nation in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a nation that is separate of the United Kingdom. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its union. The irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The nation covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was beginning inhabited by mod humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic kin deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unify state of matter in the tenth century and has had a significant cultural and legal affect on the wide world since the Age of Discovery, which began during the fifteenth century. [ 9 ] The english terminology, the Anglican Church, and English law —the basis for the coarse jurisprudence legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the nation ‘s parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. [ 10 ] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the global ‘s first industrialize nation. [ 11 ]

England ‘s terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, particularly in cardinal and southerly England. however, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north ( for example, the Lake District and Pennines ) and in the west ( for exemplar, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills ). The das kapital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. England ‘s population of 56.3 million comprises 84 % of the population of the United Kingdom, [ 4 ] largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the nineteenth century. [ 12 ] The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state of matter on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into impression the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland ( through another Act of Union ) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [ 15 ]

Toponymy

The name “ England ” is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means “ land of the Angles “. [ 16 ] The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area ( contemporary German country of Schleswig–Holstein ) of the Baltic Sea. [ 17 ] The earliest recorded habit of the term, as “ Engla londe ”, is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede ‘s Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was then used in a unlike sense to the modern one, meaning “ the bring inhabited by the English ”, and it included english people in what is immediately southeast Scotland but was then region of the English kingdom of Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the english kingdom, but a few years late the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went “ out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland ”, frankincense using it in the more ancient common sense. The earliest attest reference point to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century employment by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin bible Anglii is used. [ 19 ] The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars ; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular human body. [ 20 ] How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less meaning than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire area and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the customs of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or english Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons ( Eald-Seaxe ) of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. [ 21 ] In scots Gaelic, another linguistic process which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the parole for England ( Sasunn ) ; [ 22 ] similarly, the Welsh diagnose for the english speech is “ Saesneg “. A romanticist diagnose for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh discussion for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its function in arthurian caption. Albion is besides applied to England in a more poetic capacity, [ 23 ] though its original mean is the island of Britain as a solid .

history

prehistory and antiquity

position of the ramparts of the build up hillfort of Maiden Castle, Dorset, as they look today The earliest acknowledge evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England go steady from 500,000 years ago. [ 24 ] Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were entirely established within the last 6,000 years. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] After the end methamphetamine old age only big mammals such as mammoths, bison and wooly rhinoceros remained. roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area ; genic research suggests they came from the northerly separate of the iberian Peninsula. [ 27 ] The sea level was lower than now and Britain was connected by land bridge to Ireland and Eurasia. [ 28 ] As the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennium belated. The Beaker polish arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drink in and food vessels constructed from mud, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt bull ores. [ 29 ] It was during this fourth dimension that major neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. By heating together can and copper, which were in abundance in the sphere, the Beaker culture people made tan, and later iron from iron ores. The development of iron smelt allowed the construction of better big dipper, advancing farming ( for case, with Celtic fields ), ampere well as the production of more effective weapons. [ 30 ] During the Iron Age, celtic polish, deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central Europe. Brythonic was the address linguistic process during this time. club was tribal ; according to Ptolemy ‘s Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are nameless because the Britons were not literate. Like early regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoy trade links with the Romans. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade doubly in 55 BC ; although largely abortive, he managed to set up a customer king from the Trinovantes .
The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, subsequently conquering much of Britain, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia state. [ 31 ] The best-known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus. Later, an resurrect led by Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, ended with Boudica ‘s suicide following her frustration at the Battle of Watling Street. [ 32 ] The writer of one study of Roman Britain suggested that from 43 AD to 84 AD, the Roman invaders killed somewhere between 100,000 and 250,000 people from a population of possibly 2,000,000. [ 33 ] This earned run average saw a classical culture prevail with the introduction of Roman law, Roman architecture, aqueducts, sewers, many agricultural items and silk. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] In the third hundred, Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum ( now York ), where Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor butterfly a century subsequently. [ 37 ] There is debate about when Christianity was inaugural introduced ; it was nobelium subsequently than the fourth century, credibly a lot earlier. According to Bede, missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the headman Lucius of Britain in 180 AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church. There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea, while others claim through Lucius of Britain. [ 38 ] By 410, during the Decline of the Roman Empire, Britain was left exposed by the end of Roman predominate in Britain and the withdrawal of Roman army units, to defend the frontiers in continental Europe and partake in civil wars. [ 39 ] Celtic Christian monk and missionary movements flourished : Patrick ( 5th-century Ireland ) and in the sixth century Brendan ( Clonfert ), Comgall ( Bangor ), David ( Wales ), Aiden ( Lindisfarne ) and Columba ( Iona ). This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. local anesthetic “ congregations ” were centred in the monk residential district and monk leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church. [ 40 ]

Middle Ages

Roman military withdrawals left Britain loose to invasion by heathen, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles, Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province. These groups then began to settle in increasing numbers over the class of the fifth and sixth centuries, initially in the eastern part of the area. [ 39 ] Their advance was contained for some decades after the Britons ‘ victory at the Battle of Mount Badon, but subsequently resumed, overrunning the fat lowlands of Britain and reducing the area under Brittonic control to a series of separate enclaves in the more broken nation to the west by the end of the sixth century. contemporary text describing this period are extremely barely, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progress of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement ; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a bombastic scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control condition. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, been replaced in the suppress territories by Anglo-Saxon paganism, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from 597 onwards. [ 47 ] Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated forms of Christianity ended in victory for the Roman custom at the Council of Whitby ( 664 ), which was apparently about tonsures ( clerical haircuts ) and the date of Easter, but more importantly, about the differences in Roman and Celtic forms of authority, theology, and practice. [ 40 ] During the colonization period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the seventh century, when substantial evidence of the situation again become available, these had coalesced into roughly a twelve kingdoms including Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Kent and Sussex. Over the adopt centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. [ 48 ] The seventh hundred saw a conflict for hegemony between Northumbria and Mercia, which in the eighth hundred gave direction to Mercian eminence. [ 49 ] In the early ninth century Mercia was displaced as the first kingdom by Wessex. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving english kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw. This brought about the political union of England, first base accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and definitively established after foster conflicts by Eadred in 953. A fresh roll of scandinavian attacks from the late tenth hundred ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the center of a ephemeral North Sea Empire that besides included Denmark and Norway. however, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042 .
A quarrel over the succession to Edward led to the Norman Conquest in 1066, accomplished by an united states army led by Duke William of Normandy. [ 50 ] The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy in the late 9th and early tenth centuries. [ 51 ] This seduction led to the about sum exorcism of the English elect and its surrogate by a raw french-speaking nobility, whose lecture had a heavy and permanent wave effect on the english language. [ 52 ] subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine. [ 53 ] They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V. [ 53 ] The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the sign language of the Magna Carta, an english legal lease used to limit the sovereign ‘s powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen. catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal condescension. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the thirteenth hundred [ 54 ] and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope. During the fourteenth century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France ; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years ‘ War. [ 55 ] The Black Death epidemic strike England ; starting in 1348, it finally killed up to half of England ‘s inhabitants. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the royal syndicate – the Yorkists and Lancastrians – known as the Wars of the Roses. [ 58 ] finally it led to the Yorkists losing the enthrone wholly to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a ramify of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed. [ 59 ]

