european ethno-linguistic group
“ slav ” redirects here. For other uses, see Slav ( disambiguation )
Slavs are the largest european ethnolinguistic group. [ 2 ] They speak the diverse Slavic languages, belonging to the larger Balto-Slavic branch of the indo-european languages. Slavs are geographically distributed throughout northern Eurasia, chiefly inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe, and the Balkans to the west ; and Siberia to the east. A big Slavic minority is besides scattered across the Baltic states and Central Asia, [ 3 ] [ 4 ] while a solid Slavic diaspora is found throughout the Americas, as a result of immigration. [ 5 ]

contemporary Slavs are classified into East Slavs ( chiefly Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns, and Ukrainians ), West Slavs ( chiefly Czechs, Kashubs, Poles, Slovaks, and Sorbs ) and South Slavs ( chiefly Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes ). [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The huge majority of Slavs are traditionally Christians. however, mod Slavic nations and ethnic groups are well diverse both genetically and culturally, and relations between them – even within the individual groups – stove from “ ethnic solidarity to common feelings of hostility ”. [ 10 ]

Ethnonym [edit ]

The oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the sixth century AD Procopius, writing in Byzantine Greek, using versatile forms such as Sklaboi ( Σκλάβοι ), Sklabēnoi ( Σκλαβηνοί ), Sklauenoi ( Σκλαυηνοί ), Sthlabenoi ( Σθλαβηνοί ), or Sklabinoi ( Σκλαβῖνοι ), [ 11 ] while his contemporary Jordanes refers to the Sclaveni in Latin. [ 12 ] The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic, dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne ( Словѣне ). These forms point back to a Slavic autonym which can be reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural Slověne. [ citation needed ] The reconstruct autonym *Slověninъ is normally considered a ancestry from slovo ( “ word ” ), in the first place denoting “ people who speak ( the lapp language ) ”, i. e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic give voice denoting german people, namely *němьcь, meaning “ silent, dumb people ” ( from Slavic *němъ “ mute, mumbling ” ). The word slovo ( “ bible ” ) and the relate slava ( “ glory, fame ” ) and slukh ( “ hear ” ) originate from the Proto-Indo-European settle *ḱlew- ( “ be spoken of, glory ” ), connate with Ancient Greek κλέος ( kléos “ fame ” ), as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo ( “ be called ” ), and English loud. [ citation needed ] In Medieval and Early Modern sources written in Latin, Slavs are most normally referred to as Sclaveni, or in shorten version Sclavi .

history [edit ]

Origins [edit ]

first mentions [edit ]

 Original Slavic homeland (modern-day southeastern original Slavic fatherland ( contemporary southeastern Poland, northwestern Ukraine and southern Belarus

 

expansion of the Slavic migration in Europe The origin and migration of Slavs in Europe between the 5th and 10th centuries AD : [14] Terracotta tile from the 6th–7th century AD rule in Vinica North Macedonia depicts a battle fit between the Bulgars and Slavs with the Latin inscription BOLGAR and SCLAVIGI Ancient Roman sources refer to the early Slavic peoples as Veneti, who dwelt in a area of cardinal Europe east of the Germanic tribe of Suebi, and west of the iranian Sarmatians in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, [ 15 ] [ 16 ] between the upper Vistula and Dnieper rivers. The Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni first base appear in Byzantine records in the early sixth hundred. Byzantine historiographers under emperor butterfly justinian I ( 527–565 ), such as Procopius of Caesarea, Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire. [ citation needed ] Jordanes, in his cultivate Getica ( written in 551 AD ), [ 17 ] describes the Veneti as a “ populous nation ” whose dwellings begin at the sources of the Vistula and occupy “ a great sweep of land ”. He besides describes the Veneti as the ancestors of Antes and Slaveni, two early Slavic kin, who appeared on the Byzantine frontier in the early sixth century. Procopius wrote in 545 that “ the Sclaveni and the Antae actually had a single appoint in the remote control past ; for they were both called Sporoi in olden times ”. The name Sporoi derives from greek σπείρω ( “ I scatter grain ” ). He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, believed in one deity, “ the manufacturer of lightning ” ( Perun ), to whom they made a sacrifice. They lived in disperse housing and constantly changed settlement. In war, they were chiefly foot soldiers with minor shields and spears, lightly clothed, some entrance battle naked with only genitals covered. Their terminology is “ barbarous ” ( that is, not Greek ), and the two tribes are alike in appearance, being tall and full-bodied, “ while their bodies and hair are neither very fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline wholly to the blue type, but they are all slightly ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts … ” [ 18 ] Jordanes described the Sclaveni having swamps and forests for their cities. [ 19 ] Another 6th-century reference refers to them living among closely impenetrable forests, rivers, lakes, and marshes. [ 20 ] Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius ( circa 577–579 ) who slew an Avar emissary of Khagan Bayan I for asking the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars ; Daurentius declined and is reported as saying : “ Others do not conquer our land, we conquer theirs – so it shall always be for us ” .

