the proportions and curvature of the windway along both the longitudinal and latitudinal axes, the beveled edges ( chamfers ) of the windway facing towards the labium, the length of the windowpane, the asperity of the labium ( i.e. the abruptness of the ramp ) among early parameters. The player is able to control the travel rapidly and turbulence of the airstream using the diaphragm and song tract .

Fingers [edit ]

The finger holes, used in combination or partially covered, affect the sounding pitch of the instrument. At the most basic flat, the consecutive uncover of finger holes increases the sounding pitch of the instrument by decreasing the effective sounding length of the instrument, and frailty versa for the consecutive cover of holes. In the finger 01234567, alone the bell of the instrument is open, resulting in a low blackmail node at the doorbell end of the instrument. The fingering 0123456 sounds at a higher slope because the one-seventh hole and the chime both let go of breeze, creating a low blackmail node at the seventh fix. Besides consecutive discovery, recorders can use branch fingering to produce tones other than those produced by simple consecutive lift of fingers. In the fingering 0123, vent leaks from the outdoors holes 4,5,6, and 7. The pressure inside the hold is higher at the fourth hole than at the fifth, and decreases further at the 6th and 7th holes. consequently, the most air leaks from the one-fourth trap and the least air leaks from the seventh hole. As a result, covering the one-fourth trap affects the pitch more than covering any of the holes below it. therefore, at the same air pressure, the fingering 01235 produces a pitch between 0123 and 01234. Forked fingerings leave recorder players to obtain ticket gradations in pitch and timbre. A fipple flute ‘s pitch is besides affected by the partial covering of holes. This technique is an significant tool for intonation, and is related to the cook action of tuning a recorder, which involves the adjustment of the size and shape of the finger holes through carving and the application of wax. One essential use of partial derivative covering is in “ leak, ” or partially covering, the hitchhike hole to destabilize depleted harmonics. This allows higher harmonics to sound at lower air pressures than by over-blowing alone, as on elementary whistles. The player may besides leak other holes to destabilize lower harmonics in home of the finger hole ( fix 0 ). This proficiency is demonstrated in the fingering tables of Ganassi ‘s Fontegara ( 1535 ), which illustrate the coincident leak of holes 0, 2, and 5 to produce some high notes. For model, Ganassi ‘s mesa produces the 15th ( third octave bracing ) as the fourth consonant of the bracing, leaking holes 0, 2 and 5 and produces the 16th as the one-third harmonic of the fifth, leaking holes 0 and 2. On some Baroque recorders, the 17th can be produced as the third base harmonic of the sixth, leak hole 0 angstrom well as hole 1, 2 or both .

technique [edit ]

Although the design of the recorder has changed over its 700-year history, notably in fingering and bore profile ( see History ), the proficiency of playing recorders of different sizes and periods is much the same. indeed, much of what is known about the technique of playing the recorder is derived from historical treatises and manuals dating to the 16th–18th hundred. The follow describes the commonalities of registrar technique across all clock periods .
A musician playing a recorder

Playing position [edit ]

In normal play military position, the registrar is held with both hands, covering the fingerholes or depressing the key with the pads of the fingers : four fingers on the lower hand, and the index, center and ring fingers and hitchhike on the upper hired hand. In standard modern practice, the good hand is the lower hand, while the leave hand is the upper hand, although this was not standardized before the mod revival of the fipple flute. The recorder is supported by the lips, which loosely seal around the beak of the instrument, the finger of the lower hand, and, depending on the note fingered, by the other fingers and the upper berth thumb. A rehearse documented in many historic fingering charts is the function of finger seven or eight to support the registrar when playing notes for which the coverage of this hole negligibly affects the sound pitch ( e.g. notes with many holes uncovered ). Larger recorders may have a ovolo pillow, or a neck flog for extra support, and may use a bocal to direct vent from the player ‘s mouth to the windway. Recorders are typically held at an angle between erect and horizontal, the attitude depending on the size and weight of the recorder, and personal preference .

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Fingers [edit ]

How the fingers and holes are numbered
Fingers Holes
NumberedLeftHand.jpg
NumberedRightHand.jpg
Numbered finger holes.jpg

Pitches are produced on the fipple flute by covering the holes while blowing into the instrumental role. Modern terminology refers to the holes on the front of the instrumental role using the numbers 1 through 7, starting with the hole close to the beak, with the thumbhole numbered trap 0. At the most basic degree, the finger proficiency of the recorder involves the consecutive uncover of the holes from lowest to highest ( i.e., uncovering 7, then uncovering 7 and 6, then uncovering 7, 6 and 5, etc. ) producing tied higher pitches. In commit, however, the denudation of the holes is not strictly consecutive, and the half covering or uncovering of holes is an essential part of registrar technique .
Principes de la Flute Traversiere, de la Flute a Bec, et du Haut-bois, 1707 example of a man playing a recorder, from Jacques Hotteterre, , 1707

Forked fingerings [edit ]

A double finger is a fingering in which an capable hole has covered holes below it : fingerings for which the uncover of the holes is not consecutive. For exemplar, the fingering 0123 ( G5 ) is not a branch fingering, while 0123 56 ( F♯5 ) is a branch feel because the clear hole 4 has holes covered below it – holes 5 and 6. Forked fingerings allow for smaller adjustments in flip than the consecutive uncover of holes alone would allow. For model, at the same air speed the finger 0123 5 sounds higher than 01234 but lower than 0123. many standard recorder fingerings are forked fingerings. Forked fingerings may besides be used to produce microtonal variations in pitch. Forked fingerings have a different harmonic profile from non-forked fingerings, and are generally regarded as having a weaker sound. Forked fingerings that have a different shade coloring material or are slightly crisp or flat can provide alleged “ alternate fingerings ”. For exercise, the finger 0123 has a slenderly sharper forked version 012 4567 .

partial derivative cover of holes [edit ]

partial cover of the holes is an essential part of the bet technique of all recorders. This is variously known as “ leak, ” “ shade, ” “ half-holing, ” and in the context of the hitchhike hole, “ top ”. The chief officiate of the thumbhole is to serve as an octaving vent. When it is leaked, the first mode of vibration of the air column becomes precarious : i, the record changes. In most recorders, this is required for the play of every notice higher than a ninth above the lowest eminence. The player must adjust the situation of the hitchhike for these notes to sound static and in tune. The fond opening of the thumbhole may be achieved by sliding or rolling the thumb off the hole, or by bending the finger at the foremost knuckle. To partially uncover a traverse fix, the player may slide the feel off the hole, bend or roll the finger away from the hole, gently lift the finger from the trap, or a combination of these. To partially cover an open hole, the reverse is possible. by and large speaking, the fond possibility of overlay fingerholes raises the cant of the sounding notice while the fond closing of unfold fingerholes lowers the pitch .

Holes 6 and 7 [edit ]

On most “ baroque ” modeled modern recorders, the lower two fingers of the lower hand actually cover two holes each ( called “ double holes ” ). Whereas on the huge majority of baroque recorders and all earlier recorders these two fingers covered a individual hole ( “ single holes ” ), double holes have become standard for baroque modeled modern recorders. [ 48 ] By covering one or both of these two, smaller holes, a registrar player can play the notes a semitone above the lowest note and a minor third above the lowest notice, notes that are potential on single holed recorders only through the overtone application of those holes, or the cover of the bell .

Covering the bell [edit ]

The open end of the yield facing off from the player ( the “ bell ” ) may be covered to produce extra notes or effects. Because both hands are typically engaged in holding the recorder or covering the finger holes, the cover of the bell is normally achieved by bringing the end of the fipple flute in contact with the leg or knee, typically achieved through a combination of flex of the torso and/or raising of the knee. alternatively, in rare cases instruments may be equipped with a cardinal designed to cover the bell ( “ bell key ” ), operated by one of the fingers, typically the little finger finger of the upper hand, which is not normally used to cover a fix. Fingerings with a cover bell extend the fipple flute ‘s chromatic playable crop above and below the nominative finger roll .