early modern

King Henry VIII ( 1491–1547 ) queen Elizabeth I ( 1558–1603 ) During the Tudor period, the Renaissance reached England through italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. [ 60 ] England began to develop naval skills, and exploration to the West intensified. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the sovereign head of the Church of England. In contrast with much of european Protestantism, the roots of the divide were more political than theological. [ nota bene 1 ] He besides legally incorporated his ancestral nation Wales into the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts. There were inner religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry ‘s daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter pause from it again, forcefully asserting the domination of Anglicanism. The Elizabethan earned run average is the epoch in the Tudor long time of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I ( “ the Virgin Queen ” ). Historians frequently depict it as the gold long time in English history. Elizabethan England represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of artwork, poetry, music and literature. [ 64 ] The era is most celebrated for its play, field and playwrights. England during this menstruation had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government as a solution of huge Tudor reforms. [ 65 ] Competing with Spain, the first english colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by internet explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lose colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. [ 66 ] With the East India Company, England besides competed with the Dutch and French in the East. During the Elizabethan period, England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in 1588 as part of a wide design to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy. The design was thwarted by badly coordination, stormy weather and successful harry attacks by an english fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham. This failure did not end the threat : Spain launched two far armadas, in 1596 and 1597, but both were driven back by storms. The political social organization of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which had been a long-time equal to English interests, inherited the toilet of England as James I, thereby creating a personal union. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] He styled himself King of Great Britain, although this had no basis in English law. [ 69 ] Under the auspices of King James VI and I the authorize King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. It was the standard interpretation of the Bible read by most protestant Christians for four hundred years until advanced revisions were produced in the twentieth hundred .
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I, known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. This was an interlacing character of the wide multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms, involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653 ; a period of personal rule followed. [ 70 ] After Cromwell ‘s death and the resignation of his son Richard as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660, in a affect called the Restoration. With the reopen of theatres, very well arts, literature and performing arts flourished throughout the Restoration of ”the Merry Monarch ” Charles II. [ 71 ] After the brilliant Revolution of 1688, it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real office. This was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689. Among the statutes set down were that the police could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, besides that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the anterior approval of Parliament. [ 72 ] besides since that time, no british monarch has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting, which is per annum commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament by the british sovereign when the doors of the House of Commons are slammed in the face of the monarch ‘s messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and its independence from the monarch. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] With the initiation of the Royal Society in 1660, science was greatly encouraged. In 1666 the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt concisely afterwards [ 75 ] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren. In Parliament two factions had emerged – the Tories and Whigs. Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of 1688 invite Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England. Some english people, specially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons. Under the Stuart dynasty England expanded in trade, finance and prosperity. Britain developed Europe ‘s largest merchant fleet. [ 76 ] After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [ 77 ] the two countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. [ 67 ] To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law and national churches of each remained separate. [ 78 ]

late modern and contemporary

Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other english initiatives combined with the scots Enlightenment to create innovations in skill and engineer, while the enormous increase in British overseas deal protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the british Empire. Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of heavy change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialize agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, equally well as new and initiate road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development. [ 79 ] The possibility of Northwest England ‘s Bridgewater Canal in 1761 usher in the canal age in Britain. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] In 1825 the world ‘s inaugural permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railroad track – the Stockton and Darlington Railway – opened to the public. [ 80 ] During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England ‘s countryside to raw and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for case at Birmingham and Manchester, dubbed “ Workshop of the World ” and “ Warehouse City ” respectively. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] Manchester was the world ‘s beginning industrial city. [ 85 ] England maintained relative constancy throughout the french Revolution ; William Pitt the Younger was british Prime Minister for the reign of George III. The Regency of George IV is noted for its elegance and achievements in the very well arts and architecture. [ 86 ] During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon planned to invade from the southeast. however this failed to manifest and the napoleonic forces were defeated by the british : at sea by Lord Nelson, and on state by the Duke of Wellington. The major victory at the Battle of Trafalgar confirmed the naval domination Britain had established during the course of the eighteenth hundred. [ 87 ] The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a unify national british people, shared with the English, Scots and Welsh. [ 88 ] London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the populace during the priggish earned run average, and barter within the british Empire – a well as the stand of the british military and dark blue – was prestigious. [ 89 ] technologically, this era saw many innovations that proved key to the United Kingdom ‘s power and prosperity. [ 90 ] political agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal right to vote. [ 91 ] Samuel Hynes described the edwardian era as a “ easy time when women wore visualize hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sunlight very never set on the british flag. ” [ 92 ] Power shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I ; hundreds of thousands of English soldiers died fighting for the United Kingdom as region of the Allies. [ niobium 2 ] Two decades belated, in World War II, the United Kingdom was again one of the Allies. At the end of the Phoney War, Winston Churchill became the wartime Prime Minister. Developments in war technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the british Empire experienced rapid decolonization, and there was a speeding-up of technological innovations ; automobiles became the primary means of transportation and Frank Whittle ‘s development of the jet engine led to wider air travel. [ 94 ] Residential patterns were altered in England by secret drive, and by the universe of the National Health Service ( NHS ) in 1948. The UK ‘s NHS provided publicly funded health caution to all UK permanent wave residents barren at the point of need, being paid for from general tax. Combined, these prompted the reform of local politics in England in the mid-20th century. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] Since the twentieth century there has been significant population bowel movement to England, by and large from other parts of the british Isles, but besides from the Commonwealth, particularly the amerind subcontinent. [ 97 ] Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from manufacture and an increasing stress on the service industry. [ 98 ] As region of the United Kingdom, the area joined a coarse market inaugural called the european Economic Community which became the European Union. Since the late twentieth hundred the government of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved government in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. [ 99 ] England and Wales continues to exist as a jurisdiction within the United Kingdom. [ 100 ] Devolution has stimulated a greater vehemence on a more English-specific identity and patriotism. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] There is no devolve english government, but an undertake to create a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum. [ 103 ]

administration

Politics

England is part of the United Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. [ 104 ] There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. [ 77 ] Before the union England was ruled by its sovereign and the Parliament of England. Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although early countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. [ 105 ] In the House of Commons which is the lower family of the british Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament ( MPs ) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total. [ 106 ] As of the 2019 United Kingdom general election, England is represented by 345 MPs from the Conservative Party, 179 from the Labour Party, seven from the Liberal Democrats, one from the Green Party, and the Speaker of the House, Lindsay Hoyle. Since degeneration, in which other countries of the United Kingdom – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – each have their own devolved fantan or assemblies for local issues, there has been argue about how to counterbalance this in England. Originally it was planned that assorted regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal ‘s rejection by the North East in a 2004 referendum, this has not been carried out. [ 103 ] One major issue is the West Lothian question, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting merely England, while english MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolve matters. [ 107 ] This when placed in the context of England being the only area of the United Kingdom not to have exempt cancer discussion, prescriptions, residential caution for the aged and free top-up university fees, [ 108 ] has led to a firm rise in english patriotism. [ 109 ] Some have suggested the creation of a devolve English parliament, [ 110 ] while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which merely affects England to English MPs. [ 111 ]

police

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the footing of common law [ 112 ] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [ 113 ] and the United States ( except Louisiana ). Despite now being separate of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union, as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland. The general essence of English police is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their coarse common sense and cognition of legal precedent – stare decisis – to the facts before them. [ 114 ] The court system is headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court for criminal cases. [ 115 ] The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest motor hotel for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales. It was created in 2009 after constituent changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. [ 116 ] A decision of the Supreme Court is binding on every early woo in the hierarchy, which must follow its directions. [ 117 ] The Secretary of State for Justice is the minister responsible to Parliament for the judiciary, the court organization and prisons and probation in England. [ 118 ] Crime increased between 1981 and 1995 but fell by 42 % in the period 1995–2006. [ 119 ] The prison population doubled over the lapp menstruation, giving it one of highest captivity pace in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000. [ 120 ] Her Majesty ‘s Prison Service, reporting to the Ministry of Justice, manages most prisons, caparison over 85,000 convicts. [ 121 ]

Regions, counties, and districts

The subdivisions of England dwell of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a diverseness of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government. The highest tier of local politics were the nine regions of England : North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and London. These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the united kingdom government to deliver a wide-eyed compass of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elect bodies at this flush, except in London, and in 2011 the regional government offices were abolished. [ 122 ] After degeneration began to take place in early parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendum for the regions of England would take position for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight. London accepted in 1998 : the London Assembly was created two years former. however, when the proposal was rejected by the 2004 North East England devolution referendum in the North East, far referendums were cancelled. [ 103 ] The regional assemblies outside London were abolished in 2010, and their functions transferred to respective Regional Development Agencies and a raw arrangement of Local authority leaders ‘ boards. [ 123 ] Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremony counties. [ 124 ] These are used primarily as a geographic frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established a recently as 1974. [ 125 ] Each has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff ; these posts are used to represent the british monarch locally. [ 124 ] Outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly, England is besides divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties ; these correspond to areas used for the purposes of local government [ 126 ] and may consist of a single zone or be divided into respective. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanized areas, which do not have county councils. [ 126 ] In these areas the principal authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan borough. elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan “ shire ” counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council. They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a individual district and normally represent to large towns or sparsely populated counties ; they are known as unitary authorities. Greater London has a different system for local anesthetic government, with 32 London boroughs, plus the City of London covering a belittled sphere at the core governed by the City of London Corporation. [ 127 ] At the most localized degree, a lot of England is divided into civil parishes with councils ; in Greater London only one, Queen ‘s Park, exists as of 2014 after they were abolished in 1965 until legislation allowed their diversion in 2007 .