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Migrations [edit ]

Slavic tribe from the 7th to 9th centuries AD in Europe According to eastern fatherland theory, anterior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic -speaking tribes were partially of the many multiethnic confederacies of Eurasia – such as the Sarmatian, Hun and Gothic empires. The Slavs emerged from obscureness when the westbound movement of Germanic tribes in the 5th and 6th centuries CE ( thought to be in conjunction with the movement of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe : Huns, and by and by Avars and Bulgars ) started the capital migration of the Slavs, who settled the lands abandoned by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns and their allies : westbound into the area between the Oder and the Elbe – saale line ; southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of contemporary Austria, the Pannonian knit and the Balkans ; and north along the upper Dnieper river. It has besides been suggested that some Slavs migrated with the Vandals to the iberian Peninsula and even North Africa. [ 22 ] Around the sixth hundred, Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers. [ 23 ] Byzantine records note that Slav numbers were so capital, that denounce would not regrow where the Slavs had marched through [ citation needed ]. After a military movement even the Peloponnese and Asia Minor were reported to have Slavic settlements. [ 24 ] This southerly bowel movement has traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion. [ 25 ] By the end of the sixth century, Slavs had settled the Eastern Alps regions. [ 26 ] Pope Gregory I in 600 CE wrote to Maximus, the bishop of Salona ( in Dalmatia ), in which he expresses concern about the arrival of the Slavs : “Et quidem de Sclavorum gente, quae vobis valde imminet, et affligor vehementer et conturbor. Affligor in his quae jam in vobis patior; conturbor, quia per Istriae aditum jam ad Italiam intrare coeperunt.” (“I am both distressed and disturbed about the Slavs, who are pressing hard on you. I am distressed because I sympathize with you; I am disturbed because they have already begun to arrive in Italy through the entry-point of Istria.”)[27]

Middle Ages [edit ]

When Slav migrations ended, their inaugural state organizations appeared, each headed by a prince with a treasury and a department of defense force. In the seventh hundred, the frankish merchant Samo supported the Slavs against their Avar rulers and became the rule of the first known Slav submit in Central Europe, Samo ‘s Empire. This early Slavic polity credibly did not outlive its founder and rule, but it was the foundation for former West Slavic states on its territory. The oldest of them was Carantania ; others are the Principality of Nitra, the moravian principality ( see under Great Moravia ) and the Balaton Principality. The first Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 as an alliance between the rule Bulgars and the numerous slav in the area, and their South Slavic speech, the Old Church Slavonic, became the main and official language of the empire in 864. Bulgaria was implemental in the banquet of Slavic literacy and Christianity to the lie of the Slavic world. The expansion of the Magyars into the Carpathian Basin and the Germanization of Austria gradually separated the South Slavs from the West and East Slavs. Later Slavic states, which formed in the surveil centuries, included the Kievan Rus ‘, the Second Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, Duchy of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Croatia, Banate of Bosnia and the serbian Empire. [ citation needed ]

Modern era [edit ]