Air [edit ]

The pitch and book of the fipple flute sound are influenced by the accelerate of the air travelling through the windway, which may be controlled by varying the breath blackmail and the shape of the vocal music tract. The sound is besides affected by the turbulence of the air entering the recorder. by and large speaking, faster air in the windway produces a higher pitch. thus blowing hard causes a note to sound crisp whereas blowing the note gently causes it to sound flatcar. Knowledge of this fact and the fipple flute ‘s individual tonic differences over its full range will help recorders play in tune with early instruments by knowing which notes will need slightly more or less atmosphere to stay in tune. As mentioned above at Harmonic profile, blowing much hard can result in overblowing .

hint [edit ]

The technique of inhalant and exhalation for the registrar differs from that of many other scent instruments in that the recorder requires very little publicize pressure to produce a sound, unlike reed or brasswind instruments. [ 49 ] Thus, it is much necessary for a registrar musician to produce long, control stream of air at a very low press. Recorder breathing technique focuses on the operate acquittance of air out quite than on maintaining diaphragmatic blackmail .

tongue, mouth and throat [edit ]

The use of the spit to stop and start the vent is called “ articulation ”. In this capacity, the natural language has two basic functions : to control the starting signal of the note ( the attack ) and the goal, or the length of the eminence ( legato, staccato ). Articulations are roughly analogous to consonants. practically any accordant that may be produced with the tongue, mouth, and throat may be used to articulate on the registrar. Transliterations of common articulation patterns include “ du du du du ” ( using the tip off of the tongue, “ unmarried tongue ” ) “ du genitourinary du genitourinary, ” ( alternating between the tap and the back of the tongue, “ double tongue ” ) and “ du gigabyte ‘ll du g ‘ll ” ( joint with the peak and the sides of the tongue, “ ternary tongue ” ). The attack of the note is governed by such factors as the pressure buildup behind the tongue and determine of the articulant, while the distance of the note governed by the arrest of the atmosphere by the tongue. Each articulation blueprint has a different natural pattern of attack and duration, and recorder technique seeks to produce a wide variety of lengths and attacks using these joint patterns. Patterns such as these have been used since at least the clock time of Ganassi ( 1535 ). Mouth and throat shapes are roughly analogous to vowels. The form of the vocal tract affects the speed and turbulence of the air entering the recorder. The shape of the mouth and vocal music tract is closely related to the accordant used to articulate .

coordination [edit ]

The player must coordinate fingers and tongue to align articulations with finger movements. In normal playing period, articulated attacks should align with the proper fingering, even in legato passages or in difficult finger transitions and the fingers move in the brief silence between the notes ( silence d’articulation ) created by the blockage of the air travel by the tongue. Both fingers and the hint can be used to control the pitch of the fipple flute. Coordinating the two is substantive to playing the fipple flute in tune and with a assortment of dynamics and timbres. On an elementary level, breath blackmail and fingerings must accord with each other to provide an in-tune lurch. As an exemplar of a more advance kind of coordination, a gradual increase in hint press combined with the shading of holes, when properly coordinated, results in an increase in volume and deepen in spirit discolor without a change in pitch. The reverse is possible, decreasing breath imperativeness and gradually lift fingers .

Basic fingering [edit ]

Recorder fingerings (English): Lowest note through the nominal range of 2 octaves and a sixth[50]
Note First octave   Second octave   Third octave
Tuned[n 1]in F Tuned
in C
Hole
0
  Hole
1
Hole
2
Hole
3
  Hole
4
Hole
5
Hole
6
Hole
7
  Hole
0
  Hole
1
Hole
2
Hole
3
  Hole
4
Hole
5
Hole
6
Hole
7
  Hole
0
  Hole
1
Hole
2
Hole
3
  Hole
4
Hole
5
Hole
6
Hole
7
End hole
8
F C
F

/G

C

/D

G D ●[n 2]
G

/A

D

/E

A E
A

/B

F
B F

/G

C G
C

/D

G

/A

D A
D

/E

A

/B

E B

● means to cover the trap. ○ means to uncover the hole. ◐ means half-cover .

  1. ^ See the section Types of recorder concerning recorders in C or in F .
  2. ^ Some recorders may need this hole closed ( ● ), half closed ( ◐ ), or open ( ○ ) to play the note in tune .

The crop of a modern “ baroque ” model recorder is normally considered two octaves and a tone. See the board above for “ english ” fingerings for the standard range. The numbers at the top equate to the fingers and the holes on the recorder. The huge majority of recorders manufactured today are designed to play using these fingerings, with flimsy variations. however, recorder fingerings vary wide between models and are mutable even for a unmarried recorder : fipple flute players may use three or more fingerings for the same note along with fond cover of the holes to achieve proper intonation, in coordination with the breath or in faster passages where some fingerings are unavailable. This chart is a general scout, but by no means a definitive or arrant fingering chart for the fipple flute, an impossible tax. preferably, it is the basis for a much more complex finger arrangement, which is still being added to today. Some fonts show miniature glyph of complete recorder fingering charts in TrueType format. [ 51 ] Because there are no Unicode values for complete registrar finger charts, these fonts are custom-made encoded .

history [edit ]

General [edit ]

The earliest extant duct flutes date to the neolithic age. They are found in about every musical tradition around the world. [ 52 ] Recorders are distinguished from other duct flutes primarily by the hitchhike hole, which is used as an octaving vent, and the bearing of seven finger holes, although classification of early instruments has proved controversial. [ 53 ] The performing practice of the fipple flute in its earliest history is not well documented, owing to the miss of surviving records from the time .

Middle Ages [edit ]

structure [edit ]

Our confront cognition of the social organization of recorders in the Middle Ages is based on a modest count of instruments preserved and artworks, or iconography, from the time period .

Surviving instruments [edit ]

Surviving instruments from the Middle Ages are heterogenous. The first medieval recorder discovered was a fruitwood musical instrument ( “ Dordrecht registrar ” ) excavated in 1940 from the moat surrounding the castle Huis te Merwede ( “ House on the Merwede “ ) near the town of Dordrecht in the Netherlands. The castle was entirely inhabited from 1335 to 1418. As the area was not disturbed until the modern mining, the recorder has been dated to the period of occupation of the castle. The instrument has a cylindrical bore about 11 mm ( 0.43 in ) in diameter and is approximately 300 mm ( 12 in ) long with a vibrating air travel column of about 270 mm ( 11 in ). The block has survived, but the labium is damaged, making the instrumental role unplayable. The instrument has tenons on both ends of the instrument, suggesting the presence of now lost ferrules or turnings. doubt regarding the nature of these fittings has hindered reconstruction of the legal document ‘s original state of matter. A moment, structurally different instrument ( “ Göttingen recorder ” ) was discovered in 1987 in an archaeological excavation of the latrine of a medieval theater in Göttingen, Germany. It has been dated to between 1246 and 1322. It is fruitwood in one piece with turnings, measuring about 256 mm ( 10.1 in ) long. It has a cylindrical bore about 13.6 mm ( 0.54 in ) at the highest measurable point, narrowing to 13.2 millimeter ( 0.52 in ) between the first and moment finger holes, to 12.7 to 12.8 millimeter ( 0.50–0.50 in ) between the second gear and third finger holes, and contracting to 11.5 millimeter ( 0.45 in ) at the one-seventh hole. The bore expands to 14.5 millimeter ( 0.57 in ) at the buttocks of the musical instrument, which has a bulblike foot. unusually, the finger holes taper conically outwards, the opposition of the undersell found in Baroque recorders. The lead of the musical instrument is damaged : only a cut side of the windway survives, and the obstruct has been lost. A reconstruction by Hans Reiners has a raucous, penetrating sound rich in overtones and has a range of two octaves. With the ovolo hole and the first three finger holes covered, the reconstruction produces a slope ca. 450 Hz. In the twenty-first hundred, a number of other instruments and fragments dated to the medieval menstruation have come to light. These include a 14th-century shard of a headjoint excavated in Esslingen, Germany ( “ Esslingen break up ” ) ; a birch instrument dated to the second base half of the fourteenth hundred unearthed in Tartu, Estonia ( “ Tartu recorder ” ) ; and a fruitwood instrument dated to the fifteenth century, found in Elbląg, Poland ( “ Elbląg registrar ” ). common features of the surviving instruments include : a pin down cylindrical bear ( except the Göttingen registrar ) ; a duplicate seventh hole for the little finger of the lower hand to allow for right- or left- handed play ( except the Tartu registrar ) ; a seventh hole that produces a semitone alternatively of a tonicity ; and a bland or truncate head, alternatively of the specialize beak found on subsequently instruments. additionally, the Esslingen shard has turnings similar to the Göttingen recorder. No complete instruments larger than 300 millimeter ( 12 in ) have survived, although the Esslingen fragment may represent a larger recorder. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] The widely spaced duplicate seventh hole persisted in late instruments. According to Virdung ( 1511 ), the hole that was not used was plugged with wax. [ 56 ] It was not until the Baroque period, when instruments with adjustable footjoints were developed, that wide spaced double holes became disused. The categorization of these instruments is primarily complicated by the fact that the seventh hole produces a semitone alternatively of a tone. As a resultant role, chromatic fingerings are unmanageable, and require across-the-board half-holing. These instruments partake similarities with the six holed flageolet, which used three fingers on each hand and had no finger hole. Anthony Rowland-Jones has suggested that the thumb hole on these early flutes was an improvement upon the flageolet to provide a stronger feel for the note an octave above the bracing, while the seventh finger hole provided a leading shade to the tonic. As a resultant role, he has suggested that these flutes should be described as better flageolets, and has proposed the condition that true recorders produce a timbre ( rather than a semitone ) when the seventh feel is lifted. [ 53 ] Controversy aside, there is little motion that these instruments are at least precursors to later instruments that are indisputably recorders. Because there is sparse objective evidence from the earliest history of the instrument, such questions may never be resolved. indeed, historically there was no indigence for an across-the-board definition that encompassed every form of the musical instrument past and present.