geography

landscape and rivers

geographically England includes the central and southerly two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly. It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom : to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England is closer than any early part of mainland Britain to the european continent. It is separated from France ( Hauts-de-France ) by a 21-mile ( 34 kilometer ) [ 128 ] ocean gap, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Folkestone. [ 129 ] England besides has shores on the Irish Sea, North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne respectively. At 220 miles ( 350 kilometer ), the Severn is the longest river flowing through England. [ 130 ] It empties into the Bristol Channel and is celebrated for its Severn Bore ( a tidal bear ), which can reach 2 metres ( 6.6 foot ) in stature. [ 131 ] however, the longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is 215 miles ( 346 kilometer ) in length. [ 132 ] There are many lakes in England ; the largest is Windermere, within the competently named Lake District. [ 133 ] Most of England ‘s landscape consists of depleted hills and plains, with highland and cragged terrain in the union and west of the area. The northerly uplands include the Pennines, a chain of highland dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills, straddling the molding between England and Scotland. The highest point in England, at 978 metres ( 3,209 foot ), is Scafell Pike in the Lake District. [ 133 ] The Shropshire Hills are dear Wales while Dartmoor and Exmoor are two upland areas in the southwest of the area. The approximate separate agate line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe pipeline. [ 134 ] In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the “ spinal column of England ”, are the oldest crop of mountains in the area, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. [ 135 ] Their geological musical composition includes, among others, sandstone and limestone, and besides char. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. The Pennine landscape is high moor in highland areas, indented by fecund valleys of the area ‘s rivers. They contain two national parks, the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country, Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include highland moor supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks. [ 136 ] The English Lowlands are in the central and southerly regions of the state, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover. This besides includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain and The Fens .

climate

England has a moderate maritime climate : it is meek with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C ( 32 °F ) in winter and not a lot higher than 32 °C ( 90 °F ) in summer. [ 137 ] The weather is dampen relatively frequently and is changeable. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English seashore, while July is normally the warmest month. Months with balmy to warm weather are May, June, September and October. [ 137 ] Rainfall is dispersed fairly evenly throughout the year. crucial influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warm of the ocean by the Gulf Stream. [ 137 ] Rainfall is higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District receive more rain than anywhere else in the area. [ 137 ] Since upwind records began, the highest temperature recorded was 38.7 °C ( 101.7 °F ) on 25 July 2019 at the Botanic Garden in Cambridge, [ 138 ] while the lowest was −26.1 °C ( −15.0 °F ) on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond, Shropshire. [ 139 ]

nature and wildlife

The fauna of England is like to that of other areas in the british Isles with a wide scope of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats. [ 141 ] National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as winder places for wildlife and natural features in England. They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations. NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by natural England themselves, but besides by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. There are 229 NNRs in England covering 939 squarely kilometres ( 363 square miles ). Often they contain rare species or nationally crucial species of plants and animals. [ 142 ] The Environment Agency is a non-departmental populace body, established in 1995 and sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs with responsibilities relating to the protection and enhancement of the environment in England. [ 143 ] The Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is the minister creditworthy for environmental protection, farming, fisheries and rural communities in England. [ 144 ] England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or inflame, but does have a few humble areas of subarctic and warm areas in the South West. Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England ‘s mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impingement on the climate and frankincense the local anesthetic fauna of the areas. deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a capital habitat for much of England ‘s wildlife, but these give way in northern and highland areas of England to coniferous forests ( chiefly plantations ) which besides benefit certain forms of wildlife. Some species have adapted to the expanded urban environment, particularly the red fox, which is the most successful urban mammal after the brown denounce, and early animals such as common wood pigeon, both of which thrive in urban and suburban areas. [ 145 ] Grey squirrels introduced from easterly America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to contest. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, chiefly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight. England ‘s climate is very suitable for lagomorph and the area has rabbits and embrown hares which were introduced in Roman times. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] Mountain hares which are autochthonal have immediately been re-introduced in Derbyshire. The fauna of England has to cope with vary temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose electric potential challenges and adaptational measures. English fauna has however had to cope with industrialization, homo population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farm, but as England is a develop nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the english mentality more and the state is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside. [ 148 ]

major conurbations

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [ 149 ] and one of the busiest cities in the global. It is considered a ball-shaped city and has a population larger than any early country in the United Kingdom besides England itself. [ 149 ] early urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the english Midlands. [ 149 ] There are 50 settlements which have designated city condition in England, while the broad United Kingdom has 66. While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham, population size is not a prerequisite for city status. [ 150 ] traditionally the status was given to towns with diocesan cathedrals, so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester .

economy

[151][152] The City of London is the fiscal capital of the United Kingdom and one of the largest fiscal centres in the world. England ‘s economy is one of the largest and most active in the earth, with an average GDP per head of £28,100. Her Majesty ‘s Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is creditworthy for developing and executing the government ‘s populace finance policy and economic policy. [ 153 ] normally regarded as a blend marketplace economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social benefit infrastructure. [ 154 ] The official currentness in England is the lumber sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. taxation in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of 2014 the basic pace of personal tax is 20 % on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-exempt allowance ( normally £10,000 ), and 40 % on any extra earnings above that sum. [ 155 ] The economy of England is the largest part of the UK ‘s economy, [ 156 ] which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per caput in the global. England is a leader in the chemical [ 157 ] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the United Kingdom ‘s main standard commute and the largest in Europe, is England ‘s fiscal center, with 100 of Europe ‘s 500 largest corporations being based there. [ 158 ] London is the largest fiscal center in Europe, and as of 2014 is the second largest in the world. [ 159 ] Manchester is the largest fiscal and master services sector outside London and is the mid grade individual fairness capital of Europe adenine well as one of the growing engineering hubs of Europe. [ 160 ] The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by scottish banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom ‘s central bank. originally established as private banker to the politics of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution. [ 161 ] The trust has a monopoly on the emergence of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom. The government has devolved responsibility to the depository financial institution ‘s monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the state and setting interest rates. [ 162 ] England is highly industrialized, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing vehemence on a more service industry oriented economy. [ 98 ] Tourism has become a significant diligence, attracting millions of visitors to England each class. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars ( although many english marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover, Lotus, Jaguar and Bentley ), unrefined vegetable oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea petroleum along with Wytch Farm, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages. [ 163 ] The creative industries accounted for 7 per penny GVA in 2005 and grew at an average of 6 per penny per annum between 1997 and 2005. [ 164 ] Most of the UK ‘s £30 billion [ 165 ] aerospace industry is primarily based in England. The global market opportunity for UK aerospace manufacturers over the following two decades is estimated at £3.5 trillion. [ 166 ] GKN Aerospace – an adept in metallic and composite aerostructures is involved in about every civil and military fix and rotary flank aircraft in production is based in Redditch. [ 167 ] BAE Systems makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Samlesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near Preston. It is besides a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter – the earth ‘s largest single refutation visualize – for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, upright and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. It besides manufactures the Hawk, the populace ‘s most successful coal-black prepare aircraft. [ 167 ] Rolls-Royce PLC is the universe ‘s second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its locomotive power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30,000 engines presently in service across both the civil and defense sectors. With a work force of over 12,000 people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce besides produces low-emission office systems for ships ; makes critical equipment and condom systems for the nuclear diligence and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the economy, and the UK has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical R & D expenditures. [ 169 ] [ 170 ] much of the UK ‘s space diligence is centred on EADS Astrium, based in Stevenage and Portsmouth. The caller builds the buses – the implicit in structure onto which the cargo and propulsion systems are built – for most of the european Space Agency ‘s spacecraft, equally well as commercial satellites. The worldly concern drawing card in compress satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology, is besides separate of Astrium. [ 167 ] Reaction Engines Limited, the company planning to build Skylon, a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane using their sabre rocket engine, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system is based Culham. The united kingdom distance industry was worth £9.1bn in 2011 and employed 29,000 people. It is growing at a rate of 7.5 per penny per annum, according to its umbrella organization, the UK Space Agency. In 2013, the british Government pledged £60 million to the Skylon stick out : this investing will provide support at a “ all-important stage ” to allow a all-out prototype of the SABRE engine to be built. department of agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and effective by european standards, producing 60 % of food needs with only 2 % of the parturiency effect. [ 171 ] Two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the early to arable crops. [ 172 ] The main crops that are grown are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets. England retains a significant, though a lot reduced fishing industry. Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring. It is besides rich people in natural resources including ember, petroleum, natural gas, can, limestone, iron ore, salt, cadaver, methamphetamine, gypsum, run, and silica. [ 173 ]