In the deep nineteenth century, there were four Slavic states in the earth : the Russian Empire, the Principality of Serbia, the Principality of Montenegro and the Principality of Bulgaria. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire, out of a population of approximately 50 million people, about 23 million were Slavs. Because of the enormousness and diverseness of the territory occupied by Slavic people, there were several centers of Slavic consolidation. At the begin of the twentieth hundred, following the end of World War I and the collapse of the Central Powers, several Slavic nations emerged and became freelancer, such as the Second Polish Republic, First Czechoslovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( officially named Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes until 1929 ). After the end of the Cold War and subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, extra new Slavic states emerged, such as the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. [ citation needed ] Pan-Slavism, a movement which came into prominence in the mid-19th hundred, emphasized the common inheritance and integrity of all the Slavic peoples. The independent focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been ruled for centuries by other empires : the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Venice. [ citation needed ]

Languages [edit ]

East Slavic languages  Russian Belarusian Ukrainian Rusyn Proto-Slavic, the supposed ancestor lyric of all Slavic languages, is a descendant of common Proto-Indo-European, via a balto-slavic degree in which it developed numerous lexical and morphophonological isoglosses with the Baltic languages. In the model of the Kurgan hypothesis, “ the Indo-Europeans who remained after the migrations [ from the steppe ] became speakers of Balto-Slavic ”. [ 28 ] Proto-Slavic is defined as the stopping point phase of the lyric preceding the geographic split of the diachronic Slavic languages. That language was undifferentiated, and on the basis of borrowings from foreign languages and Slavic borrowings into other languages, can not be said to have any recognizable dialects – this suggests that there was, at one time, a relatively small Proto-Slavic fatherland. [ 29 ] Slavic linguistic oneness was to some extent visible vitamin a late as Old Church Slavonic ( or Old Bulgarian ) manuscripts which, though based on local Slavic language of Thessaloniki, could however serve the function of the first common Slavic literary language. [ 30 ] Standardised Slavic languages that have official status in at least one country are : belarusian, bosnian, bulgarian, croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, and ukrainian. russian is the most talk Slavic speech, and is the most spoken native speech in Europe. [ 31 ] The alphabets used for Slavic languages are frequently connected to the dominant religion among the respective heathen groups. Orthodox Christians use the Cyrillic rudiment while Catholics use the Latin alphabet ; the Bosniaks, who are Muslim, besides use the Latin rudiment. Additionally, some eastern Catholics and western Catholics use the Cyrillic rudiment. serbian and Montenegrin use both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. There are besides a latin script to write in Belarusian, called Łacinka and in ukrainian, called Latynka. [ citation needed ]

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Ethno-cultural subdivisions [edit ]

Slavs are customarily divided along geographic lines into three major subgroups : West Slavs, East Slavs, and South Slavs, each with a different and a divers background based on the singular history, religion and culture of particular Slavic groups within them. apart from prehistoric archaeological cultures, the subgroups have had celebrated cultural reach with non-Slavic Bronze – and Iron Age civilisations. [ citation needed ]

West Slavs originate from early on Slavic tribe which settled in Central Europe after the East Germanic tribe had left this sphere during the migration period. [ 32 ] They are noted as having desegregate with Germanics, Hungarians, Celts ( peculiarly the Boii ), Old Prussians, and the Pannonian Avars. [ 33 ] The West Slavs came under the influence of the Western Roman Empire ( Latin ) and of the Catholic Church. [ citation needed ] East Slavs have origins in early Slavic tribe who mixed and contacted with Finns and Balts. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Their early Slavic component, Antes, mixed or absorbed Iranians, and later received influence from the Khazars and Vikings. The East Slavs trace their national origins to the tribal unions of Kievan Rus ‘ and Rus ‘ Khaganate, beginning in the tenth hundred. They came peculiarly under the influence of the Byzantine Empire and of the Eastern Orthodox Church. [ citation needed ] South Slavs from most of the region have origins in early Slavic tribe who mixed with the local Proto-Balkanic tribe ( illyrian, Dacian, thracian, Paeonian, Hellenic tribe ), and Celtic tribes ( peculiarly the Scordisci ), angstrom well as with Romans ( and the Romanized remnants of the erstwhile groups ), and besides with remnants of temporarily settled invading East Germanic, Asiatic or caucasian tribes such as Gepids, Huns, Avars, Goths and Bulgars. [ citation needed ] The master inhabitants of contemporary Slovenia and continental Croatia have origins in early on Slavic kin who mixed with Romans and romanized Celtic and illyrian people a well as with Avars and Germanic peoples ( Lombards and East Goths ). The South Slavs ( except the Slovenes and Croats ) came under the cultural sector of the Eastern Roman Empire ( Byzantine Empire ), of the Ottoman Empire and of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Islam, while the Slovenes and the Croats were influenced by the western Roman Empire ( Latin ) and thus by the Catholic Church in a exchangeable fashion to that of the West Slavs. [ citation needed ]