iconography [edit ]

Recorders with a cylindrical profile are depicted in many medieval paintings, however, their appearance does not easily match to the surviving instruments, and may be stylized. The earliest depictions of the recorder are probably in “ The Mocking of Christ ” from the monastery church of St George in Staro Nagoričano near Kumanovo, Macedonia ( the paint of the church began in 1315 ) in which a man plays a cylindrical recorder ; and the center field panel of the “ Virgin and Child ” attributed to Pedro ( Pere ) Serra ( c. 1390 ), painted for the church of S. Clara, Tortosa, immediately in the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, in which a group of angels play musical instruments around the Virgin Mary, one of them playing a cylindrical recorder. [ 2 ] Starting in the Middle Ages, angels have frequently been depicted playing one or more recorders, much grouped around the Virgin, and in several noteworthy paintings, trios of angels play recorders. This is possibly a sign of the trinity, although the music must have often been in three parts. [ 2 ]

repertoire [edit ]

No music marked for the fipple flute survives from anterior to 1500. Groups of fipple flute players or recorder play angels, particularly trios, are depicted in paintings from the fifteenth hundred, indicating the registrar was used in these configurations, ampere well as with other instruments. Some of the earliest music must have been song repertoire. mod registrar players have taken up the practice of playing implemental music from the period, possibly anachronistically, such as the monophonic estampies from the Chansonnier du Roi ( 13th ), Add MS 29987 ( 14th or 15th ), or the Codex Faenza ( 15th ), and have arranged keyboard music, such as the estampies from the Robertsbridge codex ( 14th ), or the song works of composers such as Guillaume de Machaut and Johannes Ciconia for recorder ensembles .

renaissance [edit ]

In the sixteenth century, the structure, repertoire, and performing practice of the recorder is better documented than in anterior epoch. The recorder was one of the most significant wind instruments of the Renaissance, and many instruments dating to the sixteenth century exist, including some match consorts. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] This menstruation besides produced the first extant books describing the registrar, including the treatises of Virdung ( 1511 ), Agricola ( 1529 ), Ganassi ( 1535 ), Cardano ( c.1546 ), Jambe de Fer ( 1556 ), and Praetorius ( 1619 ). however, understanding of the instrument and its practice in this period is inactive developing .

structure [edit ]

In the sixteenth hundred, the recorder saw crucial developments in its social organization. As in the recorders of the Middle Ages, the etiology of these changes remains uncertain, development was regional and multiple types of fipple flute existed simultaneously. Our cognition is based on objective sources and surviving instruments .

Surviving instruments [edit ]

army for the liberation of rwanda more recorders survive from the Renaissance than from the Middle Ages. Most of the surviving instruments from the time period have a wide, cylindrical hold from the blockline to the uppermost fingerhole, an anatropous conic assign down to around the lowest finger hole ( the “ choke ” ), then a rebuff flare to the doorbell. outwardly, they have a curved shape similar to the bear, with a profile like a elongate hourglass. Their sound is warm, deep in harmonics, and reasonably introspective. [ 2 ] Surviving consorts of this type, identified by their makers marks, include those mark “ HIER S• ” or “ HIE•S ” found in Vienna, Sibiu and Verona ; and those marked with variations on a rabbit ‘s footprint, designated “ ! ! ” by Adrian Brown, which are dispersed among respective museums. The pitch of these recorders is often generally grouped around A = 466 Hz, however little lurch standardization existed in the period. This type of fipple flute is described by Praetorius in De Organographia ( 1619 ). A surviving consort by “ ! ! ” follows the claim size shape suggested by Praetorius : stacked fifths up from the basset in F3, and down a fifth then a fourthly to bass in B♭2 and great bass in F2. Instruments marked “ HIER S• ” or “ HIE•S ” are in stack fifths from big bass in F2 to soprano in E5. [ 57 ] Many of these instruments are pitched around A = 440 Hz or A = 466 Hz, although slope varied regionally and between consorts. The range of this type is normally an octave plus a minor 7th, but as remarked by Praetorius ( 1619 ) and demonstrated in the finger tables of Ganassi ‘s Fontegara ( 1535 ), [ 58 ] experienced players on particular instruments were able of playing up to a fourth or even a seventh higher ( see # Documentary tell : treatises ). Their rate is more desirable for the performance of vocal music, rather than strictly instrumental music. This character is the registrar typically referred to as the “ normal ” Renaissance recorder, however this mod appellation does not in full capture the heterogeneity of instruments of the sixteenth century. Another surviving Renaissance type has a narrow cylindrical digest and cylindrical profile like the medieval exemplars but a choke at the last fix. The earliest surviving recorders of this type were made by the Rafi family, instrument makers active in Lyons in Southern France in the early sixteenth hundred. Two recorders marked “ C.RAFI ” were acquired by the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna in 1546, where they remain today. A choir of recorders or exchangeable make, marked “ P.GRE/C/E, ” was donated to the Accademia in 1675, expanding the copulate marked “ C.RAFI ”. other recorders by the Rafi kin survive in Northern Europe, notably a pair in Brussels. It is possible that Grece worked in the Rafi workshop, or was a extremity of the Rafi syndicate. The pitch of the Rafi/Grece instruments is around A = 440 Hz. They have a relatively calm sound with effective pitch constancy favoring dynamic expression. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] In 1556, french writer Philibert Jambe de Fer gave a set of fingerings for hybrid instruments such as the Rafi and Grece instruments that give a range of two octaves. here, the 15th was now produced, as on most later recorders, as a variant of the 14th rather of as the fourth harmonic of the tonic, as in Ganassi ‘s tables .

objective evidence : treatises [edit ]
Recorders in 16th and early 17th century books
VirdungP100crop.jpgVirdungP14crop.jpg AgricolaP16crop.jpg Barocke Blockflöten.png
Virdung, Musica getutscht (1511) Agricola, Musica instrumentalis deudsch (1529) Praetorius, Syntagma Musicum (1629)