skill and engineering

big english figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Robert Hooke, James Prescott Joule, John Dalton, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, James Chadwick, Charles Babbage, George Boole, Alan Turing, Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Dirac, Stephen Hawking, Peter Higgs, Roger Penrose, John Horton Conway, Thomas Bayes, Arthur Cayley, G. H. Hardy, Oliver Heaviside, Andrew Wiles, Edward Jenner, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Joseph Priestley, Thomas Young, Christopher Wren and Richard Dawkins. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric organization was invented by John Wilkins, the inaugural secretary of the Royal Society, in 1668. [ 174 ] England was a lead center of the Scientific Revolution from the seventeenth hundred. [ 175 ] As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many meaning inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. celebrated english engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of celebrated steamships, and numerous authoritative bridges, hence revolutionising populace transport and contemporary engineering. [ 176 ] Thomas Newcomen ‘s steam locomotive helped spawn the Industrial Revolution. [ 177 ] The Father of Railways, George Stephenson, built the first public inter-city railway credit line in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830. With his function in the marketing and manufacture of the steam engine, and invention of mod coinage, Matthew Boulton ( business partner of James Watt ) is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history. [ 178 ] The doctor Edward Jenner ‘s smallpox vaccine is said to have “ saved more lives … than were lost in all the wars of world since the beginning of commemorate history. ” [ 179 ] [ 181 ] Inventions and discoveries of the English admit : the jet engine, the first industrial spin car, the first calculator and the first gear modern calculator, the World Wide Web along with HTML, the first successful human blood transfusion, the mechanize vacuum cleaner, [ 183 ] the lawn lawn mower, the buttocks belt out, the hovercraft, the electric centrifugal, steamer engines, and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory. Newton developed the ideas of universal joint gravitation, newtonian mechanics, and calculus, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity. other inventions include the cast-iron plate railway, the thermosiphon, tarmacadam, the rubberize band, the mousetrap, “ kat ‘s eye ” road marker, joint development of the faint bulb, steam locomotives, the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in preciseness engineering. [ 184 ] The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, [ 185 ] is a conditioned company and the United Kingdom ‘s national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal lease by King Charles II as “ The Royal Society ”. [ 185 ] It is the oldest national scientific institution in the populace. [ 186 ] The club fulfils a numeral of roles : promoting skill and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting great science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and ball-shaped co-operation, education and public engagement. [ 187 ] The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a diverseness of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the “ fresh skill “, as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards. [ 188 ] A group known as “ The Philosophical Society of Oxford ” was run under a set of rules silent retained by the Bodleian Library. [ 189 ] After the english Restoration, there were even meetings at Gresham College. [ 190 ] It is widely held that these groups were the divine guidance for the foundation of the Royal Society. [ 189 ] Scientific research and development remains authoritative in the universities of England, with many establishing science parks to facilitate product and co-operation with industry. [ 191 ] Between 2004 and 2008 the United Kingdom produced 7 per penny of the global ‘s scientific research papers and had an 8 per cent parcel of scientific citations, the third gear and second-highest in the world ( after the United States and China, respectively ). [ 192 ] Scientific journals produced in the United Kingdom include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet. [ 193 ]

enchant

The Department for Transport is the politics body responsible for overseeing transport in England. The department is run by the Secretary of State for Transport. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure. There are many motorways in England, and many early trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road, which runs through easterly England from London to Newcastle [ 194 ] ( a lot of this section is expressway ) and onward to the scottish edge. The longest expressway in England is the M6, from Rugby through the North West up to the Anglo-Scottish edge, a distance of 232 miles ( 373 kilometer ). [ 194 ] other major routes include : the M1 from London to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London, the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool via Manchester to East Yorkshire, and the M5 from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West. [ 194 ] Bus transportation across the country is widespread ; major companies include Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group, National Express, Rotala and Stagecoach Group. The crimson bus buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally. There is a rapid passage network in two english cities : the London Underground ; and the Tyne and Wear Metro in Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland. [ 195 ] There are respective tramway networks, such as the Blackpool tramway, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram and West Midlands Metro, and the Tramlink system centred on Croydon in South London. [ 195 ] Great british Railways is a plan state-owned public body that will oversee rail ecstasy in Great Britain from 2023. The Office of Rail and Road is responsible for the economic and safety rule of England ‘s railways. [ 196 ] Rail tape drive in England is the oldest in the world : passenger railways originated in England in 1825. [ 197 ] Much of Britain ‘s 10,000 miles ( 16,000 kilometer ) of rail network lies in England, covering the state fairly extensively, although a high gear proportion of railway lines were closed in the second base half of the twentieth century. There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge. These lines are largely standard gauge ( single, double or quadruple cut ) though there are besides a few pin down gauge lines. There is rail tape drive entree to France and Belgium through an submarine rail connect, the Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994. Crossrail, under construction in London, is Europe ‘s largest construction project with a £15 billion projected monetary value. [ 198 ] High Speed 2, a fresh high-speed north–south railway line, projected in 2015 to cost £56 billion is to start being built in 2020. [ 199 ] England has extensive domestic and international aviation links. The largest airport is Heathrow, which is the universe ‘s busiest airport measured by total of international passengers. [ 200 ] other large airports include Gatwick, Manchester, Stansted, Luton and Birmingham. [ 201 ] By sea there is ferry enchant, both local anesthetic and external, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium. [ 202 ] There are around 4,400 miles ( 7,100 kilometer ) of navigable waterways in England, half of which is owned by the Canal & River Trust, [ 202 ] however, urine ecstasy is very limited. The River Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom ‘s three major ports. [ 202 ]

Energy

Energy practice in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh ( 193.4 million tonnes of petroleum equivalent ) in 2014. [ 205 ] This equates to energy consumption per capita of 34.82 MWh ( 3.00 tonnes of anoint equivalent ) compared to a 2010 worldly concern average of 21.54 MWh ( 1.85 tonnes of vegetable oil equivalent ). [ 206 ] necessitate for electricity in 2014 was 34.42 GW on median [ 207 ] ( 301.7TWh over the year ) coming from a entire electricity coevals of 335.0 TWh. [ 208 ] consecutive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest growing supply. [ 204 ] [ 209 ] Wind world power contributed 15 % of UK electricity genesis in 2017. [ 210 ] [ 211 ] The Climate Change Act 2008 was passed in Parliament with an consuming majority across political parties. It sets out discharge reduction targets that the UK must comply with legally. It represents the first ball-shaped legally binding climate change moderation target set by a nation. [ 212 ] UK government energy policy aims to play a samara character in limiting greenhouse gas emissions, whilst converge energy demand. Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies besides change the country ‘s energy mix through changes in costs. [ 213 ] The current energy policy is the province of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. [ 214 ] The Minister of State for Business, Energy and Clean Growth is responsible for k finance, climate science and invention, and low carbon generation. [ 215 ] United Kingdom is ranked 4 out of 180 countries in the Environmental Performance Index. [ 216 ] A law has been passed that UK greenhouse flatulence emissions will be net zero by 2050. [ 217 ]

tourism

english Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is presently sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. [ 218 ] The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is a charity which besides maintains multiple sites. Of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 17 are in England. [ 219 ] Some of the best know of these include Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Palace of Westminster, Roman Baths, City of Bath, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and more recently the english Lake District. The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian ‘s Wall, is the largest Roman artifact anywhere : it runs for a total of 73 miles ( 117 kilometres ) in northern England. [ 220 ] The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has overall duty for tourism, arts and culture, cultural property, inheritance and historic environments, libraries, and museums and galleries. [ 221 ] The Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Arts, Heritage and Tourism is the minister with responsibility over tourism in England. [ 222 ] A blue plaque, the oldest historical marker scheme in the world, is a permanent wave sign installed in a public place in England to commemorate a associate between that localization and a celebrated person or event. The scheme was the inspiration of politician William Ewart in 1863 and was initiated in 1866. It was formally established by the Royal Society of Arts in 1867, and since 1986 has been run by English Heritage. In 2011 there were around 1,600 museums in England. [ 223 ] Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is complimentary unlike in other countries. [ 224 ] London is one of the world ‘s most visit cities, regularly taking the top five most visit cities in Europe. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] It is largely considered a global concentrate of finance, arts and culture. [ 227 ]