Genetics [edit ]

According to Y chromosome, mDNA, and autosomal marker CCR5de132, the gene consortium of Eastern ( Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians ) and westerly Slavs ( Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks ) is identical, which is consistent with the proximity of their languages, demonstrating significant differences from neighboring Finno-Ugric, Turkic, and North Caucasian peoples. such familial homogeneity is slightly unusual, given such a wide dispersion of Slavic populations, particularly Russians. together they form the basis of the “ East European “ gene bunch, which besides includes non-Slavic Hungarians and Aromanians. entirely Northern Russians among East and West Slavs belong to a unlike, “ Northern European ” genic cluster, along with Balts, Germanic and Baltic Finnic peoples ( Northern Russian populations are identical like to Balts ). The 2006 Y-DNA study results “ suggest that the Slavic expansion started from the territory of contemporary Ukraine, frankincense supporting the hypothesis that places the earliest know fatherland of Slavs in the basin of the middle Dnieper “. [ 42 ] According to genetic studies until 2020, the distribution, variance and frequency of the Y-DNA haplogroups R1a and I2 and their subclades R-M558, R-M458 and I-CTS10228 among South Slavs are in correlation with the spread of Slavic languages during the medieval Slavic expansion from Eastern Europe, most probably from the territory of contemporary Ukraine and Southeastern Poland. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 49 ] other studies conclude that the ancient Slavic fatherland was in Pomerania, Germany. According to a 1919 Shakhmatov survey, Slavic tribes from the Elbe and Vistula moved from west to east in two groups. The western group, gradually moving to the north, northeast and east. They would occupy the territories of contemporary Belarus and the Pskov, Novgorod, and Smolensk areas of modern Russia. The second, moving confederacy and southeast, gradually settled in the territories of modern Volhynia, Ukraine and the Carpathian Mountains. The Slavs would gradually occupy the territories that would make up the Kievan Rus Empire. Those territories being modern day Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. [ 50 ]

religion [edit ]

The pagan Slavic populations were Christianized between the 7th and 12th centuries. Orthodox Christianity is overriding among East and South Slavs, while Catholicism is prevailing among West Slavs and some westerly South Slavs. The religious borders are largely comparable to the East–West Schism which began in the eleventh hundred. Islam beginning arrived in the seventh century during the early Muslim conquests, and was gradually adopted by a number of Slavic ethnic groups through the centuries in the Balkans. [ citation needed ] Among Slavic populations who profess a religion, the majority of contemporary Christian Slavs are Orthodox, followed by Catholic. The majority of Muslim Slavs follow the Hanafi school of the Sunni outgrowth of Islam. [ 51 ] religious delineations by nationality can be identical sharp ; normally in the Slavic heathen groups, the huge majority of religious people contribution the same religion. The Czech Republic is the only Slavic nation with a population that is majority irreligious. [ 52 ]

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Relations with non-Slavic people [edit ]