The first two treatises of the sixteenth hundred show recorders that differ from the surviving instruments dating to the hundred : these are Sebastian Virdung ‘s ( b. 1465 ? ) Musica getutscht ( 1511 ), and Martin Agricola ‘s ( 1486–1556 ) exchangeable Musica instrumentalis deudsch ( 1529 ), published in Basel and Saxony respectively. Musica Getutscht, the earliest print treatise on western musical instruments, is an distill of an earlier, now lost, manuscript treatise by Virdung, a chaplain, singer, and itinerant musician. The print interpretation was written in a slang kind of Early New High German, and was aimed at affluent urban amateur musicians : the championship translates, briefly, as “ Music, translated into german … Everything there is to know about [ music ] – made simpleton. ” When a subject become besides complex for Virdung to discuss briefly, he refers the lector to his lost larger work, an unhelpful exercise for modern readers. While the illustrations have been called “ maddeningly inaccurate ” and his perspectives far-out, [ 62 ] Virdung ‘s treatise gives us an important source on the structure and performing commit of the recorder in northern Europe in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The recorders described by Virdung have cylindrical profiles with flat heads, constrict windows and farseeing ramps, ring-like turnings on the feet, and a slender external flare at the bell ( above, far left and middle left ). Virdung depicts four recorders together : a baßcontra or bassus ( basset ) in F3 with an anchor shaped key and a penetrate fontanelle, two tenors in C4 and a discantus ( alto ) in G4. According to Virdung, the configurations F–C–C–G or F–C–G–G should be used for four-part music, depending on the range of the bass share. As previously mentioned, the accuracy of these woodcuts can not be verified as no recorders fitting this description survive. Virdung besides provides the first ever fingering graph for a recorder with a range of an octave and a seventh, though he says that the bass had a range of alone an octave and sixth. In his finger chart, he numbers which fingers to lift rather than those to put down and, unlike in late charts, numbers them from bottom ( 1 ) to top ( 8 ). His entirely other technical instruction is that the musician must blow into the instrument and “ learn how to coordinate the articulations … with the fingers ”. [ 56 ] Martin Agricola ‘s Musica instrumentalis Deudsch ( “ A german instrumental music, in which is contained how to learn to play … all kinds of … instruments ” ), written in rhyming german poetry ( apparently to improve the understand and retentiveness of its contents ), provides a like account and copies most of its woodcuts directly from Getutscht. Agricola besides calls the tenor “ altus, ” mistakenly depicting it as a little smaller than the tenor in the woodcut ( above, middle right ). Like Virdung, Agricola takes it for granted that recorders should be played in four-part consorts. Unlike Getutscht, which provides a single condense fingering graph, Agricola provides break, slenderly differing, fingering charts for each musical instrument, leading some to suppose that Agricola experimented on three different instruments, preferably than copying the fingerings from one size to the other two. [ 63 ] Agricola adds that graces ( Mordanten ), which make the melody subtil, must be learned from a professional ( Pfeiffer ), and that the manner of ornamentation ( Coloratur ) of the organist is best of all. [ 64 ] A substantial 1545 revision of Musica Instrumentalis approvingly mentions the use of vibrato ( zitterndem Wind ) for woodwind instruments, and includes an report of articulation, recommending the syllables de for semiminims and larger, di ri for semiminims and smaller, and the articulation tell ell ell ell el le, which he calls the “ flutter-tongue ” ( flitter zunge ) for the smallest of note values, found in passagi (Colorirn). The adjacent treatise comes from Venice : Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego ‘s ( 1492–mid-1500s ) Opera Intitulata Fontegara ( 1535 ), which is the first work to focus specifically on the proficiency of playing the registrar, and possibly the lone historical treatise ever published that approaches a description of a professional or virtuoso play proficiency. Ganassi was a musician employed by the Doge and at the Basilica di San Marco at the clock time of the work ‘s publication, an indication of his high level of skill, and late wrote two works on the playing the viol and the violone, although he does not mention being employed by the Doge after Fontegara. [ 65 ] Fontegara can be broadly divided into two parts : the first concerns the technique of playing the fipple flute, the second show divisions ( regole, passagi, ornaments ), some of great complexity, which the player may use to ornament a melody or, literally, “ watershed ” it into smaller notes. In all aspects, Ganassi emphasizes the importance of imitating the human voice, declaring that “ the aim of the recorder player is to imitate a closely as possible all the capabilities of the human voice ”, maintaining that the recorder is indeed able to do this. For Ganassi, imitation of the part has three aspects : “ a certain artistic proficiency, ” which seems to be the ability to perceive the nature of the music, prontezza ( dexterity or eloquence ), achieved “ by varying the blackmail of the hint and shading the note by means of suitable finger, ” and galanteria ( elegance or grace ), achieved by articulation, and by the habit of ornaments, the “ simple ingredient ” of them being the trill, which varies according to the formula. Ganassi gives finger tables for a range of an octave and a seventh, the standard range besides remarked by Praetorius, then tells the reader that he has discovered, through long experiment, more notes not known to other players due to their lack of doggedness, extending the scope to two octaves and a one-sixth. Ganassi gives fingerings for three recorders with different makers ‘ marks, and advises the reader to experiment with different fingerings, as recorders vary in their bear. The godhead ‘s sign of one of the recorders, in the shape of a conventionalized letter “ A ”, has been associated with the Schnitzer family of instrument makers in Germany, leading Hermann Moeck to suppose that Ganassi ‘s recorder might have been Northern European in lineage. [ 66 ] ( see besides Note on “ Ganassi ” recorders ) Ganassi uses three basic kinds of syllables te che, te re, and le re and besides varies the vowel used with the syllable, suggesting the effect of mouth shape on the sound of the recorder. He gives many combinations of these syllables and vowels, and suggests the choice of the syllables according to their smoothness, te che being least smooth and le re being most so. He does not, however, demonstrate how the syllables should be used to music. [ clarification needed ] Most of the treatise consists of tables of diminutions of intervals, modest melodies and cadences, categorized by their meter. These several hundred divisions use quintuplets, septuplets, note values from whole notes to 32nd notes in modern notation, and demonstrate huge assortment and complexity. The frontispiece to Fontegara shows three fipple flute players play together with two singers. Like Agricola and Virdung, Ganassi takes for granted that recorders should be played in groups of four, and come in three sizes : F3, C4 and G4. He makes a distinction between solo play and ensemble play, noting that what he has said is for solo players, and that when playing with others, it is most authoritative to match them. unfortunately, Ganassi gives only a few ornament examples with little context for their use. however, Ganassi offers a tantalizing glimpse at a highly break professional culture and proficiency of woodwind play that modern players can barely be said to have improved upon. [ 67 ] Gerolamo Cardano ‘s De Musica was written around 1546, but not published until 1663 when it was published along with early works by Cardan, who was an eminent philosopher, mathematician and doctor a well as a cutting amateurish registrar player who learned from a professional teacher, Leo Oglonus, as a child in Milan. His account corroborates that of Ganassi, using the like three basic syllables and emphasizing the importance of breath control and ornamentation in recorder playing, but besides documents several aspects of fipple flute proficiency otherwise undocumented until the twentieth century. These include multiple techniques using the fond close of the bell : to produce a tone or semitone below the tonic, and to change semitones into dieses ( half semitones ), which he says can besides be produced by “ repercussively bending back the clapper ”. [ 68 ] He besides adds that the position of the clapper, either extended or turned up towards the palate, can be used to improve, vary, and tinge notes. He is the beginning to differentiate between the amount of the breath ( wide, shallow, or moderate ) and the force ( relax or slowly, acute, and the median between them ) vitamin a well as the unlike total of air required for each legal document, and describes a trill or vibrato called a vox tremula in which “ a quavering quality in the hint ” is combined with a trilling of the fingers to vary the interval from anything between a major one-third and a double dagger. He is besides the first writer to mention the recorder in D5 ( “ discantus ” ), which he leaves nameless. [ 68 ] Composer and singer Philibert Jambe de Fer ( c. 1515 – c. 1566 ) was the only french author of the sixteenth century to write about the recorder, in his Epitome musical. He complains of the french diagnose for the instrumental role, fleutte à neuf trouz ( ‘flute with nine holes ‘ ) as, in practice, one of the bottommost holes must be plugged, leaving only eight open holes. He prefers fleute d’Italien or the italian flauto. His fingering chart is noteworthy for two reasons, first base for describing fingerings with the 15th produced as a version on the 14th, and for using the third finger of the lower hand as a buttress finger, although alone for three notes in the lower octave. [ 68 ] ( See besides Renaissance social organization. ) Aurelio Virgiliano ‘s “ Il dolcimelo ” ( c. 1600 ) presents ricercars intended for or playable on the recorder, a description of other musical instruments, and a finger graph for a recorder in G4 exchangeable to Jambe de Fer ‘s. [ 69 ] The Syntagma musicum ( 1614–20 ) of Michael Praetorius ( 1571–1621 ) in three volumes ( a fourth was intended but never finished ) is an encyclopedic review of music and melodious instruments. volume II, De Organographia ( 1619 ) is of particular sake for its description of no fewer than eight sizes of recorder ( klein Flötlein or exilent in G5, discant in C5 or D5, alt in G4, tenor in C4, basset in F3, bass in B♭2, and grossbass in F2 ) a well as the four-holed gar kleine Plockflötlein. Praetorius was the first gear writer to explain that recorders can confuse the ear into believing that they sound an octave lower than slope, which phenomenon has more recently been explained in relation back to the fipple flute ‘s lack of high harmonics. He besides shows the different “ registers ” of consort possible, 2′ ( descant, elevation, and tenor ), 4′ ( elevation, tenor, and basset ), and 8′ ( tenor, basset, and bass ) ( see besides Nomenclature ). additionally, he proposed cutting the recorder between the beak and the inaugural finger hole to allow for a kind of tuning slide to raise or lower its pitch, exchangeable to the Baroque commit of adjusting a recorder ‘s pitch by “ pulling out ” the top joint of the registrar. The recorders described in Praetorius are of the “ extend hourglass ” profile ( see above, far veracious ). He gives fingerings like those of Ganassi, and remarks that they normally have a range of an octave and a sixth, although exceeding players could extend that range by a fourth .
Some paintings from the 14th and 15th centuries depict musicians playing what appear to be two end-blown flutes simultaneously. In some cases, the two flutes are obviously disjoint, separate flutes of similar produce, played angled away from each early, one pipe in each hand. In others, flutes of the same distance have differing hand positions. In a final case, the pipes are parallel, in contact with each other, and differ in length. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] While the iconographic criteria for a fipple flute are typically a distinctly recognizable labium and a double handed upright act proficiency, [ 55 ] such criteria are not prescriptive, and it is unsealed whether any of these depictions should be considered a single instrument, or constitute a kind of recorder. The recognition of the instrument depicted is further complicated by the symbolism of the aulos, a double shriek instrument associated with the satyr Marsyas of Greek mythology. An instrument consisting of two attached, twin, end-blown flutes of differing distance, dating to the 15th or 16th century, was found in inadequate condition near All Souls College in Oxford. The legal document has four holes finger-holes and a finger hole for each hand. The pipes have an invert conic “ choke ” wear ( see Renaissance structure ). Bob Marvin has estimated that the pipes played a fifth apart, at approximately C5 and G5. [ 72 ] The instrument is sui generis. Although the instrument ‘s pipes have thumb holes, the lack of organological case law makes categorization of the instrumental role unmanageable. Marvin has used the terms “ double fipple flute ” and the categorization-agnostic flauto doppio ( double flute ) to describe the Oxford instrument. Marvin has designed a flauto doppio based on the Oxford instrument, scaled to play at F4 and C5. italian registrar godhead Francesco Livirghi has designed a double recorder or flauto doppio with connected, lean pipes of the same length but played with different hand positions, based on iconographic sources. Its pipes play at F4 and B♭4. [ 70 ] Both instruments use fingerings of the makers ‘ design .