healthcare

The National Health Service ( NHS ), is the publicly funded healthcare organization creditworthy for providing the majority of healthcare in the area. The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946. It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report, prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. [ 228 ] The NHS is largely funded from general taxation including National Insurance payments, [ 229 ] and it provides most of its services free at the sharpen of use, although there are charges for some people for eye tests, dental concern, prescriptions and aspects of personal worry. [ 230 ] The politics department creditworthy for the NHS is the Department of Health, headed by the Secretary of State for Health, who sits in the british Cabinet. Most of the expending of the Department of Health is spent on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009. [ 231 ] In late years the private sector has been increasingly used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by doctors and craft unions. [ 232 ] When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant market power that, based on its own assessment of the fairly value of the drugs, influences the ball-shaped price, typically keeping prices lower. [ 233 ] Several other countries either copy the UK ‘s model or immediately trust on Britain ‘s assessments for their own decisions on state-financed drug reimbursements. [ 234 ] Regulatory bodies such as the General Medical Council and the nurse and Midwifery Council are organised on a UK-wide basis, as are non-governmental bodies such as the Royal Colleges. The average life anticipation of people in England is 77.5 years for males and 81.7 years for females, the highest of the four countries of the United Kingdom. [ 235 ] The South of England has a higher life anticipation than the North ; however, regional differences do seem to be lento constrict : between 1991–1993 and 2012–2014, life sentence anticipation in the North East increased by 6.0 years and in the North West by 5.8 years, the fastest increase in any area outside London, and the break between life anticipation in the North East and South East is now 2.5 years, down from 2.9 in 1993. [ 235 ]

demography

population

population of England and Wales by administrative areas. Their size shows their population, with some approximation. Each group of squares in the map key is 20 % of sum number of districts. With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous area of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84 % of the compound entire. [ 12 ] : 12 [ 236 ] England taken as a unit and measured against international states would be the 25th largest nation by population in the global. [ 237 ] The english people are british people. [ 238 ] Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95 % derive in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who primitively came from the iberian Peninsula, a well as a 5 % contribution from Angles and Saxons, and a significant scandinavian ( Viking ) element. [ 240 ] [ 241 ] however, other geneticists place the Germanic estimate up to half. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] Over clock time, versatile cultures have been influential : Prehistoric, Brythonic, [ 244 ] Roman, Anglo-Saxon, [ 245 ] Viking ( North Germanic ), [ 246 ] Gaelic cultures, a good as a bombastic charm from Normans. There is an english diaspora in former parts of the british Empire ; particularly the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. [ nb 3 ] Since the belated 1990s, many english people have migrated to Spain. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] In 1086, when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. About 10 % lived in urban areas. [ 253 ] By 1801, the population was 8.3 million, and by 1901 30.5 million. [ 254 ] Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the early parts of the United Kingdom. [ 238 ] There has been significant irish migration. [ 255 ] The proportion of ethnically european residents totals at 87.50 %, including Germans [ 256 ] and Poles. [ 238 ] other people from much foster afield in the former british colonies have arrived since the 1950s : in detail, 6 % of people living in England have kin origins in the amerind subcontinent, by and large India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. [ 238 ] [ 256 ] About 0.7 % of people are taiwanese. [ 238 ] [ 256 ] 2.90 % of the population are black, from Africa and the Caribbean, specially former british colonies. [ 238 ] [ 256 ] In 2007, 22 % of chief school children in England were from heathen minority families, [ 257 ] and in 2011 that design was 26.5 %. [ 258 ] About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. [ 259 ] argue over immigration is politically outstanding ; [ 260 ] 80 % of respondents in a 2009 Home Office poll wanted to cap it. [ 261 ] The ONS has projected that the population will grow by nine million between 2014 and 2039. [ 262 ] England contains one autochthonal national minority, the cornish people, recognised by the united kingdom government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014. [ 263 ]

linguistic process

Language Native speakers
( thousands ) [ 264 ]
English 46,937
Polish 529
Punjabi 272
Urdu 266
Bengali 216
Gujarati 212
Arabic 152
French 145
Portuguese 131
Welsh 8
Cornish 0.6
Other 2,267
Population 51,006

As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the terminology of England, where it remains the principal tongue spoken by 98 % of the population. [ 265 ] It is an indo-european terminology in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. [ 266 ] After the Norman conquest, the Old English language, brought to Britain by the Anglo-Saxon settlers, was confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the nobility. By the fifteenth century, English was back in manner among all classes, though a lot changed ; the Middle English mannequin showed many signs of french influence, both in vocabulary and spell. During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. [ 267 ] Modern English has extended this custom-made of flexibility when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in big part to the british Empire, the english terminology is the populace ‘s unofficial lingua franca. [ 268 ] english linguistic process determine and teaching is an authoritative economic activity, and includes speech schooling, tourism spend, and publication. There is no legislation mandating an official terminology for England, [ 269 ] but English is the lone speech used for official business. Despite the state ‘s relatively small size, there are many clear-cut regional accents, and individuals with particularly firm accents may not be well silent everywhere in the nation. angstrom well as English, England has two early autochthonal languages, Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a residential district linguistic process in the eighteenth century but is being revived, [ 270 ] [ 271 ] and is now protected under the european Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. [ 272 ] It is spoken by 0.1 % of people in Cornwall, [ 273 ] and is taught to some degree in several basal and secondary schools. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the english side of the border. Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth hundred, [ 276 ] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not late. [ 277 ] state schools teach students a second terminology or third base language from the ages of seven, most normally french, spanish or german. [ 278 ] It was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a alien language at home as a solution of immigration among their family, [ 257 ] the most coarse languages being Punjabi and Urdu. however, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures immediately show that Polish is the main lyric spoken in England after English. [ 279 ]

religion

In the 2011 census, 59.4 % of the population of England specified their religion as Christian, 24.7 % answered that they had no religion, 5 % specified that they were Muslim, while 3.7 % of the population belongs to early religions and 7.2 % did not give an answer. [ 280 ] Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier in Gaelic and Roman times. This celtic church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy following the 6th-century gregorian mission to Kent led by St Augustine. The established church of England is the church of England, [ 281 ] which left communion with Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was unable to annul his marriage to the aunt of the king of Spain. The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. [ 282 ] There are eminent Church and Low Church traditions and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, following the tractarian motion. The monarch of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, which has around 26 million baptized members ( of whom the huge majority are not regular churchgoers ). It forms separate of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic global pass. [ 283 ] many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral, and Salisbury Cathedral .
The 2nd-largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales footing where there are 4.5 million members ( most of whom are English ). [ 284 ] There has been one pope from England to date, hadrian IV ; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church. A phase of Protestantism known as methodism is the third gear largest christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. [ 285 ] It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst can miners in Cornwall. [ 286 ] There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army. [ 287 ] The patron ideal of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the pin of England, a well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination. [ 288 ] There are many other English and consociate saints ; some of the best-known are : Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket. There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. [ 289 ] They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656. [ 289 ] specially since the 1950s, religions from the former british colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration. Islam is the most common of these, nowadays accounting for around 5 % of the population in England. [ 290 ] Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are following in number, adding up to 2.8 % combined, [ 290 ] introduced from India and South East Asia. [ 290 ] A little minority of the population practice ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is chiefly represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions, Druidry, and Heathenry. According to the 2011 UK Census, there are roughly 53,172 people who identify as Pagan in England, [ niobium 4 ] and 3,448 in Wales, [ niobium 4 ] including 11,026 Wiccans in England and 740 in Wales. [ niobium 5 ] 24.7 % of people in England declared no religion in 2011, compared with 14.6 % in 2001. These figures are slightly lower than the compound figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligiousness than England. [ 291 ] Norwich had the highest such proportion at 42.5 %, followed close by Brighton and Hove at 42.4 % .