Throughout their history, Slavs came into contact with non-Slavic groups. In the contend fatherland region ( contemporary Ukraine ), they had contacts with the iranian Sarmatians and the Germanic Goths. After their subsequent spread, the Slavs began assimilating non-Slavic peoples. For exercise, in the Balkans, there were Paleo-Balkan peoples, such as Romanized and Hellenized ( Jireček Line ) Illyrians, Thracians and Dacians, a well as Greeks and Celtic Scordisci and Serdi. [ 61 ] Because Slavs were then numerous, most autochthonal populations of the Balkans were Slavicized. Thracians and Illyrians interracial as ethnic groups in this period. A noteworthy exception is Greece, where Slavs were Hellenized because Greeks were more numerous, specially with more Greeks returning to Greece in the ninth hundred and the charm of the church service and administration, however, Slavicized regions within Macedonia, Thrace and Moesia Inferior besides had a larger dowry of locals compared to migrating Slavs. [ 63 ] other celebrated exceptions are the district of contemporary Romania and Hungary, where Slavs settled en route to contemporary Greece, North Macedonia, Bulgaria and East Thrace but assimilated, and the mod Albanian nation which claims descent from Illyrians and other Balkan tribes. [ citation needed ] Ruling status of Bulgars and their control of bring cast the nominal bequest of the bulgarian area and people onto future generations, but Bulgars were gradually besides Slavicized into the contemporary South Slavic heathen group known as Bulgarians. The love story speakers within the fortify dalmatian cities retained their culture and terminology for a long clock time. dalmatian Romance was spoken until the high Middle Ages, but, they besides were finally assimilated into the body of Slavs. [ citation needed ] In the western Balkans, South Slavs and Germanic Gepids intermarried with invaders, finally producing a Slavicized population. [ citation needed ] In Central Europe, the West Slavs intermixed with Germanic, Hungarian, and Celtic peoples, while in Eastern Europe the East Slavs had encountered Finnic and scandinavian peoples. Scandinavians ( Varangians ) and Finnic peoples were involved in the early geological formation of the Rus ‘ state of matter but were completely Slavicized after a hundred. Some Finnic tribes in the north were besides absorbed into the expanding Rus population. In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by mobile Turkic tribe, such as the Kipchak and the Pecheneg, caused a massive migration of East Slavic populations to the safe, heavily forested regions of the north. [ 65 ] In the Middle Ages, groups of Saxon ore miners settled in chivalric Bosnia, Serbia and Bulgaria, where they were Slavicized. [ citation needed ] Saqaliba refers to the Slavic mercenaries and slaves in the chivalric Arab world in North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus. Saqaliba served as caliph ‘s guards. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] In the twelfth century, Slavic plagiarism in the Baltics increased. The Wendish Crusade was started against the Polabian Slavs in 1147, as a character of the Northern Crusades. The heathen chief of the Slavic Obodrite tribes, Niklot, began his capable resistor when Lothar III, Holy Roman Emperor, invaded Slavic lands. In August 1160 Niklot was killed, and german colonization ( Ostsiedlung ) of the Elbe-Oder area began. In hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Lusatia, invaders started germanization. early forms of germanization were described by german monks : Helmold in the manuscript Chronicon Slavorum and Adam of Bremen in Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum. [ 68 ] The Polabian linguistic process survived until the begin of the nineteenth hundred in what is now the german state of Lower Saxony. [ 69 ] In Eastern Germany, around 20 % of Germans have historic Slavic paternal ancestry, as revealed in Y-DNA test. [ 70 ] similarly, in Germany, around 20 % of the extraneous surnames are of Slavic origin. [ 71 ] Cossacks, although Slavic and practicing Orthodox Christianity, came from a mix of ethnic backgrounds, including Tatars and other peoples. initially, the Cossacks were a mini- subethnos, but now they are less than 5 %, and most of them live in the south of Russia. [ 72 ] The Gorals of southern Poland and northern Slovakia are partially descended from Romance-speaking Vlachs, who migrated into the region from the 14th to 17th centuries and were absorbed into the local anesthetic population. The population of moravian Wallachia besides descended from the Vlachs. Conversely, some Slavs were assimilated into other populations. Although the majority continued towards Southeast Europe, attracted by the riches of the sphere that became the state of Bulgaria, a few remained in the Carpathian Basin in Central Europe and were assimilated into the Magyar people. numerous rivers and places in Romania have a name with Slavic origins. [ 73 ]

population [edit ]

There are an estimate c. 300 million Slavs cosmopolitan. [ citation needed ]

 

20–35 %

 

14–20 %

 

11–14 %

 

8–11 %

 

5–8 %

 

3–5 %

 

0–3 % Slavs in the US and Canada by area :

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ primitively Eastern Orthodox, with some groups adopting Byzantine-Rite Catholicism under Polish and Austro-Hungarian principle and reverting to Eastern Orthodoxy starting in the late nineteenth hundred .

References [edit ]

Citations [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

Primary sources
Secondary sources

far interpretation [edit ]

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