note on “ Ganassi ” recorders [edit ]

In the 1970s, when registrar makers began to make the first models of recorders from the 16th and 17th centuries, such models were not always spokesperson of the playing characteristics of the original instruments. Especially noteworthy is Fred Morgan ‘s much copied “ Ganassi ” model, based loosely on an instrument in the Vienna Kunsthistorisches museum ( inventory number SAM 135 ), was designed to use the fingerings for the highest notes in Ganassi ‘s tables in Fontegara. As Morgan knew, these notes were not in standard practice ; indeed Ganassi uses them in only a few of the hundreds of diminutions contained in Fontegara. Historically, such recorders did not exist as a clear-cut type, and the fingerings given by Ganassi were those of a skilled player particularly familiar with his instruments. When mod music is written for ‘Ganassi recorders ‘ it means this type of recorder. [ 73 ]

repertory [edit ]

Recorders were credibly first used to play vocal music, late adding strictly instrumental forms such as dancing music to their repertoire. much of the vocal music music of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries can be played on registrar consorts, and a illustrated in treatises from Virdung to Praetorius, the choice appropriate instruments and transpositions to play outspoken music was common practice in the Renaissance. Additionally, some collections such as those of Pierre Attaingnant and Anthony Holborne, indicate that their instrumental music was desirable for fipple flute consorts. [ 74 ] This department first discusses repertoire marked for the recorder, then briefly, early repertoire played on recorder. In 1505 Giovanni Alvise, a venetian wind musician, offered Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua a motet for eight recorders, however the work has not survived. Pierre Attaingnant ‘s ( florida. 1528–1549 ) Vingt & sept chansons musicales a quatre parties a la fleuste dallement…et a la fleuste a neuf trous ( 1533 ) collects 28 ( not 27, as in the title ) four-part implemental motets, nine of which he says were suitable for operation on flutes ( fleustes dallement, german flutes ), two on recorders ( fleuestes a neuf trous , nine-holed flutes, “ recorders ” ), and twelve desirable for both. Of the twelve marked for both, seven manipulation chiavi naturali, or low-clefs typically used for recorders, while the others use the chiavette clefs used in the motets marked for flutes. Hence, the seven notated in chiavi naturali could be considered more allow for recorders. Vingt et sept chansons is the first gear published music marked for a fipple flute consort. Earlier is a part for Jacobus Barbireau ‘s sung “ Een vrolic wesen “, apparently for recorder, accompanying the registrar fingering chart in Livre plaisant et tres utile ( Antwerp, 1529 ), a partial french translation of Virdung ‘s Musica getutscht. Jacques Moderne ‘s S’ensuyvent plusieurs basses dances tant communes que incommunes published in the 1530s, depicts a four-part recorder choir such as those described in Virdung, Agricola, Ganassi and others, however the dances are not marked for recorders. His Musique de joye ( 1550 ) contains ricercares and dances for performance on “ espinetes, violons & fleustes “. In 1539–40, Henry VIII of England, besides a cutting amateur player ( see Cultural significance ), imported five brothers of the Bassano family from Venice to form a choir, expanded to six members in 1550, forming a group that maintained an exceptional focus on the registrar until at least 1630 when the fipple flute consort was combined with the other hoist groups. Most wreathe bands consisted of players playing sackbutts, shawm, and other loudly instruments doubling on recorder. Some music credibly intended for this group survives, including dance music by Augustine and Geronimo Bassano from the third quarter of the sixteenth hundred, and the more complicate fantasia of Jeronimo Bassano ( c. 1580 ), four in five parts and one in six parts. additionally, the Fitzwilliam wind manuscript ( GB-Cfm 734 ) contains mute motets, madrigals and dance pieces, including some by the Bassano family, credibly intended for a registrar choir in six parts. [ 75 ] The english members of the Bassano syndicate, having originated in Venice, were besides probably companion with the vocal dash, advanced proficiency, and complex improvise ornamentation described in Ganassi ‘s Fontegara, and they were probably among the registrar players whom Ganassi reports having worked and studied with : when they were brought to England, they were regarded as some of the best wind players in Venice. While most of the music attributed to the choir uses only a compass of a thirteenth, it is possible that the Bassano ‘s were familiar with Ganassi ‘s prolong range. [ 76 ] Recorders were besides played with early instruments, specially in England, where it was called a blend consort or “ broken consort ”. other 16th-century composers whose implemental music can be played well on recorder consorts include :
other noteworthy composers of the Renaissance whose music may be played on the recorder include :

cultural meaning [edit ]

The registrar achieved great popularity in the sixteenth century, and is one of the most common instruments of the Renaissance. From the fifteenth hundred onwards, paintings show upper-class men and women playing recorder, and Virdung ‘s didactic treatise Musica getutscht ( 1511 ), the first of its kind, was aimed at the amateur ( see besides Documentary tell ). excellently, Henry VIII of England was an avid player of the recorder, and at his death in 1547 an inventory of his possessions included 76 recorders in consorts of versatile sizes and materials. [ 77 ] Some italian paintings from the 16th-century read nobility of both sexes playing the recorder, however many gentlemen found it unbecoming to play because it uses the mouthpiece, preferring the lute and subsequently the viol. [ 2 ] At the twist of the seventeenth century, dramatist William Shakespeare excellently referenced the recorder in his most substantial dally, “ The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, ” creating an extended metaphor between manipulation and playing a musical instrument. [ 78 ] Poet John Milton besides referenced the registrar in his most celebrated study, the epic poem poem Paradise Lost published in 1667, in which the recently fallen angels in Hell “ move / in arrant phalanx to the dorian mood / of flutes and soft recorders, ” recalling both the affect of the dorian mood as the mode of calling to action, and the practice of flutes by the Spartans of ancient Greece, although the stipulation of the recorder is anachronic in this context. [ 79 ] [ 80 ]

Baroque recorders [edit ]

Alto registrar

social organization [edit ]

several changes in the construction of recorders took place in the seventeenth century, resulting in the type of instrument generally referred to as Baroque recorders, as opposed to the earlier Renaissance recorders. These innovations allowed baroque recorders to possess a shade regarded as “ sweet ” than that of the earlier instruments, [ 81 ] at the expense of a reduction in volume, particularly in the lowest notes. The evolution of the Renaissance recorder into the Baroque musical instrument is generally attributed to the Hotteterre family, in France. They developed the ideas of a more tapered wear, bringing the finger-holes of the bottommost handwriting closer together, allowing greater range, and enabling the construction of instruments in respective joint sections. The last invention allowed more accurate formation of each incision and besides offered the actor minor tuning adjustments, by slightly pulling out one of the sections to lengthen the instrument. The french innovations were taken to London by Pierre Bressan, a located of whose instruments survive in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, as do other examples in versatile american, european and japanese museums and private collections. Bressan ‘s contemporary, Thomas Stanesby, was born in Derbyshire but became an musical instrument manufacturer in London. He and his son ( Thomas Stanesby junior ) were the other authoritative British-based recorder-makers of the early eighteenth century. In continental Europe, the Denner kin of Nuremberg were the most observe makers of this period. The baroque registrar produces a most brainy and projecting legal in the second octave, which is more facile and extended than that of earlier recorders, while the lowest notes in its range are relatively weak. Composers such as Bach, Telemann and Vivaldi exploit this property in their concerto for the instrument. Measured from its lowest to its highest playable note, the baroque countertenor registrar has a range of at most two octaves and a one-fifth with many instruments having a smaller range. flush the most develop instruments of the period, however, can not produce the augmented tonic, third base and fourth of the third base octave. notably, Georg Philipp Telemann ‘s concerto TWV 51 : F1 makes use some of these notes in the third gear octave, posing meaning technical foul challenges to the player, possibly requiring the cover of the bell or early unusual techniques .

repertoire [edit ]

During the baroque period, the recorder was traditionally associated with pastorale scenes, heaven-sent events, funerals, marriages, and amatory scenes. Images of recorders can be found in literature and artwork associated with all of these. Purcell, J. S. Bach, Telemann, and Vivaldi used the fipple flute to suggest shepherds and imitate birds in their music. [ 82 ] Although the recorder achieved a greater charge of standardization in the Baroque than in previous periods, indeed it is the first time period in which there was a “ standard ” size of fipple flute, equivocal terminology and unsealed organological evidence have led to controversy regarding which instruments should be used in some “ flute ” parts from the menstruation .