education

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the historic period of 19, including education. [ 292 ] State-run and state-funded schools are attended by approximately 93 % of English schoolchildren. [ 293 ] education is the province of the Secretary of State for Education. [ 294 ] Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 serve greenhouse or an early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school. Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and junior-grade school is attended by those aged between 11 and 16. State-funded schools are obliged by police to teach the National Curriculum ; basic areas of learning include english literature, english lyric, mathematics, science, art & blueprint, citizenship, history, geography, religious education, invention & technology, computing, ancient & advanced languages, music, and physical education. [ 295 ] More than 90 % of English schools require students to wear uniforms. [ 296 ] School uniforms are defined by person schools, within the restraint that undifferentiated regulations must not discriminate on the grounds of sex, race, disability, sexual orientation, gender reassignment, religion or belief. Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress. [ 297 ] The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD presently ranks the overall cognition and skills of british 15-year-olds as 13th in the world in reading literacy, mathematics, and science with the modal british student scoring 503.7, compared with the OECD average of 493, ahead of the United States and most of Europe. [ 298 ] Although most english secondary schools are comprehensive examination, there are selective consumption grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus examination. Around 7.2 per penny of English schoolchildren attend secret schools, which are funded by secret sources. [ 299 ] Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. [ 300 ] After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into promote education for two years. far education colleges ( peculiarly sixth form colleges ) frequently form depart of a secondary coil educate site. A-level examinations are sat by a large issue of far education students, and much form the basis of an application to university. further education ( FE ) covers a wide course of study of study and apprenticeships, including T-levels, BTEC, NVQ and others. tertiary colleges provide both academic and vocational courses. [ 301 ] Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. There are over 90 universities in England, all but one of which are public institutions. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department creditworthy for higher education in England. [ 302 ] Students are by and large entitled to student loans to cover the price of tutelage fees and life costs. [ nota bene 6 ] The first academic degree offered to undergraduates is the knight bachelor ‘s academic degree, which normally takes three years to complete. Students are then able to work towards a graduate student degree, which normally takes one year, or towards a doctor’s degree, which takes three or more years. [ 303 ] England ‘s universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the populace ; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London, University College London and King ‘s College London are all ranked in the global top 30 in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. [ 304 ] The London School of Economics has been described as the world ‘s precede social skill institution for both teach and research. [ 305 ] The London Business School is considered one of the world ‘s lead clientele schools and in 2010 its MBA program was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times. [ 306 ] Academic degrees in England are normally split into classes : first class ( 1st ), upper second base class ( 2:1 ), lower second class ( 2:2 ), third gear ( 3rd ), and unclassified. [ 303 ] The King ‘s School, Canterbury and King ‘s School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the english-speaking world. [ 307 ] Many of England ‘s most well-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton, St Paul ‘s School, Harrow School and Rugby School are fee-paying institutions. [ 308 ]

acculturation

computer architecture

many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period ; amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil ‘s Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg. [ 309 ] With the initiation of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilica, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts. [ 310 ] It was the Romans who founded the beginning cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. possibly the best-known exercise is Hadrian ‘s Wall stretch good across northern England. [ 310 ] Another well-preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset. [ 310 ] early Medieval architecture ‘s profane buildings were childlike constructions chiefly using timber with thatch for roofing. ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno – Saxon monasticism, [ 311 ] [ 312 ] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 respective Castles in England were created sol law lords could uphold their agency and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best-known chivalric castles are the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle. [ 313 ] Throughout the Plantagenet era, an english Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster. [ 313 ] Expanding on the Norman basis there was besides castles, palaces, bang-up houses, universities and parish churches. medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor stylus ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a define feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the consequence of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the english Baroque vogue of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed. [ 314 ] georgian architecture followed in a more neat style, evoking a bare palladian form ; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during victorian time period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the lapp time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the 1930s assorted modernist forms have appeared whose reception is frequently controversial, though hidebound resistance movements continue with support in influential places. [ niobium 7 ]

Gardens

[316] The landscape garden at Stourhead. Inspired by the big landscape artists of the seventeenth century, the landscape garden was described as a ‘living employment of art ‘ when first opened in 1750s. Landscape garden, as developed by Capability Brown, set an international course for the English garden. Gardening, and visiting gardens, are regarded as typically english pursuits. The English garden presented an idealize see of nature. At big nation houses, the English garden normally included lakes, sweeps of lightly rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic bucolic landscape. [ 317 ] By the end of the eighteenth hundred, the English garden was being imitated by the french landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It besides had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the nineteenth century. [ 318 ] The English landscape garden was centred on the english nation house and manor houses. [ 317 ] english Heritage and the National Trust continue great gardens and landscape parks throughout the nation. [ 319 ] The RHS Chelsea Flower Show is held every year by the Royal Horticultural Society and is said to be the largest gardening show in the worldly concern. [ 320 ]

folklore

english folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are deliver across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, [ 321 ] others date from after the Norman invasion. The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood, and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham, are among the best-known of these. [ 322 ] During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the arthurian myth. [ 323 ] [ 324 ] [ 325 ] These were derived from Anglo-Norman, Welsh and french sources, [ 324 ] featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth ‘s Historia Regum Britanniae ( History of the Kings of Britain ). [ niobium 8 ] Another early figure from british custom, King Cole, may have been based on a veridical calculate from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up separate of the across-the-board Matter of Britain, a collection of shared british folklore. Some folk figures are based on trailer truck or actual historical people whose narrative has been passed down centuries ; Lady Godiva for exemplify was said to have ridden naked on hogback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic english figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an horseman ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal enchantress. [ 327 ] On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and feed brittle apples in memorial of the frustration of the Gunpowder Plot centred on Guy Fawkes. The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are versatile home and regional family activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dance, Maypole dance, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper ‘s Hill. [ 328 ] There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters. [ 329 ]

cuisine

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its chasteness of overture and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. [ 330 ] During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, english cuisine enjoyed an excellent repute, though a decay began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanization of the populace. The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ‘s best restaurant in the world charts. [ 331 ] An early script of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II. [ 332 ] traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted joint ( normally gripe, lamb, chicken or pork ) served with classify vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and boom. [ 333 ] other big meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast ( broadly consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, bake beans, mushrooms and eggs ). [ 334 ] Various kernel pies are consumed, such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, bungalow pie, pork barrel pie ( normally eaten cold ) [ 333 ] and the Cornish pasty. Sausages are normally eat, either as bangers and mash or frog in the hole. Lancashire hot pot is a well-known fret originating in the northwest. Some of the more popular cheeses are Cheddar, Red Leicester, Wensleydale, Double Gloucester and Blue Stilton. many anglo-indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. traditional english dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies ; spotted dick – all broadly served with custard ; and, more recently, gluey brittle pudding. fresh pastries include scones ( either plain or containing dried fruit ) served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies vitamin a well as a wide scope of sweet or spiced biscuits. common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza, [ 335 ] and coffee ; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and english beers, such as bitterness, balmy, hardy and brown ale. [ 336 ]

ocular arts

The earliest know examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most outstanding in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but besides feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags. [ 337 ] With the arrival of Roman culture in the first century, versatile forms of artwork such as statues, busts, glassware and mosaics were the average. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. [ 338 ] During the early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpt crosses and ivories, manuscript paint, gold and enamel jewelry, demonstrating a love of intricate, interlacing designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and vespasian Psalter. [ 339 ] Later Gothic art was democratic at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter. [ 340 ] The Tudor era saw outstanding artists as part of their woo, portrayal paint which would remain an wear part of English artwork, was boosted by german Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. [ 340 ] Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential particularly the Flemish, examples from the period include Anthony vanguard Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson. [ 340 ] The eighteenth hundred was a clock of meaning with the establish of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the high Renaissance prevailed, with Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds becoming two of England ‘s most care for artists. [ 340 ] In the nineteenth hundred, Constable and Turner were major landscape artists. The Norwich School continued the landscape custom, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, led by artists such as Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais, revived the early Renaissance style with their bright and detailed stylus. [ 340 ] Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of british sculpt, and of british modernity in general. [ 341 ] More holocene painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a universe commemorate for sale value of a paint by a then-living artist. [ 342 ] The Royal Society of Arts is an organization committed to the arts and culture. [ 343 ]

literature, poetry, and doctrine

early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. [ 344 ] The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, [ 345 ] along with christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon ‘s Hymn and hagiographies. [ 344 ] Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the train classes, a well as an anglo-french literature. Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, writer of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a big Christian mystic. With the english Renaissance literature in the early Modern English style appeared. William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night’s Dream, remains one of the most champion authors in english literature. [ 346 ] Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other prove authors of the Elizabethan senesce. [ 347 ] Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on quackery and materialism, including scientific method acting and social narrow. [ 347 ] Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth, [ 348 ] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration .

This royal throne of kings, this empowered isle, this earth of stateliness, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise ; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this ground, this kingdom, this England .

William Shakespeare. [ 349 ] Some of the most big philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. More group elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. [ 350 ] The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The english played a significant character in romanticism : Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures. [ 351 ] In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between autonomy and tradition ; William Cobbett, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the fall through of club socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole are slightly relate. [ 352 ] Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells and Lewis Carroll. [ 353 ] Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, C. S. Lewis, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling. [ 354 ]

Performing arts

The traditional folk music of England is centuries honest-to-god and has contributed to respective genres prominently ; largely sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own discrete variations and regional peculiarities. Ballads featuring Robin Hood, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in the sixteenth century, are an authoritative artifact, as are John Playford ‘s The Dancing Master and Robert Harley ‘s Roxburghe Ballads collections. [ 355 ] Some of the best-known songs are Greensleeves, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary, Roses Are Red, Jack and Jill, London Bridge Is Falling Down, The Grand Old Duke of York, Hey Diddle Diddle and Humpty Dumpty. [ 356 ] Traditional English Christmas carols include “ We Wish You a Merry Christmas “, “ The First Noel “, “ I Saw Three Ships ” and “ God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen “. [ 357 ] early english composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period and Thomas Arne who was well known for his patriotic sung Rule, Britannia !. German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a home icon in Britain, creating some of the most long-familiar works of classical music, specially his english oratorios, The Messiah, Solomon, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. [ 358 ] One of his four Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent british coronation, traditionally during the sovereign ‘s anoint. classical music attracted much attention from 1784 with the formation of the Birmingham Triennial Music Festival, which was the longest running classical music festival of its kind until the final concerts in 1912. The english Musical Renaissance was a conjectural development in the late 19th and early twentieth hundred, when english composers, much those lecturing or trained at the Royal College of Music, were said to have freed themselves from alien musical influences. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the twentieth century led by Edward Elgar, Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others. [ 359 ] contemporary composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano, and Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have achieved enormous success in the West end and cosmopolitan. [ 360 ] In popular music, many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart, David Bowie, The Rolling Stones and Def Leppard are among the highest-selling record artists in the worldly concern. [ 362 ] many musical genres have origins in ( or hard associations with ) England, such as british invasion, progressive rock, hard rock, Mod, glam rock, heavy metallic, Britpop, indie rock, medieval rock, shoegazing, acid sign of the zodiac, garage, trip hop, drum and sea bass and dubstep. [ 363 ] boastfully outdoor music festivals in the summer and fall are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. England was at the forefront of the illegal, free rave motion from the late 1980s, which led to pan-European culture of teknivals mirrored on the UK detached festival movement and associated travelling life style. [ 364 ] The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the british Bangladeshi community. It is the largest alfresco asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country. [ 365 ] The most big opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. [ 366 ] The Proms – a season of orchestral authoritative concerts held chiefly at the Royal Albert Hall in London – is a major cultural consequence in the English calendar, and takes place annually. [ 366 ] The Royal Ballet is one of the world ‘s first classical ballet companies, its repute built on two big figures of 20th-century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. The Royal Academy of Music is the oldest conservatory in England, founded in 1822. It received its royal charter in 1830 from King George IV. [ 367 ] England is home to numerous major orchestras such as the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, and the London Symphony Orchestra. [ 368 ] The circus is a traditional form of entertainment in England. Chipperfield ‘s Circus dates back more than 300 years, making it one of the oldest class circus dynasties. [ 369 ] Philip Astley is regarded as the father of the modern circus. [ 370 ] Following his invention of the circus call in 1768, Astley ‘s Amphitheatre opened in London in 1773. [ 370 ] [ 371 ] As an equestrian master Astley had a skill for trick horse-riding, and when he added tumblers, tightrope -walkers, jugglers, performing dogs, and a clown to fill clock time between his own demonstrations – the modern circus was born. [ 372 ] [ 373 ] Pantomime is a british musical drollery stage production, designed for class entertainment. It is performed in theatres throughout the England during the Christmas and New Year season. The art originated in the eighteenth hundred with John Weaver, a dance chief and choreographer. [ 374 ] In 19th hundred England it acquired its present form, which includes songs, slapstick drollery and dance, employing gender-crossing actors, combining topical wit with a story loosely based on a well-known fagot narrative. [ 374 ]

film

England ( and the UK as a solid ) has had a considerable determine on the history of the cinema, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and motion pictures of all time, including Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, John Gielgud, Peter Sellers, Julie Andrews, Michael Caine, Gary Oldman, Helen Mirren, Kate Winslet and Daniel Day-Lewis. Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically applaud filmmakers. [ 376 ] Hitchcock ‘s first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog ( 1926 ), helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail, is much regarded as the first british sound feature film. [ 377 ] major film studios in England include Pinewood, Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all meter have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises ( Harry Potter and James Bond ). [ 378 ] Ealing Studios in London has a claim to being the oldest endlessly working movie studio in the global. [ 379 ] Famous for recording many motion picture movie scores, the London Symphony Orchestra beginning performed movie music in 1935. [ 380 ] The Hammer Horror films starring Christopher Lee saw the output of the foremost gory horror films showing lineage and guts in color. [ 381 ] The BFI Top 100 british films includes Monty Python’s Life of Brian ( 1979 ), a film regularly voted the funniest of all time by the UK public. [ 382 ] english producers are besides active agent in international co-productions and english actors, directors and gang feature regularly in american films. The UK film council ranked David Yates, Christopher Nolan, Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass the five most commercially successful english directors since 2001. [ 383 ] early contemporaneous english directors include Sam Mendes, Guy Ritchie and Richard Curtis. current actors include Tom Hardy, Daniel Craig, Benedict Cumberbatch, Lena Headey, Felicity Jones, Emilia Clarke, Lashana Lynch, and Emma Watson. Acclaimed for his motion get work, Andy Serkis opened The Imaginarium Studios in London in 2011. [ 384 ] The ocular effects company Framestore in London has produced some of the most critically acclaimed particular effects in modern film. [ 385 ] Many successful Hollywood films have been based on english people, stories or events. The ‘English Cycle ‘ of Disney animated films include Alice in Wonderland, The Jungle Book and Winnie the Pooh. [ 386 ]

Museums, libraries, and galleries

english Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remission of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is presently sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrast function. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites decrease within England. [ 387 ] Some of the best-known of these are : Hadrian ‘s Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and diverse others. [ 388 ] There are many museums in England, but possibly the most celebrated is London ‘s british Museum. Its solicitation of more than seven million objects [ 389 ] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [ 390 ] sourced from every celibate, illustrating and documenting the floor of homo culture from its beginning to the present. The british Library in London is the national library and is one of the worldly concern ‘s largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in about all known languages and formats ; including around 25 million books. [ 391 ] [ 392 ] The most aged art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. [ 393 ] The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and external modern art ; they besides host the famously controversial Turner Prize. [ 394 ]