Fourth Brandenburg Concerto BWV 1049 [edit ]

The concertino group of Bach ‘s fourth Brandenburg Concerto in G major, BWV 1049, consists of a violono principale, and due fiauti d’echo, with ripieno strings. His later harpsichord arrangement of this concerto, BWV 1057, lowers the winder by a tone, as in all of Bach ‘s harpsichord transcriptions, and is scored for solo harpsichord, two fiauti à bec and ripieno strings. The hope instrument for the fiauti d’echo parts in BWV 1049 has been a matter of perennial musicological and organological debate for two primary reasons : first base, the term fiauto d’echo is not mentioned in dictionaries or tutors of the period ; and second, the beginning fiauto contribution uses F # 6, a note which is difficult to produce on a Baroque alto fipple flute in F4. The orchestration of BWV 1057 is uncontroversial : fiauti à bec unambiguously specifies recorders, and both parts have been modified to fit comfortably on altos in F4, avoiding, for example, an unplayable Eb4 in the second fiauto that would have resulted from a bare transposition of a tonicity. For the inaugural and final movements of the concerto, two opinions loom : first, that both recorder parts should be played on alto recorders in F4 ; and second, that the beginning part should be played on an alto recorder in G and the second part on an alto in F. Tushaar Power has argued for the contralto in G4 on the basis that Bach uses the high F # 6, which can be easily played on an alto in G4, but not the first gear F4, a note not playable on the alto in G4. He corroborates this with other contralto fipple flute parts in Bach ‘s cantatas. Michael Marissen reads the repertory differently, demonstrating that in other recorder parts, Bach used both the low F4 and F # 6, vitamin a well as higher notes. Marissen argues that Bach was not vitamin a consistent as Power asserts, and that Bach would have about surely had access to only altos in F. He corroborates this with examinations of pitch standards and notation in Bach ‘s cantatas, in which the fipple flute parts are sometimes written as transposing instruments to play with organs that sounded american samoa much as a minor third above written pitch. Marissen besides reads Bach ‘s revisions to the recorder parts in BWV 1057 as indicative of his avoidance of F # 6 in BWV 1049, a sign that he only used the difficult notice when necessary in designing the part for an alto recorder in F4. He posits that Bach avoided F # 6 in BWV 1049, at the price of inferior counterpoint, reinstating them as E6 in BWV 1057. In the second movement, breaking of beaming in the fiauto parts, markings of f and p, the fermata over the final double bar of the first bowel movement, and the 21 bars of rest at the beginning of the one-third have led some musicologists to argue that Bach intended the use of “ echo flutes ” distinct from normal recorders in the irregular movement in particular. The break of beaming could be an indication of changes in register or tonic quality, the rests introduced to allow the players clock to change instruments, and the markings of f and p further indicative mood of register or good changes. Marissen has demonstrated that the f and p markings probably indicated tutti and solo sections quite than brassy and soft ones. A number of instruments early than normal recorders have been suggested for the fiauto d’echo. One of the earliest propose alternatives, by Thurston Dart, was the use of double flageolets, a suggestion since revealed to be founded on unfirm musicological grounds. Dart did, however, bring to light numerous newspaper references to Paisible ‘s performance on an “ resound flute ” between 1713 and 1718. Another contemporary reference to the “ echo flute ” is in Etienne Loulié ‘s Elements ou principes de musique ( Amsterdan, 1696 ) : Les sons de deux flutes d’echo sont differents, parce que l’un est fort, & que l’autre est foible ( The sounds of two echo flutes are different, because one is strong and the other is weak ). Loulié is ill-defined on why one would need two repeat flutes to play strongly and weakly, and on why it is that echo flutes differ. possibly the echo flute was composed in two halves : one which plays strongly, the other decrepit ? On this we can alone speculate. Surviving instruments which are candidates for echo flutes include an musical instrument in Leipzig which consists of two recorders of unlike tonal characteristics joined at the steer and footjoints by brass flanges. There is besides evidence of double recorders tuned in thirds, but these are not candidates for the fiauto parts in BWV 1049 .

Concerti per flautino

“ RV 443, 444, 445 [edit ]

Vivaldi wrote three concertos for the flautino, possibly for performance by students at the Ospedale della Pietà in Venice, where he taught and composed in the early eighteenth century. They feature virtuosic alone writing, and along with his concerto RV 441 and trio sonata RV 86 are his most virtuosic recorder works. They each survive a single hurriedly written manuscript copy, each titled Con.to per Flautino ( Concerto for fiddling flute ) with the extra note Gl’istrom.ti trasportati alla 4a ( The instruments transpose by a fourth ) in RV 443 and Gl’istrom.ti alla 4ta Bassa ( The instruments lower by a fourth ) in RV 445. The three concertos RV 443, 444, and 445 are notated in C major, C major and A minor respectively. besides of bill is the periodic use of notes outside the normal two octave circumnavigate of the fipple flute : the scope of the solo sections is two octaves from notated F4 to notated F6, however there is a single notate C4 in the beginning movement of RV 444, a notate E4 in a tutti section in the inaugural movement of RV 443 and abject E4 in multiple tutti sections of RV 445. A numeral of possible flautini have been proposed as the instrument intended for the operation of these concertos. The first suggestion was the use of the one keyed piccolo, or another minor cross flute, however such instruments had fallen out of use in Venice by the by and large accept time of constitution of these concertos in the 1720s, and this public opinion is no longer considered well supported. Another suggestion, foremost proposed by Peter Thalheimer, is the “ french ” flageolet ( see Flageolets below ) in G5, which was notated in D4, appearing a fourth lower, possibly explaining the notice in the margins of RV 443 and RV 445 ( Gl’istromti transportati alla 4a ) and supported by Bismantova ( 1677 revolutions per minute. 1694 ) and Bonanni ( 1722 ) which equate flautino to the flageolet. however this suggestion has been opposed by the presence of notate F4 and F♯4 which are not within the distinctive circumnavigate of the flageolet, although they may be produced through the cover of the bell, sometimes combined with underblowing, as attested by theorists arsenic early as Cardano ( c. 1546 ) and angstrom late as Bellay ( c. 1800 ). [ 83 ] Two instruments are conventionally accepted today for the performance of these concertos, the sopranino recorder, notated like an alto but sounding an octave higher, and the soprano registrar, following the direction to transpose the parts down by a fourth. Winfried Michel was first to argue in party favor of the soprano recorder in 1983, when he proposed to take Vivaldi at his parole and transpose the chain parts down a fourth and play the flautino part on a soprano recorder in C5 ( besides “ fifth-flute ” ) using the English rehearse of notating such flutes as transposing instruments using the fingerings of an alto fipple flute. Michel notes that this transposition allows for the manipulation of the violins ‘ and viola ‘s lowest strings ( in sections where they provide the accompaniment without bass ) and the lowest two notes of the ‘cello. He attributes the presence of notes not in the fipple flute ‘s normal compass to Vivaldi ‘s haste, noting that these notes do not appear in the solo sections. [ 84 ] He has edited editions of RV 443 and RV 445 for soprano recorder in G major and E minor respectively. Federico Maria Sardelli concurs with Michel in supposing that the margin note was intended to allow the performance of the concerto on the soprano fipple flute on a specific occasion, however concludes that they were credibly written for the sopranino recorder in F5, noting that small cross flutes had fallen out of use in Italy by Vivaldi ‘s time, the dearth of flageolets in Italy, the compass of the parts, and uses of the flautino in vocal aria. [ 85 ]

classical and romantic [edit ]

The recorder was little use in art music of the Classical and Romantic periods. Researchers have farseeing debated why this change occurred, and to what extent the recorder remained use in the late eighteenth century, and late the nineteenth hundred. A significant motion in this argue is which, if any, duct flutes of this time period are recorders or successors to recorders .

repertory [edit ]

The recorder workplace of the latter half of the eighteenth century most known today is credibly a trio sonata by C. P. E. Bach, Wq.163, composed in 1755 – an agreement of a trio sonata for two violins and figured bass, scored for the unusual ensemble of viola, bass fipple flute and figured bass. [ 86 ] This function is besides noteworthy for being possibly the lone significant surviving historic solo work for bass recorder. besides of note are the works of Johann Christoph Schultze ( c. 1733–1813 ), who wrote two concertos for the instrument, one in G major and another in B♭ major, written around 1740. [ 87 ] The last occurrences of the registrar in art music are apparently by Carl Maria von Weber in Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn ( 1801 ) and Kleiner Tusch ( 1806 ). Hector Berlioz may have intended “ La fuite en Egypte ” from L’enfance du Christ ( 1853 ) for the instrumental role. [ 2 ] Donizetti owned three recorders. [ 68 ]

worsen [edit ]

many reasons supporting the conventional watch that the fipple flute declined have been proposed. The first gear significant explanation for the recorder ‘s decline was proposed by Waitzman ( 1967 ), [ 88 ] who proposed six reasons :

  1. The recorder lacked a significant class of professional players
  2. The recorder’s true nature was not appreciated
  3. The high tessitura of the instrument discouraged composers from writing idiomatically for the instrument
  4. The exploitation of the highest registers posed special problems for makers and players
  5. Interest in clarino (4′ pitch) instruments was waning
  6. As a result of the first five factors, the recorder had a bad reputation, which discouraged students from studying the instrument

In the Baroque, the majority of professional recorder players were primarily oboists or string players. For this argue, the issue of professional exponents of the fipple flute was smaller than that of other woodwinds. Others attribute the refuse of the recorder in depart to the flute innovators of the time, such as Grenser, and Tromlitz, who extended the cross flute ‘s range and evened out its tonal consistency through the addition of keys, or to the purportedly greater moral force range and volume of the flute. [ 89 ] exchangeable developments occurring in many other orchestral instruments to make them louder, increase their image, and increase their tonic consistency did not simultaneously occur in the case of the recorder. A complementary view recently advanced by Nikolaj Tarasov is that the recorder, quite than wholly disappearing, evolved in like ways to early wind instrument instruments through the accession of keys and other devices, and remained in use throughout the nineteenth century, with its direct descendant ‘s popularity overlapping with the belated 19th and early twentieth hundred registrar revival. [ 90 ] Support for this view rests on the organological categorization of some nineteenth hundred duct flutes as recorders. For more on this interview, see “ early duct flutes ” .

other duct flutes [edit ]

duct flutes remained popular flush as the fipple flute waned in the eighteenth century. As in the instrument ‘s earliest history, questions of the instrument ‘s quiddity are at the vanguard of modern argument. The modification and rename of recorders in the eighteenth century in order to prolong their use, and the uncertainty of the extent of the recorder ‘s use the late 18th and early 19th centuries have fueled these debates. Some late researchers contend that some nineteenth hundred duct flutes are actually recorders. This article concisely discusses the duct flutes presented as successors to the fipple flute : the English flageolet and the csakan, which were popular among amateurs in the second gear half of the eighteenth century, and the whole of the 19th .

Flageolets [edit ]

french flageolet, left ; English flageolet, right. Mid 19th c. Note the seven finger holes and single thumb hole of the English flageolet The discussion flageolet has been used since the sixteenth hundred to refer to belittled duct flutes, and the instrument is sometimes designated using general terms such as flautino and flauto piccolo, complicating identification of its earliest class. It was first described by Mersenne in Harmonie universelle ( 1636 ) as having four fingers on the front, and two ovolo holes on the back, with low eminence C6 and a compass of two octaves. Like the fipple flute, the upper berth finger hole is used as an octaving vent. Flageolets were generally belittled flutes, however their lowest note varies. [ 91 ] They were initially popular in France, and it is from there that the flageolet inaugural arrived in England in the seventeenth century, becoming a popular amateur instrument, as the fipple flute late did. indeed, when the recorder was introduced to England it was presented as an easy instrumental role for those who already played the flageolet, and the earliest english registrar tutors are notated in the flageolet tablature of the time, called “ dot-way ”. [ 68 ] notably, the diarist and naval administrator Samuel Pepys ( 1633–1703 ) and his wife were both amateur players of the flageolet, and Pepys was later an amateur recorder player. Starting in the early 1800s, a number of innovations to the flageolet were introduced, including the addition of keys to extend its range and allow it to more easily play accidentals. They besides included novel solutions to the problem of condensation : most normally, a sea sponge was placed inside the wind chamber ( the conic chamber above the windway ) to soak up moisture, while fresh solutions such as the insertion of a thin wooden wedge into the windway, the drill of short holes in the side of the block to drain condensation and a building complex system for draining condensation through a hollowed out obstruct developed, were besides developed. [ 92 ] Around 1800 in England, the registrar ( “ English flute, ” see Name ) came to be called an “ english flageolet, ” appropriating the list of the more stylish legal document. From at least this prison term to the present, the flageolet in its first shape has been called the french flageolet to differentiate it from the alleged English flageolet. [ 93 ] From around 1803, when the London instrument maker William Bainbridge obtained a count of patents for improvements to the English flageolet, instruments were frequently referred as “ better ” or “ patent ” flageolets with little address to how they actually differed from their predecessors. In this menstruation, the legal document had six finger holes and individual finger fix, and had a many as six keys. Tarasov reports that the English flageolets of the late eighteenth hundred had six finger holes and no thumb trap, and late regained the thumb fix one-seventh feel hole ( see above, right ). [ 90 ] The English flageolet never reached the degree of popularity that the “ french ” flageolet enjoyed in the nineteenth century, possibly because the latter instrument was louder. Both remained popular until the begin of the twentieth century. A significant amount of music was written for the flageolet in the nineteenth century, such as the etudes of Narcisse Bousquet although much of it was directed at amateurs. english flageolets that may qualify as recorders are of two types : those early instruments, called “ english flageolets, ” which were actually recorders, and nineteenth hundred instruments with seven finger holes and a thumb fix. These instruments are not typically regarded as recorders, however Tarasov has argued for their inclusion in the family .

Csakan [edit ]

The csakan ( from Hung. csákány ‘pickaxe ‘ ), besides known by the recorder ‘s erstwhile french name flute douce, was a duct flute in the form of a walking stand by or oboe democratic in Vienna from about 1800 to the 1840s. The csakan was played using the fingerings of a recorder in C, and was typically pitched in A♭ or G and played as a transpose instrument. The first documented appearance of the csakan was at a concert in Budapest on 18 February 1807 in a performance by its charge inventor, Anton Heberle ( florida. 1806–16 ). Tarasov has contested Heberle ‘s status as the inventor of the instrument, and has argued that the csakan grew out of a Hungarian war hammer of the lapp diagnose, which was converted into a recorder, possibly for playing military music. Around 1800, it was highly fashionable for have walk-to sticks with extra functions ( for example, umbrellas, swords, flutes, oboes, clarinets, horns ) although the csakan was the most democratic of these, and the only one that became a musical instrument in its own correct. [ 94 ] The earliest instruments were shaped like a walking pin with a mouthpiece in the handle and had no keys, although they could finally have up to thirteen keys, along with a tuning chute and a device for narrowing the hitchhike hole. In the 1820s a csakan “ in the please shape of an oboe ” was introduced in a “ simple ” form with a single key and a “ building complex ” form with up to twelve keys like those found on coetaneous flutes. well-known makers of the csakan included Johann Ziegler and Stephan Koch in Vienna, and Franz Schöllnast in Pressburg. According to accounts left by Schöllnast, the csakan was primarily an amateur instrument, purchased by those who wanted something dim-witted and cheap, however there were besides accomplished professionals, such as viennese court oboist Ernst Krähmer ( 1795–1837 ) who toured as far afield as Russia, playing the csakan with applaud virtuosity. [ 95 ] Around 400 works for the csakan were published in the inaugural half of the nineteenth century, chiefly for csakan solo, csakan couple or csakan with guitar or piano. The csakan ‘s repertory has not even been amply explored. celebrated composers for the instrument include Heberle and Krähmer, and Tarasov notes that piano works by Beethoven were arranged for csakan and guitar ( Beethoven is reported to have owned a walking-stick csakan ). modern fipple flute makers such as Bernhard Mollenhauer and Martin Wenner have made csakan copies. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] Similarities in finger and design make the csakan at least a close relative of the registrar. Accounts of Krähmer ‘s play, which report his “ diminishing and swelling the notes, up to an about incredible volume ” imply a originate proficiency using shading and alternate fingerings, far beyond a strictly amateur culture of house music. additionally, Tarasov reports that some recorders by Baroque makers were modified, around 1800, through the addition of keys, including a J. C. Denner ( 1655–1707 ) basset registrar in Budapest and an alto by Nikolaus Staub ( 1664–1734 ) with added G♯ keys, like the D♯ samara on a baroque two-key flute. Another modification is the constrict of the thumb hole, by way of an bone ballyhoo on the J. C. Denner basset and an alto by Benedikt Gahn ( 1674–1711 ), to allow it to serve strictly as an octaving release, as found on many flageolets and csakans. These changes may be archetypal to those found on csakans and flageolets, and constitute an incipient justification for the continuous exploitation of the Baroque fipple flute into its 19th-century relatives. [ 98 ]

Modern revival [edit ]

The “ revival ” [edit ]

The concept of a recorder “ revival ” must be considered in the context of the refuse of the fipple flute in the 18th and 19th centuries. The craft of fipple flute name was continued in some form by a count of families, such as the Berchtesgaden Fleitl produced by the Oeggle class, which traces its ancestry to the Walch class of recorder makers [ 99 ] the careers of the Schlosser kin of Zwota. Heinrich Oskar Schlosser ( 1875–1947 ) made instruments sold by the firm of Moeck in Celle and helped to design their Tuju series of recorders. [ 100 ] The firm Mollenhauer, presently headed by Bernhard Mollenhauer, can trace its origins to diachronic instrument makers. [ 101 ] The fipple flute, if it did persist through the nineteenth hundred, did then in a manner quite unlike the success it enjoyed in former centuries, or that it would enjoy in the century to come in. Among the earliest ensembles to begin use of recorders in the twentieth century was the Bogenhauser Künstlerkapelle ( Bogenhausen Artists ‘ Band ) which from 1890 to 1939 used antique recorders and early instruments to play music of all ages, including arrangements of classical music and romantic music. however, the recorder was considered primarily an instrument of historic matter to. The eventual success of the recorder in the modern earned run average is frequently attributed to Arnold Dolmetsch. While he was creditworthy for broadening interest in the United Kingdom beyond the belittled group of early music specialists, Dolmetsch was not entirely responsible for the registrar ‘s broader revival. On the continent his efforts were preceded by those of musicians at the Brussels Conservatoire ( where Dolmetsch received his training ), and by the german Bogenhauser Künstlerkapelle. besides in Germany, the work of Willibald Gurlitt, Werner Danckerts and Gustav Scheck proceeded quite independently of the Dolmetsches. [ 102 ]