Media

The BBC, founded in 1922, is the UK ‘s publicly fund radio receiver, television receiver and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the worldly concern. [ 395 ] [ 396 ] It operates numerous television receiver and radio stations in the UK and afield and its domestic services are funded by the television license. [ 397 ] [ 398 ] The BBC World Service is an international broadcaster owned and operated by the BBC. It is the world ‘s largest of any kind. [ 399 ] It broadcasts radio news, lecture and discussions in more than 40 languages. [ 400 ] [ 401 ] London dominates the media sector in England : national newspapers and television receiver and radio are largely based there, although Manchester is besides a significant home media center. The UK publication sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people. [ 402 ] National newspapers produced in England include The Times, The Guardian and the Financial Times. [ 403 ] Magazines and journals published in England that have achieved worldwide circulation include Nature, New Scientist, The Spectator, Prospect, NME and The Economist. The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has overall responsibility over media and broadcast in England. [ 404 ]

sport

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the nineteenth century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include affiliation football, cricket, rugby coupling, rugby league, tennis, box, badminton, squash, [ 406 ] rounders, [ 407 ] ice hockey, snooker, billiards, darts, board tennis, roll, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound rush and fox hound. It has helped the development of golf, sailing and Formula One. football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team, whose base venue is Wembley Stadium, played Scotland in the first always international football meet in 1872. [ 408 ] Referred to as the “ family of football ” by FIFA, England hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup, and won the tournament by defeating West Germany 4–2 in the final, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hat-trick. [ 409 ] With a british television receiver audience flower of 32.30 million viewers, the final is the most watch television event ever in the UK. [ 410 ] At cabaret level, England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield F.C. founded in 1857 being the universe ‘s oldest club. The Football Association is the oldest government body in the fun, with the rules of football first drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley. [ 411 ] The FA Cup and The Football League were the first gear cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day, the Premier League is the world ‘s most-watched football league, [ 412 ] most lucrative, [ 413 ] and amongst the elite. [ 414 ] As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is celebrated for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants. [ 415 ] The most successful english football team in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League is Liverpool F.C. who have won the rival on six occasions. [ 416 ] early English success has come from Manchester United F.C., winning the rival on 3 occasions ; Nottingham Forest F.C. and Chelsea F.C. on 2 occasions, Aston Villa F.C. have only won the trophy once. [ 417 ] cricket is by and large thought to have been developed in the early medieval time period among the farm and metalworking communities of the Weald. [ 419 ] The England cricket team is a complex England and Wales, team. One of the game ‘s top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television. [ 420 ] England has hosted five Cricket World Cups ( 1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 and 2019 ), winning the 2019 edition in a final examination see as one of the greatest one day internationals always played. [ 421 ] They hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009, winning this format in 2010 beat rivals Australia in the final. In the domestic competition, the County Championship, Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the rival 32 times instantaneously and sharing it on 1 other occasion. [ 422 ] Lord ‘s Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the “ Mecca of Cricket ”. [ 423 ] William Penny Brookes was outstanding in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. In 1994, then President of the IOC, Juan Antonio Samaranch, laid a wreath on Brooke ‘s grave, and said, “ I came to pay court and tribute to Dr Brookes, who very was the laminitis of the mod Olympic Games ”. [ 424 ] London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic steering for sporting natural process in England. The Minister for Sport and Civil Society has duty for fun in England. [ 425 ] Rugby union originated in Rugby School, Warwickshire in the early nineteenth hundred. [ 426 ] The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, with Jonny Wilkinson scoring the winning spend goal in the last moment of extra time against Australia. England was one of the host nations of the rival in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and besides hosted the 2015 Rugby World Cup. [ 427 ] The top level of club participation is the english Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup. Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. Since 2008, the England national rugby league team has been a entire trial nation in stead of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the contemporary embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northerly English counties of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cumbria. [ 428 ] The huge majority of English clubs in Super League are based in the north of England. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, Hull F.C. St. Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants ; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously. golf has been big in England ; due in part to its cultural and geographic ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. [ 429 ] There are both master tour for men and women, in two independent tours : the PGA and the european Tour. England has produced grand slam winners : Cyril Walker, Tony Jacklin, Nick Faldo, and Justin Rose in the men ‘s and Laura Davies, Alison Nicholas, and Karen Stupples in the women ‘s. The populace ‘s oldest golf tournament, and golf ‘s first major is The open Championship, played both in England and Scotland. The biennial golf contest, the Ryder Cup, is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy. [ 430 ] Nick Faldo is the most successful Ryder Cup player ever, having won the most points ( 25 ) of any player on either the European or US teams. [ 431 ] tennis was created in Birmingham in the late nineteenth hundred, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious. [ 433 ] [ 434 ] Wimbledon is a tournament that has a major topographic point in the british cultural calendar. Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the foremost player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [ 435 ] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins. english women who have won Wimbledon include : Ann Haydon Jones in 1969 and Virginia Wade in 1977. In box, under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules, England has produced many world champions across the burden divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies. World champions include Bob Fitzsimmons, Ted “ Kid ” Lewis, Randolph Turpin, Nigel Benn, Chris Eubank, Frank Bruno, Lennox Lewis, Ricky Hatton, Naseem Hamed, Amir Khan, Carl Froch, and David Haye. [ 436 ] In women ‘s packing, Nicola Adams became the world ‘s first woman to win an Olympic box gold decoration at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a cavalry engender best known for its use in knight race. The National Hunt sawhorse subspecies the Grand National, is held per annum at Aintree Racecourse in early April. It is the most watch cavalry race in the UK, attracting free-and-easy observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event ‘s history. [ 437 ] Red Rum is besides the best-known racehorse in the state. [ 438 ] The 1950 british Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created Formula One World Championship. [ 439 ] Since then, England has produced some of the greatest drivers in the sport, including ; John Surtees, Stirling Moss, Graham Hill ( alone driver to have won the Triple Crown ), Nigel Mansell ( entirely man to hold F1 and IndyCar titles at the lapp time ), Damon Hill, Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button. [ 440 ] It has manufactured some of the most technically advance rush cars, and many of today ‘s racing companies choose England as their base of operations for its mastermind cognition and organization. McLaren Automotive, Williams F1, Team Lotus, Honda, Brawn GP, Benetton, Renault, and Red Bull Racing are all, or have been, located in the south of England. England besides has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle race, the premier backing of motorcycle road race, and produced several World Champions across all the diverse class of motorcycle : Mike Hailwood, John Surtees, Phil Read, Geoff Duke, and Barry Sheene .
Mo Farah is the most successful British track athlete in modern Olympic Games history, winning the 5000 m and 10,000 m events at two Olympic Games. Darts is a widely popular sport in England ; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional public house game. The sport is governed by the World Darts Federation, one of its member organisations is the british Darts Organisation ( BDO ), which per annum stages the BDO World Darts Championship, the other being the Professional Darts Corporation ( PDC ), which runs its own earth championship at Alexandra Palace in London. Phil Taylor is wide regarded as the best darts player of all clock, having won 187 professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships. [ 441 ] [ 442 ] Trina Gulliver is the ten-time Women ‘s World Professional Darts Champion of the british Darts Organisation. Another popular sport normally associated with public house games is Snooker, and England has produced several populace champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O’Sullivan. The English are acute sailors and enjoy competitive voyage ; establish and winning some of the world ‘s most celebrated and respected external competitive tournaments across the respective race formats, including the equal slipstream, a regatta, and the America ‘s Cup. England has produced some of the global ‘s greatest sailors, including Francis Chichester, Herbert Hasler, John Ridgway, Robin Knox-Johnston, Ellen MacArthur, Mike Golding, Paul Goodison, and the most successful Olympic bluejacket always Ben Ainslie. [ 443 ]

National symbols

The St George ‘s Cross has been the national ease up of England since the thirteenth century. primitively the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The english monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards so that English ships could fly the pin as a mean of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A bolshevik cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. [ 444 ] Since 1606 the St George ‘s Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British ease up designed by King James I. [ 288 ] During the English Civil War and Interregnum, the New Model Army ‘s standards and the Commonwealth ‘s Great Seal both incorporated the flag of Saint George. [ 445 ] [ 446 ] There are numerous early symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the state ‘s floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. [ 447 ] It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians —cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. It is besides known as the Rose of England. [ 448 ] The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing force and survival. The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his don ‘s execution : he hid in an oak corner to avoid detection before safely reaching expatriate. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its borrowing by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most big symbols of England ; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy. England does not have an official designated home anthem, as the United Kingdom as a unharmed has God Save the Queen. however, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems : Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory ( used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games ), [ 449 ] and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England ‘s National Day is 23 April which is Saint George ‘s Day : enshrine George is the patron enshrine of England. [ 450 ]

See besides

Notes

References

bibliography

  • English Heritage – National body protecting English heritage
  • Natural England – Wildlife and the natural world of England
  • VisitEngland – English Tourist Board
  • BBC News – England – News items from BBC News relating to England
  • GOV.UK – The Official Website of the British Government
  • Geographic data related to England at OpenStreetMap
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