Players [edit ]

Carl Dolmetsch, the son of Arnold Dolmetsch, became one of the first ace recorder players in the 1920s ; but more importantly he began to commission recorder works from leading composers of his day, specially for performance at the Haslemere festival which his founder run. initially as a consequence of this, and by and by as a result of the exploitation of a dutch educate of fipple flute act led by Kees Otten, the fipple flute was introduced to serious musicians as a virtuoso solo instrument both in Britain and in northern Europe. Among the influential virtuoso who figure in the revival of the recorder as a serious concert musical instrument in the latter part of the twentieth century are Ferdinand Conrad, Kees Otten, Frans Brüggen, Roger Cotte, Hans-Martin Linde, Bernard Krainis, and David Munrow. Brüggen recorded most of the landmarks of the historic repertoire and commissioned a substantial number of new works for the recorder. Munrow ‘s 1975 double album The Art of the Recorder remains as an authoritative anthology of recorder music through the ages. Among late 20th-century and early 21st-century recorder ensembles, the trio Sour Cream ( led by Frans Brüggen ), Flautando Köln, the Flanders Recorder Quartet, Amsterdam Loeki Stardust Quartet and Quartet New Generation have programmed remarkable mixtures of historical and contemporaneous repertory. Soloists such as Piers Adams, Dan Laurin and Dorothee Oberlinger, Michala Petri, Maurice Steger. In the 2012 Charlotte Barbour-Condini became the first fipple flute player to reach the final of the biennial BBC Young Musician of the Year competition. Recorder player Sophie Westbrooke was a finalist in the 2014 rival. [ 103 ]

structure [edit ]

The inaugural recorders to be played in the advanced period were age-old instruments from former periods. Anecdotally, Arnold Dolmetsch was motivated to make his own recorders after losing a base containing his antique instruments. Recorders made in the early twentieth hundred were imitative of baroque models in their outside form, but differed significantly in their structure. Dolmetsch introduced English fingering, the now standard fingering for “ baroque ” model instruments, and standardized the double 6th and 7th holes found on a handful of age-old instruments by the English makers Stanesby and Bressan. Dolmetsch instruments generally had a big rectangular windway, unlike the curl windways of all diachronic instruments, and played at advanced pitch .

repertory [edit ]

about twice as many pieces have been written for the recorder since its mod revival as were written in all previous epochs. [ 104 ] Many of these were composed by avant-garde composers of the latter half of the twentieth century who used the recorder for the variety of extended techniques which are possible using its open holes and its sensitivity to articulation .
modern composers of great stature have written for the recorder, including Paul Hindemith, Luciano Berio, Jürg Baur, Josef Tal, John Tavener, Michael Tippett, Benjamin Britten, Leonard Bernstein, Gordon Jacob, Malcolm Arnold, Steven Stucky, Sean Hickey, and Edmund Rubbra. Owing to its ubiquity as a teach instrument and the relative ease of sound product, the recorder has occasionally been used in popular music by groups such as The Beatles ; [ 105 ] the Rolling Stones ( see, for example, “ Ruby Tuesday “ ) ; Yes, for example, in the sung “ I ‘ve Seen All Good People “ ; Jefferson Airplane with Grace Slick on Surrealistic Pillow ; [ 106 ] Led Zeppelin ( “ Stairway to Heaven “ ) ; Jimi Hendrix ; [ 107 ] Siouxsie and the Banshees ; [ 108 ] Judy Dyble of Fairport Convention ; Dido ( e.g. “ Grafton Street ” on Safe Trip Home ) [ citation needed ] ; and Mannheim Steamroller [ citation needed ] ; Ian Anderson ( Jethro Tull )

industry [edit ]

From right to left : bass, tenor, alto/treble, soprano/descant and sopranino recorders The trade of recorder make was traditionally transmitted via apprenticeship. noteworthy historic makers include the Rafi, Schnitzer and Bassano families in the rebirth ; Stanesby ( Jr. and Sr. ), J.C. and J. Denner, Hotteterre, Bressan, Haka, Heitz, Rippert, Rottenburgh, Steenbergen and Terton. Most of these makers besides built other fart instruments such as oboes and cross flutes. notably, Jacob Denner is credited with the development of the clarinet from the chalumeau. Recorder making declined with the instrumental role ‘s wane in the late eighteenth hundred, basically severing the craft ‘s transmission to the advanced age. With few exceptions, the duct flutes manufactured in the 19th and late eighteenth centuries were intended for amateur or educational manipulation, and were not constructed to the high standard of earlier epoch. Arnold Dolmetsch, the first to achieve commercial production in the twentieth century, began to build recorders in 1919. While these early on recorders played at a first gear pitch like that of the available originals, he did not strive for exactness in replica, and by the 1930s the Dolmetsch family fast, then under the steering of Arnold ‘s son Carl Dolmetsch, was mass-produce recorders at modern sales talk with wide, directly windways, and began to produce bakelite recorders shortly after the second World War. Nonetheless, the Dolmetsch models were innovative for their time and proved influential, particularly in standardizing the English finger arrangement now criterion for modern baroque-style instruments and doubled 6th and 7th holes, which are rare on antique instruments. In Germany, Peter Harlan began to manufacture recorders in the 1920s, primarily for educational use in the youth motion. Following Harlan ‘s success, numerous makers such as Adler and Mollenhauer began commercial production of recorders, fueling an explosion in the instrument ‘s popularity in Germany. These recorders shared fiddling in common with antiques, with large square windways, anachronistically pitched consorts, modified fingering systems and early innovations. In the latter one-half of the twentieth hundred, historically informed operation practice was on the originate and fipple flute makers increasingly sought to imitate the sound and character of antiques. The german-american manufacturer Friedrich von Huene was among the first gear to research recorders held in european collections and produce instruments intended to reproduce the qualities of the antiques. Von Huene and his australian colleague Frederick Morgan sought to connect the tradition of the historical wind-makers to the modern sidereal day with the understanding that doing so creates the best instruments, and those most befit to ancient music. virtually all recorders manufactured today claim dominance to an age-old model and most makers active today can trace their trade immediately to one of these pioneering makers. nowadays, makers maintaining individual workshops include Ammann, Blezinger, Bolton, Boudreau, Breukink, Brown, Coomber, Cranmore, de Paolis, Ehlert, Meyer, Musch, Netsch, Prescott, Rohmer, Takeyama, von Huene, and Wenner. french godhead Philippe Bolton created an electroacoustic recorder [ 109 ] and is among the last to offer mount bell-keys and double bell-keys for both tenor and alto recorders. Those bell-keys extend easily the compass of the instrumental role to more than three octaves. [ 110 ] Invented by Carl Dolmetsch in 1957, he beginning used the bell-key organization publicly in 1958. [ 111 ]

Use in schools [edit ]

In the mid-20th century, German composer and music educator Carl Orff popularized the registrar for use in schools as function of Orff-Schulwerk programs in german schools. Orff ‘s five-volume musical composition of educational music Music for Children contains many pieces for recorders, normally scored for other instruments as well. [ 112 ] Manufacturers have made recorders out of bakelite and other more modern plastics ; they are frankincense easy to produce, hence cheap. Because of this, recorders are popular in schools, as they are one of the cheapest instruments to buy in bulk. [ 113 ] They are besides relatively easy to play at a basic degree because sound production needs merely breath, and pitch is chiefly determined by fingering ( though excessive breath press will tend to drive the pitch sharply ) .

recorder ensembles [edit ]

The registrar is a identical social legal document. many recorder players participate in big groups or in one-to-a-part bedroom groups, and there is a wide variety show of music for such groupings including many modern works. Groups of different sized instruments help to compensate for the restrict note range of the individual instruments. Four separate arrangements with a soprano, countertenor, tenor and bass part played on the match recorders are common, although more building complex arrangements with multiple parts for each instrument and parts for lower and higher instruments may besides be regularly encountered. [ 114 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

  • Griscom, Richard; Lasocki, David (2012). The Recorder: A Research and Information Guide. Routledge Music Bibliographies (3rd ed.). New York & London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-99858-1. OCLC 743214715. ISBN 978-0-203-87502-5 (e-book).
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